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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812207/the-vaginal-microbiome-and-its-potential-to-impact-efficacy-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-women
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer Velloza, Renee Heffron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes existing evidence addressing the potential modulation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) products, specifically 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel and oral tenofovir-based PrEP, by vaginal dysbiosis and discusses future considerations for delivering novel, long-acting PrEP products to women at high risk for vaginal dysbiosis and HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe results from analyses investigating the modification of PrEP efficacy by vaginal dysbiosis and studies of biological mechanisms that could render PrEP ineffective in the presence of specific microbiota...
August 15, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807017/the-urinary-microbiota-of-men-and-women-and-its-changes-in-women-during-bacterial-vaginosis-and-antibiotic-treatment
#2
Cornelia Gottschick, Zhi-Luo Deng, Marius Vital, Clarissa Masur, Christoph Abels, Dietmar H Pieper, Irene Wagner-Döbler
BACKGROUND: The urinary microbiota is similarly complex as the vaginal and penile microbiota, yet its role as a reservoir for pathogens and for recurrent polymicrobial biofilm diseases like bacterial vaginosis (BV) is not clear. RESULTS: Here, we analysed the urinary microbiota of healthy men and women and compared it with that of women during BV and after antibiotic treatment using next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V1-V2 regions. Eight different community types, so called urotypes (UT), were identified in healthy humans, all of which were shared between men and women, except UT 7, dominated in relative abundance by Lactobacillus crispatus, which was found in healthy women only...
August 14, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803864/the-detection-of-microorganisms-related-to-urethritis-from-the-oral-cavity-of-male-patients-with-urethritis
#3
Phuong Thi Le, Ryoichi Hamasuna, Masahiro Matsumoto, Keiichi Furubayashi, Masayuki Hatanaka, Shuichi Kawai, Takamasa Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Uehara, Norihiko Murakami, Masaru Yoshioka, Ken Nakayama, Yutaka Shiono, Keisuke Muraoka, Masahiko Suzuki, Naohiro Fujimoto, Tetsuro Matsumoto
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of microorganisms related to urethritis in the oral cavity of male patients with urethritis and the efficacies of antimicrobials for urethritis on microorganisms in the oral cavity. METHODS: Ninety-two male patients with urethritis and 17 male controls participated to this study at 12 urology clinics in Japan between March 2014 and March 2015. The first voided urine (FVU) and oral wash fluid (OWF) specimens were collected from the participants...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792372/treatment-failure-of-bacterial-vaginosis-is-not-associated-with-higher-loads-of-atopobium-vaginae-and-gardnerella-vaginalis
#4
Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira, Gilbert Gerard Donders, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima Parada, Andrea da Rocha Tristão, Thaiz Fernandes, Márcia Guimarães da Silva, Camila Marconi
PURPOSE: Cervicovaginal Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis are strongly associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and are the main components of vaginal biofilms. The low efficacy of BV treatment with metronidazole may be due to the presence of such biofilms. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the pretreatment cervicovaginal loads of A. vaginae and G. vaginalis for women who restored normal flora and those who persisted with BV after a full course of oral metronidazole...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764658/comparative-genomic-and-phylogenomic-analyses-of-the-bifidobacteriaceae-family
#5
Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Christian Milani, Francesca Turroni, Sabrina Duranti, Leonardo Mancabelli, Marta Mangifesta, Chiara Ferrario, Monica Modesto, Paola Mattarelli, Killer Jiří, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
BACKGROUND: Members of the Bifidobacteriaceae family represent both dominant microbial groups that colonize the gut of various animals, especially during the suckling stage of their life, while they also occur as pathogenic bacteria of the urogenital tract. The pan-genome of the genus Bifidobacterium has been explored in detail in recent years, though genomics of the Bifidobacteriaceae family has not yet received much attention. Here, a comparative genomic analyses of 67 Bifidobacteriaceae (sub) species including all currently recognized genera of this family, i...
August 1, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735999/results-of-real-time-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-in-renal-transplant-recipients-with-sterile-pyuria
#6
M Sarier, M Demir, S Goktas, I Duman, M Buyukkinaci, Y Yuksel, S Tekin, A H Yavuz, A Sengul
Urinary tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization after renal transplantation. Patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs suffer not only from common uropathogens but also from opportunistic infections caused by unusual uropathogens. Sterile pyuria is associated with numerous infectious agents including viruses, fungi, and atypical or fastidious organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathogens using real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (rtMPCR) assay in sterile pyuria of renal transplant recipients...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732773/efficacy-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-for-hiv-among-women-with-abnormal-vaginal-microbiota-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-randomised-placebo-controlled-partners-prep-study
#7
Renee Heffron, R Scott McClelland, Jennifer E Balkus, Connie Celum, Craig R Cohen, Nelly Mugo, Elizabeth Bukusi, Deborah Donnell, Jairam Lingappa, James Kiarie, Tina Fiedler, Matthew Munch, David N Fredricks, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Daily oral tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is high efficacious for HIV prevention among women with high adherence. However, the effect of abnormal vaginal microbiota on PrEP efficacy is of concern. We investigated whether bacterial vaginosis modified the efficacy of oral PrEP. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data from women in the Partners PrEP Study, a placebo-controlled trial of daily oral PrEP (either tenofovir monotherapy or a combination of tenofovir and emtricitabine) in HIV serodiscordant couples aged 18 years or older in Kenya and Uganda that showed high efficacy in women...
July 18, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700747/the-association-between-ethnicity-and-vaginal-microbiota-composition-in-amsterdam-the-netherlands
#8
Hanneke Borgdorff, Charlotte van der Veer, Robin van Houdt, Catharina J Alberts, Henry J de Vries, Sylvia M Bruisten, Marieke B Snijder, Maria Prins, Suzanne E Geerlings, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Janneke H H M van de Wijgert
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether ethnicity is independently associated with vaginal microbiota (VMB) composition in women living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, as has been shown for American women. METHODS: Women (18-34 years, non-pregnant, N = 610) representing the six largest ethnic groups (Dutch, African Surinamese, South-Asian Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, and Ghanaian) were sampled from the population-based HELIUS study. Sampling was performed irrespective of health status or healthcare seeking behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686189/correction-jang-s-e-et-al-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-hn001-and-lactobacillus-acidophilus-la-14-attenuate-gardnerella-vaginalis-infected-bacterial-vaginosis-in-mice-nutrients-2017-9-531
#9
Se-Eun Jang, Jin-Ju Jeong, Su-Young Choi, Hyunji Kim, Myung Joo Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
We would like to submit the following corrections to our recently published paper [1] due to the reported wrong name of probiotic mixture and the dose of some drugs. ...].
July 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649404/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-gardnerella-vaginalis-biofilms-vs-planktonic-cultures-using-rna-seq
#10
Joana Castro, Angela França, Katie R Bradwell, Myrna G Serrano, Kimberly K Jefferson, Nuno Cerca
Bacterial vaginosis is the most common gynecological disorder affecting women of reproductive age. Bacterial vaginosis is frequently associated with the development of a Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm. Recent data indicates that G. vaginalis biofilms are more tolerant to antibiotics and are able to incorporate other bacterial vaginosis -associated species, yielding a multi-species biofilm. However, despite its apparent role in bacterial vaginosis, little is known regarding the molecular determinants involved in biofilm formation by G...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637523/ureaplasma-urealyticum-and-u-parvum-in-sexually-active-women-attending-public-health-clinics-in-brazil
#11
T N Lobão, G B Campos, N N Selis, A T Amorim, S G Souza, S S Mafra, L S Pereira, D B Dos Santos, T B Figueiredo, L M Marques, J Timenetsky
Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum have been associated with genital infections. The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of ureaplasmas and other sexually transmitted infections in sexually active women from Brazil and relate these data to demographic and sexual health, and cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β. Samples of cervical swab of 302 women were examined at the Family Health Units in Vitória da Conquista. The frequency of detection by conventional PCR was 76·2% for Mollicutes. In qPCR, the frequency found was 16·6% for U...
August 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617561/cervicovaginal-bacteria-and-fungi-in-pregnant-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-women-a-multicenter-observational-cohort-study
#12
A Lukic, A Napoli, I Santino, P Bianchi, F Nobili, G Ciampittiello, M R Nardone, M Santomauro, M Di Properzio, D Caserta
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the prevalence of cervicovaginal Bacteria, group B Streptococcus (GBS), Gardnerella vaginalis (GV), Candida spp., Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma hominis (MH) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in pregnant women with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cervicovaginal swabs were gathered from 473 pregnant patients divided into 127 diabetic and 346 non-diabetic. The results were correlated to gestational age, parity and glycemic control...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600771/multiplex-peptide-nucleic-acid-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-pna-fish-for-diagnosis-of-bacterial-vaginosis
#13
Antonio Machado, Nuno Cerca
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular method used to identify and quantify microorganisms in a wide range of samples. This technique combines the simplicity of microscopic observation and the specificity of DNA/rRNA hybridization, allowing detection of selected bacterial species and morphologic visualization. Here, we describe a quantitative molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, based on the classical Nugent score. Our probes are able to differentiate Lactobacillus spp. and Gardnerella vaginalis from the other undefined bacterial species considered in the Nugent score...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594946/association-of-vaginal-dysbiosis-and-biofilm-with-contraceptive-vaginal-ring-biomass-in-african-women
#14
Liselotte Hardy, Vicky Jespers, Irith De Baetselier, Jozefien Buyze, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Viateur Musengamana, Janneke van de Wijgert, Tania Crucitti
We investigated the presence, density and bacterial composition of contraceptive vaginal ring biomass and its association with the vaginal microbiome. Of 415 rings worn by 120 Rwandese women for three weeks, the biomass density was assessed with crystal violet and the bacterial composition of biomass eluates was assessed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The biomass was visualised after fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The vaginal microbiome was assessed with Nugent scoring and vaginal biofilm was visualised after FISH...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583109/prevalence-and-distribution-of-gardnerella-vaginalis-subgroups-in-women-with-and-without-bacterial-vaginosis
#15
Migle Janulaitiene, Virginija Paliulyte, Svitrigaile Grinceviciene, Jolita Zakareviciene, Alma Vladisauskiene, Agne Marcinkute, Milda Pleckaityte
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the leading causes of vaginal complaints among women of childbearing age. The role of Gardnerella vaginalis remains controversial due to its presence in healthy and BV-type vaginal microflora. The phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity of G. vaginalis suggested the existence of strain variants linked with different health conditions. We sought to analyze prevalence and distribution of G. vaginalis subgroups (clades) in BV-positive (n = 29), partial BV (n = 27), and BV-negative (n = 53) vaginal samples from Lithuanian women...
June 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572753/changes-in-vaginal-community-state-types-reflect-major-shifts-in-the-microbiome
#16
J Paul Brooks, Gregory A Buck, Guanhua Chen, Liyang Diao, David J Edwards, Jennifer M Fettweis, Snehalata Huzurbazar, Alexander Rakitin, Glen A Satten, Ekaterina Smirnova, Zeev Waks, Michelle L Wright, Chen Yanover, Yi-Hui Zhou
Background: Recent studies of various human microbiome habitats have revealed thousands of bacterial species and the existence of large variation in communities of microorganisms in the same habitats across individual human subjects. Previous efforts to summarize this diversity, notably in the human gut and vagina, have categorized microbiome profiles by clustering them into community state types (CSTs). The functional relevance of specific CSTs has not been established. Objective: We investigate whether CSTs can be used to assess dynamics in the microbiome...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572388/vaginal-bacteria-modify-hiv-tenofovir-microbicide-efficacy-in-african-women
#17
Nichole R Klatt, Ryan Cheu, Kenzie Birse, Alexander S Zevin, Michelle Perner, Laura Noël-Romas, Anneke Grobler, Garrett Westmacott, Irene Y Xie, Jennifer Butler, Leila Mansoor, Lyle R McKinnon, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim, Adam D Burgener
Antiretroviral-based strategies for HIV prevention have shown inconsistent results in women. We investigated whether vaginal microbiota modulated tenofovir gel microbicide efficacy in the CAPRISA (Centre for the AIDS Program of Research in South Africa) 004 trial. Two major vaginal bacterial community types-one dominated by Lactobacillus (59.2%) and the other where Gardnerella vaginalis predominated with other anaerobic bacteria (40.8%)-were identified in 688 women profiled. Tenofovir reduced HIV incidence by 61% (P = 0...
June 2, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571565/c-reactive-protein-is-differentially-modulated-by-co-existing-infections-vitamin-deficiencies-and-maternal-factors-in-pregnant-and-lactating-indigenous-panamanian-women
#18
Doris González-Fernández, Emérita Del Carmen Pons, Delfina Rueda, Odalis Teresa Sinisterra, Enrique Murillo, Marilyn E Scott, Kristine G Koski
BACKGROUND: The usefulness of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a non-specific marker of inflammation during pregnancy and lactation is unclear in impoverished populations where co-existing infections and vitamin deficiencies are common. METHODS: This cross-sectional study in Panama recruited 120 pregnant and 99 lactating Ngäbe-Buglé women from 14 communities in rural Panama. Obstetric history, indoor wood smoke exposure, fieldwork, BMI, vitamins A, B12, D, and folic acid, and inflammation markers (CRP, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), plateletcrit and cytokines) were measured...
June 2, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546029/gardnerella-vaginalis-bacteremia-associated-with-severe-acute-encephalopathy-in-a-young-female-patient
#19
Jacques Tankovic, Albertas Timinskas, Migle Janulaitiene, Milda Zilnyte, Jean-Luc Baudel, Eric Maury, Aurelija Zvirbliene, Milda Pleckaityte
Gardnerella vaginalis is a facultative anaerobic bacterium that inhabits the genitourinary tract of both healthy women and those with bacterial vaginosis. We report a case of G. vaginalis bacteremia associated with severe toxic encephalopathy in a young woman. Anaerobic blood cultures yielded pure growth of small gram-variable rods later identified as G. vaginalis by both rapid biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient recovered after treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate according to the in vitro susceptibility testing...
May 22, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545241/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-hn001-and-lactobacillus-acidophilus-la-14-attenuate-gardnerella-vaginalis-infected-bacterial-vaginosis-in-mice
#20
Se-Eun Jang, Jin-Ju Jeong, Su-Young Choi, Hyunji Kim, Myung Joo Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
Oral administration of a probiotic mixture (PM; Respecta(®)) consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (L1), Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 (L2), and lactoferrin RCXTM results in colonization of these probiotics in the vagina of healthy women. Therefore, we examined whether vaginal colonization of the PM ingredients L1 and L2 could attenuate bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV was induced in mice via β-estradiol-3-benzoate-induced immunosuppression and intravaginal inoculation with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV)...
May 23, 2017: Nutrients
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