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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087240/lactobacillus-deficient-cervicovaginal-bacterial-communities-are-associated-with-increased-hiv-acquisition-in-young-south-african-women
#1
Christina Gosmann, Melis N Anahtar, Scott A Handley, Mara Farcasanu, Galeb Abu-Ali, Brittany A Bowman, Nikita Padavattan, Chandni Desai, Lindsay Droit, Amber Moodley, Mary Dong, Yuezhou Chen, Nasreen Ismail, Thumbi Ndung'u, Musie S Ghebremichael, Duane R Wesemann, Caroline Mitchell, Krista L Dong, Curtis Huttenhower, Bruce D Walker, Herbert W Virgin, Douglas S Kwon
Elevated inflammation in the female genital tract is associated with increased HIV risk. Cervicovaginal bacteria modulate genital inflammation; however, their role in HIV susceptibility has not been elucidated. In a prospective cohort of young, healthy South African women, we found that individuals with diverse genital bacterial communities dominated by anaerobes other than Gardnerella were at over 4-fold higher risk of acquiring HIV and had increased numbers of activated mucosal CD4(+) T cells compared to those with Lactobacillus crispatus-dominant communities...
January 9, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072390/a-molecular-portrait-of-maternal-sepsis-from-byzantine-troy
#2
Alison M Devault, Tatum D Mortimer, Andrew Kitchen, Henrike Kiesewetter, Jacob M Enk, G Brian Golding, John Southon, Melanie Kuch, Ana T Duggan, William Aylward, Shea N Gardner, Jonathan E Allen, Andrew M King, Gerard Wright, Makoto Kuroda, Kengo Kato, Derek Eg Briggs, Gino Fornaciari, Edward C Holmes, Hendrik N Poinar, Caitlin S Pepperell
Pregnancy complications are poorly represented in the archeological record, despite their importance in contemporary and ancient societies. While excavating a Byzantine cemetery in Troy, we discovered calcified abscesses among a woman's remains. Scanning electron microscopy of the tissue revealed 'ghost cells', resulting from dystrophic calcification, which preserved ancient maternal, fetal and bacterial DNA of a severe infection, likely chorioamnionitis. Gardnerella vaginalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus dominated the abscesses...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058468/-nonviral-sexually-transmitted-infections-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-diagnostic-workup-therapy-part%C3%A2-3-treponemes-gardnerella-and-trichomonads
#3
REVIEW
P Nenoff, A Manos, I Ehrhard, C Krüger, U Paasch, P Helmbold, W Handrick
In Germany, the reported syphilis prevalence has increased continuously since 2010, with a total of 6834 syphilis cases being reported in 2015. The largest increase of reported syphilis occurred in men who have sex with men (MSM). The antibiotic agent of choice for treatment of syphilis is still penicillin. There are no penicillin-resistant Treponema pallidum strains. Alternatives are ceftriaxone and doxycycline. In Germany, azithromycin is not approved for treatment of syphilis; however, therapy failures are increasingly reported...
January 5, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052997/human-three-dimensional-endometrial-epithelial-cell-model-to-study-host-interactions-with-vaginal-bacteria-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#4
Paweł Łaniewski, Adriana Gomez, Geoffrey Hire, Magdalene So, Melissa M Herbst-Kralovetz
Colonization of the endometrium by pathogenic bacteria, ascending from the lower female reproductive tract (FRT), is associated with many gynecologic and obstetric health complications. To study these host-microbe interactions in vitro, we developed a human three-dimensional (3-D) endometrial epithelial cell (EEC) model using the HEC-1A cell line and rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology. Our model, composed of 3-D EEC aggregates, recapitulates several functional/structural characteristics of human endometrial epithelial tissue including cell differentiation, junctional complexes/desmosomes, microvilli, membrane-associated mucins and Toll-like receptors (TLRs)...
January 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011908/genital-injury-signatures-and-microbiome-alterations-associated-with-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-usage-and-intravaginal-drying-practices
#5
Kenzie D Birse, Laura M Romas, Brandon L Guthrie, Peter Nilsson, Rose Bosire, James Kiarie, Carey Farquhar, Kristina Broliden, Adam D Burgener
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and intravaginal practices may be associated with an increased risk of HIV infection; however the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study evaluated the effect of DMPA and intravaginal practices on the genital mucosal proteome and microbiome to gain mechanistic insights. METHODS: Cervicovaginal secretions from 86 Kenyan women, including self-reported DMPA (n=23) and non-hormonal contraceptive users (n=63), and women who practice vaginal drying (n=46) were analyzed using tandem-mass spectrometry in a cross sectional manner...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914761/lactobacillus-iners-friend-or-foe
#6
REVIEW
Mariya I Petrova, Gregor Reid, Mario Vaneechoutte, Sarah Lebeer
The vaginal microbial community is typically characterized by abundant lactobacilli. Lactobacillus iners, a fairly recently detected species, is frequently present in the vaginal niche. However, the role of this species in vaginal health is unclear, since it can be detected in normal conditions as well as during vaginal dysbiosis, such as bacterial vaginosis, a condition characterized by an abnormal increase in bacterial diversity and lack of typical lactobacilli. Compared to other Lactobacillus species, L...
November 30, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914001/subtilosin-prevents-biofilm-formation-by-inhibiting-bacterial-quorum-sensing
#7
Ammar Algburi, Saskia Zehm, Victoria Netrebov, Anzhelica B Bren, Vladimir Chistyakov, Michael L Chikindas
Subtilosin, the cyclic lantibiotic protein produced by Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933, targets the surface receptor and electrostatically binds to the bacterial cell membrane. In this study, subtilosin was purified using ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation and purified via column chromatography. Subtilosin's antibacterial minimum and sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and sub-MIC) and anti-biofilm activity (biofilm prevention) were established. Subtilosin was evaluated as a quorum sensing (QS) inhibitor in Gram-positive bacteria using Fe(III) reduction assay...
December 2, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870156/combinations-and-loads-of-bacteria-affect-the-cytokine-production-by-fetal-membranes-an-in-vitro-study
#8
Nathalia Mayumi Noda-Nicolau, Jossimara Polettini, Morgan R Peltier, Márcia Guimarães da Silva, Ramkumar Menon
PROBLEM: The polybacterial invasion and inflammation of the amniotic cavity is a common scenario in PTB, and then, we analyzed the cytokine production by human fetal membranes to better understand the host response to polybacterial infections. METHOD OF STUDY: Fetal membranes were treated by heat-inactivated genital mycoplasmas and Gardnerella vaginalis at 10(3) or 10(6) colony/color-forming units/mL alone or in combination. Cytokines/receptors were measured in the medium by immunoassays...
December 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861551/genomes-of-gardnerella-strains-reveal-an-abundance-of-prophages-within-the-bladder-microbiome
#9
Kema Malki, Jason W Shapiro, Travis K Price, Evann E Hilt, Krystal Thomas-White, Trina Sircar, Amy B Rosenfeld, Gina Kuffel, Michael J Zilliox, Alan J Wolfe, Catherine Putonti
Bacterial surveys of the vaginal and bladder human microbiota have revealed an abundance of many similar bacterial taxa. As the bladder was once thought to be sterile, the complex interactions between microbes within the bladder have yet to be characterized. To initiate this process, we have begun sequencing isolates, including the clinically relevant genus Gardnerella. Herein, we present the genomic sequences of four Gardnerella strains isolated from the bladders of women with symptoms of urgency urinary incontinence; these are the first Gardnerella genomes produced from this niche...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845497/lysozyme-as-a-cotreatment-during-antibiotics-use-against-vaginal-infections-an-in-vitro-study-on-gardnerella-vaginalis-biofilm-models
#10
Olivier Thellin, Willy Zorzi, Danièle Zorzi, Philippe Delvenne, Ernst Heinen, Benaïssa ElMoualij, Pascale Quatresooz
Bacterial vaginoses are frequent in women, most of them involving Gardnerella vaginalis. In more than 50% of the cases, usual antibiotic treatments are not capable of eliminating completely the infection, leading to recurrent vaginosis. In addition to the appearance of antibiotic resistance, recurrence can be due to the development of a biofilm by G. vaginalis. In vitro experiments on G. vaginalis biofilms showed that the biofilm protected bacteria from the antibiotic clindamycin. Also, recombinant human lysozyme (rhLys) was able to both degrade biofilms and prevent their formation...
June 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766122/preclinical-evaluation-of-tolerability-of-a-selective-bacteriostatic-locally-active-vaginal-formulation
#11
Luca Ivan Ardolino, Marisa Meloni, Giuseppe Brugali, Emanuela Corsini, Corrado Lodovico Galli
BACKGROUND: Polybactum (Effik International, Brussels, Belgium) is a vaginal mucoadhesive product (medical device) designed to form a film that acts as a mechanical barrier with the aim of inhibiting colonization by specific pathogens. It contains polycarbophil, a bioadhesive agent, and lauryl glucoside (LG), a nonionic surfactant that reinforces the barrier effect through its tensioactive properties. OBJECTIVE: To assess the local safety profile, tolerability, and efficacy of Polybactum formulations...
2016: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756985/bacterial-vaginosis-in-association-with-spontaneous-abortion-and-recurrent-pregnancy-losses
#12
Gözde Işik, Şayeste Demirezen, Hanife Güler Dönmez, Mehmet Sinan Beksaç
CONTEXT: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is related to the increased risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and postpartum endometritis. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between BV and the history of spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses. We also examined periods of gestation, including the first and second trimester miscarriages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 200 fertile women. Sixty one (30...
July 2016: Journal of Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741167/in-vitro-activity-of-lactobacillus-fermentum-lf5-against-different-candida-species-and-gardnerella-vaginalis-a-new-perspective-to-approach-mixed-vaginal-infections
#13
Francesca Deidda, Angela Amoruso, Serena Allesina, Marco Pane, Teresa Graziano, Mario Del Piano, Luca Mogna
GOALS: This study was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of Lactobacillus fermentum LF5 (DSM 32277) to inhibit in vitro different Candida species and Gardnerella vaginalis to weigh its potential effectiveness even in mixed vaginal infections. BACKGROUND: A wide female population is suffering from various vulvovaginal infections. These diseases are often associated with a decrease in the concentration of Lactobacilli in the vagina. Mixed vaginal infections represent >20% of women with vulvovaginal infection...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714844/evaluation-and-subsequent-optimizations-of-the-quantitative-amplisens-florocenosis-bacterial-vaginosis-frt-multiplex-real-time-pcr-assay-for-diagnosis-of-bacterial-vaginosis
#14
Tatiana Rumyantseva, Elena Shipitsyna, Alexander Guschin, Magnus Unemo
Traditional microscopy-based methods for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) are underutilized in many settings, and molecular techniques may provide opportunities for rapid, objective, and accurate BV diagnosis. This study evaluated the quantitative AmpliSens Florocenosis/Bacterial vaginosis-FRT multiplex real-time PCR (Florocenosis-BV) assay. Vaginal samples from a previous study including unselected female subjects (n = 163) and using Amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing for BV diagnosis were examined with the Florocenosis-BV test and additionally tested for the presence and quantity of Gardnerella vaginalis clades 3 and 4...
December 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694723/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-vaginolysin-in-gardnerella-vaginalis-from-healthy-and-bacterial-vaginosis-diagnosed-women
#15
Daniele Maria Knupp de Souza, Claudio Galuppo Diniz, Didier Silveira Castellano Filho, Laura Maria Andrade de Oliveira, Débora Martins Coelho, Luciana De Souza Talha, Thiago César do Nascimento, Alessandra Barbosa Ferreira-Machado, Vânia Lúcia da Silva
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a syndrome related to Gardnerella vaginalis and is characterized by an imbalance in the vaginal microbiota. This work focused on the evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and the occurrence of the vaginolysin (vly) gene in G. vaginalis isolated from BV and non-BV patients. METHODOLOGY: The vaginal secretions were collected randomly and processed for G. vaginalis isolation. The isolates were presumptively identified by β-hemolysis and oxidase and catalase tests...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688327/genome-sequences-of-12-bacterial-isolates-obtained-from-the-urine-of-pregnant-women
#16
Cory M Weimer, Grace E Deitzler, Lloyd S Robinson, SoEun Park, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, Aye Wollam, Makedonka Mitreva, Warren G Lewis, Amanda L Lewis
The presence of bacteria in urine can pose significant risks during pregnancy. However, there are few reference genome strains for many common urinary bacteria. We isolated 12 urinary strains of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Citrobacter, Gardnerella, and Lactobacillus These strains and their genomes are now available to the research community.
September 29, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688326/genome-sequences-of-15-gardnerella-vaginalis-strains-isolated-from-the-vaginas-of-women-with-and-without-bacterial-vaginosis
#17
Lloyd S Robinson, Justin Perry, Sai Lek, Aye Wollam, Erica Sodergren, George Weinstock, Warren G Lewis, Amanda L Lewis
Gardnerella vaginalis is a predominant species in bacterial vaginosis, a dysbiosis of the vagina that is associated with adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of 15 Gardnerella vaginalis strains (now available through BEI Resources) isolated from women with and without bacterial vaginosis.
September 29, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620141/cervicovaginal-cytokines-sialidase-activity-and-bacterial-load-in-reproductive-aged-women-with-intermediate-vaginal-flora
#18
Mariana Morena de Vieira Santos-Greatti, Márcia Guimarães da Silva, Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira, Camila Marconi
: Studies have shown that not only bacterial vaginosis, but also intermediate vaginal flora has deleterious effects for women's reproductive health. However, literature still lacks information about microbiological and immunological aspects of intermediate flora. OBJECTIVE: To characterize intermediate flora regarding levels of Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-10, sialidase; loads of Gardnerella vaginalis, total bacteria and to verify whether it is closer related to normal flora or bacterial vaginosis...
November 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580179/anti-inflammatory-elafin-in-human-fetal-membranes
#19
Cecilia Stalberg, Nathalia Noda, Jossimara Polettini, Bo Jacobsson, Ramkumar Menon
OBJECTIVE: Elafin is a low molecular weight protein with antileukoproteinase, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and immunomodulating properties. The profile of Elafin in fetal membranes is not well characterized. This study determined the changes in Elafin expression and concentration in human fetal membrane from patients with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and in vitro in response to intra-amniotic polymicrobial pathogens. METHOD: Elafin messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions were studied in fetal membranes from PPROM, normal term as well as in normal term not in labor membranes in an organ explant system treated (24 h) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565162/estimation-of-gene-insertion-deletion-rates-with-missing-data
#20
Utkarsh J Dang, Alison M Devault, Tatum D Mortimer, Caitlin S Pepperell, Hendrik N Poinar, G Brian Golding
Lateral gene transfer is an important mechanism for evolution among bacteria. Here, genome-wide gene insertion and deletion rates are modeled in a maximum-likelihood framework with the additional flexibility of modeling potential missing data. The performance of the models is illustrated using simulations and a data set on gene family phyletic patterns from Gardnerella vaginalis that includes an ancient taxon. A novel application involving pseudogenization/genome reduction magnitudes is also illustrated, using gene family data from Mycobacterium spp...
October 2016: Genetics
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