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Nathalia Mayumi Noda-Nicolau, Jossimara Polettini, Márcia Guimarães da Silva, Morgan R Peltier, Ramkumar Menon
The polybacterial invasion of the amniotic cavity and risk of preterm birth is often due to cervicovaginal bacteria such as genital mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum) and Gardnerella vaginalis. The most studied biomarker associated with preterm birth is interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pleiotropic cytokine that performs different functions based on classical or trans-signaling mechanisms. This study evaluated the changes in IL-6 and IL-6 function associated accessory molecules by human fetal membranes to determine the functional availability of IL-6 assessment in an in vitro model of polybacterial infection...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Mina Fazlollahi, Tricia D Lee, Jade Andrade, Kasopefoluwa Oguntuyo, Yoojin Chun, Galina Grishina, Alexander Grishin, Supinda Bunyavanich
BACKGROUND: Nasal microbiota may influence asthma pathobiology. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the nasal microbiome of subjects with exacerbated asthma, non-exacerbated asthma, and healthy controls to identify nasal microbiota associated with asthma activity. METHODS: 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on nasal swabs obtained from 72 primarily adult subjects with exacerbated asthma (n=20), non-exacerbated asthma (n=31), and healthy controls (n=21)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Sharon L Achilles, Michele N Austin, Leslie A Meyn, Felix Mhlanga, Zvavahera M Chirenje, Sharon L Hillier
BACKGROUND: Data evaluating the impact of contraceptives on the vaginal microbiome are limited and inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that women initiating copper intrauterine device use would have increased bacterial vaginosis and bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes with use compared to women initiating and using hormonal contraceptive methods. STUDY DESIGN: Vaginal swabs (N=1047 from 266 participants seeking contraception) for Nugent score determination of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses for assessment of specific microbiota were collected from asymptomatic, healthy women aged 18-35 in Harare, Zimbabwe who were confirmed to be free of non-study hormones by mass spectrometry at each visit...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mamadou Saidou Barry, Awa Ba Diallo, Mohamed Diadhiou, Ibrahima Mall, Omar Gassama, Mame Diarra Ndiaye Guèye, Serge Covi-Alavo, Epainete Gawa, Amy Ndao Fall, Aissatou Gaye Diallo, Jean Charles Moreau
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the WHO syndromic algorithm in the management of vaginal discharge among women of reproductive age in Dakar. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of consecutive female patients (aged 18-49 years) presenting with vaginal symptoms at six selected study sites in Dakar; of these, 276 patients were included in the analysis. Vaginal and cervical swab samples were collected and analysed to establish an aetiological diagnosis of any infection...
March 5, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ana María Salinas, Verónica Gabriela Osorio, Pablo Francisco Endara, Eduardo Ramiro Salazar, Gabriela Piedad Vasco, Sandra Guadalupe Vivero, Antonio Machado
Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a microbial imbalance (i.e., dysbiosis) that can produce serious medical effects in women at childbearing age. Little is known, however, about the incidence of BV or vaginal microbiota dysbiosis in pregnant teenagers in low and middle-income countries such as Ecuador. The scope of this exploratory analysis was to study the relationship between epidemiologic and microbial risk factors. Among the microbiology risk factors this study investigated five Lactobacillus species, two of them know in preview studies as microbiology risk factors for BV development ( Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus iners ), and the last three known for being associated with a healthy vaginal tract ( Lactobacillus crispatus , Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus jensenii )...
2018: PeerJ
Inmaculada Moreno, Ettore Cicinelli, Iolanda Garcia-Grau, Marta Gonzalez, Davide Bau, Felipe Vilella, Dominique DE Ziegler, Leonardo Resta, Diana Valbuena, Carlos Simon
BACKGROUND: Chronic endometritis is a persistent inflammation of the endometrial mucosa caused by bacterial pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. Although chronic endometritis can be asymptomatic, it is found in up to 40% of infertile patients and is responsible for repeated implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage. Diagnosis of chronic endometritis is based on hysteroscopy of the uterine cavity, endometrial biopsy with plasma cells being identified histologically, while specific treatment is determined based on microbial culture...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Rebecca G Nowak, Tara M Randis, Purnahamsi Desai, Xin He, Courtney K Robinson, Jessica Rath, Elbert D Glover, Adam J Ratner, Jacques Ravel, Rebecca M Brotman
Vaginolysin (VLY), a cytotoxic protein produced by Gardnerella vaginalis, may contribute to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Women with G. vaginalis, low levels of lactobacilli, history of vaginal douching, higher Nugent scores, and higher vaginal pH had increased VLY. Inflammatory markers were not highly expressed with increasing VLY. VLY's role in BV warrants further evaluation.
December 5, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Carolina M A Santos, Maria Cecília V Pires, Thiago L Leão, Anna Karolina S Silva, Lilian S Miranda, Flaviano S Martins, Aristóbolo M Silva, Jacques R Nicoli
Lactobacilli are the dominant bacteria of the vaginal tract of healthy women and they play a major role in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis, preventing genital infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). It is now known that one mechanism of this protection is the influence that lactobacilli can exert on host immune responses. In this context, we evaluated two Lactobacillus strains (L. plantarum 59 and L. fermentum 137) for their immunomodulatory properties in response to Gardnerella vaginalis (BV) or Candida albicans (VVC) infections in a HeLa cell infection model...
January 23, 2018: Microbiology
Sahar Sabour, Mohsen Arzanlou, Hamid Vaez, Giti Rahimi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Farzad Khademi
PURPOSE: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a vaginal disorder which occurs either symptomatic or asymptomatic because of an imbalance between H2 O2 -producing Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis in the vagina. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to determine the prevalence of BV in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Iran. METHODS: We used national (SID, Irandoc, Iranmedex and Magiran) and international (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and ISI web of knowledge) electronic databases to systematically search and collect available studies using related keywords (up to 1 December 2017)...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Joana Castro, Ana Paula Martins, Maria Elisa Rodrigues, Nuno Cerca
Using a chemically-defined medium simulating genital tract secretions, we have shown that pre-adhering Lactobacillus crispatus to Hela epithelial cells reduced cytotoxicity caused by Gardnerella vaginalis. This effect was associated to the expression of vaginolysin and was specific to L. crispatus interference, as other vaginal facultative anaerobes had no protective effect.
February 7, 2018: Anaerobe
McKenna C Eastment, R Scott McClelland
: Bacterial vaginosis, characterized by the replacement of the Lactobacillus-dominant microbiota with anaerobic bacteria and facultative Gram-negative rods, has been associated with adverse reproductive health outcomes including HIV acquisition. With the advent of newer molecular techniques, the vaginal microbiota can be investigated in more detail and the association with HIV examined more thoroughly. This review examines recent evidence suggesting that vaginal dysbiosis with increased microbial diversity, specific vaginal bacterial communities, and the presence and concentrations of some individual bacterial species, may increase HIV susceptibility...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
Giuseppina Campisciano, Nunzia Zanotta, Danilo Licastro, Francesco De Seta, Manola Comar
The microbiota fulfils a key role in the training and function of the immune system, which contributes to the symbiosis between the host and complex microbial communities. In this study, we characterized the interplay between vaginal bacteria and local immune mediators during dysbiosis in selected women of reproductive age who were grouped according to Nugent's criteria. The abundance of Gardnerella vaginalis and Bifidobacterium breve was increased in the intermediate dysbiotic status, while the presence of a plethora of non-resident bacteria characterized the group with overt vaginosis...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Noelle Noyes, Kyu-Chul Cho, Jacques Ravel, Larry J Forney, Zaid Abdo
The vaginal microbiome plays an influential role in several disease states in reproductive age women, including bacterial vaginosis (BV). While demographic characteristics are associated with differences in vaginal microbiome community structure, little is known about the influence of sexual and hygiene habits. Furthermore, associations between the vaginal microbiome and risk symptoms of bacterial vaginosis have not been fully elucidated. Using Bayesian network (BN) analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence results, demographic and extensive questionnaire data, we describe both novel and previously documented associations between habits of women and their vaginal microbiome...
2018: PloS One
Jun-Mo Kim, Yoo Jin Park
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level...
December 2017: Journal of Menopausal Medicine
Luz-Jeannette Sierra, Amy G Brown, Guillermo O Barilá, Lauren Anton, Carrie E Barnum, Snehal S Shetye, Louis J Soslowsky, Michal A Elovitz
The role of the cervicovaginal (CV) microbiome in regulating cervical function during pregnancy is poorly understood. Gardnerella vaginalis (G. vaginalis) is the most common bacteria associated with the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). While BV has been associated with preterm birth (PTB), clinical trials targeting BV do not decrease PTB rates. It remains unknown if G. vaginalis is capable of triggering molecular, biomechanical and cellular events that could lead to PTB. The objective of this study was to determine if cervicovaginal colonization with G...
2018: PloS One
Simon Graspeuntner, Michael K Bohlmann, Kathrin Gillmann, Runa Speer, Sven Kuenzel, Heike Mark, Friederike Hoellen, Reinhard Lettau, Georg Griesinger, Inke R König, John F Baines, Jan Rupp
Tubal factor infertility (TFI) accounts for more than 30% of the cases of female infertility and mostly resides from an inflammatory process triggered by an infection. Clinical appearances largely differ, and very often infections are not recognized or remain completely asymptomatic over time. Here, we characterized the microbial pattern in females diagnosed with infectious infertility (ININF) in comparison to females with non-infectious infertility (nININF), female sex workers (FSW) and healthy controls (fertile)...
2018: PloS One
Ronan Doyle, Austridia Gondwe, Yue-Mei Fan, Kenneth Maleta, Per Ashorn, Nigel Klein, Kathryn Harris
The bacterial community found in the vagina is an important determinant of a woman's health and disease. A healthy vaginal microbiota is associated with a lower species richness and high proportions of one of a number of different Lactobacillus spp.. When disrupted the resulting abnormal vaginal microbiota is associated with a number of disease states and poor pregnancy outcomes. Studies up until now have concentrated on relatively small numbers of American and European populations which may not capture the full complexity of the community, nor adequately predict what constitutes a healthy microbiota in all populations...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Bryan A Wee, Mark Thomas, Emma Louise Sweeney, Francesca D Frentiu, Melanie Samios, Jacques Ravel, Pawel Gajer, Garry Myers, Peter Timms, John A Allan, Wilhelmina M Huston
BACKGROUND: We know very little about the microbiota inhabiting the upper female reproductive tract and how it impacts on fertility. AIMS: This pilot study aimed to examine the vaginal, cervical and endometrial microbiota for women with a history of infertility compared to women with a history of fertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a retrospective case-control study design, women were recruited for collection of vaginal, cervical and endometrial samples...
December 26, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Aline Teixeira Amorim, Lucas Miranda Marques, Guilherme Barreto Campos, Tássia Neves Lobão, Vanesca de Souza Lino, Ricardo Cesar Cintra, Maria Antonieta Andreoli, Luisa Lina Villa, Enrique Boccardo, Antonio Carlos Ricardo Braga Junior, Rossana Verónica Mendoza López, Djanilson Barbosa Dos Santos, Gerson Maciel de Souza, Carla Cristina Romano, Jorge Timenetsky
BACKGROUND: Some sexually transmitted infectious agents, such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes simplex, cause local inflammation, and could contribute to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical lesion progression. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine any association between the presence of microorganisms of gynecological importance, sexual behavior, clinical and demographical variables to the development and progress of cervical lesions. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-two women between 14 and 78 years and living at Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil, were included (62 individuals with cervical lesions and 70 without lesions)...
December 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Gislaine Curty, Raquel L Costa, Juliana D Siqueira, Angela I Meyrelles, Elizabeth S Machado, Esmeralda A Soares, Marcelo A Soares
The cervical microbiota composition and diversity of HIV-positive women in the postpartum period is unknown. Using a high-throughput bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified four community state types (CSTs). CST III (Lactobacillusdominant) and CST IV (IV-A, IV-B.1, IV-B.2; high-diversity) were found in 41% and 59% of samples, respectively. We did not find association of any CST to postpartum period (six or twelve months), HPV infection or cytology (normal or lesion). However, five bacterial genera were associated with cervical lesions (Gardnerella, Aerococcus, Schlegelella, Moryella and Bifidobacterium), with significant odds ratio (OR) of 40 (2...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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