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Occupational health and safety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140634/combustibility-determination-for-cotton-gin-dust-and-almond-huller-dust
#1
Sidney E Hughs, Phillip J Wakelyn
It has been documented that some dusts generated while processing agricultural products, such as grain and sugar, can constitute combustible dust hazards. After a catastrophic dust explosion in a sugar refinery in 2008, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) initiated action to develop a mandatory standard to comprehensively address the fire and explosion hazards of combustible dusts. Cotton fiber and related materials from cotton ginning, in loose form, can support smoldering combustion if ignited by an outside source...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140632/grain-entrapment-pressure-on-the-torso-can-you-breathe-while-buried-in-grain
#2
Kevin G Moore, Carol L Jones
The pressure applied to the chest and back of a simulated grain entrapment victim was measured. Pressure sensors were attached to the chest and back of a manikin that was buried in grain in the vertical position. Measurements were made in four grain types at four grain depths ranging from the top of the manikin's shoulders to 0.61 m (24 in.) over the head. The pressure ranged from 1.6 to 4.0 kPa (0.23 to 0.57 psi). Based on available physiological information, this amount of pressure is unlikely to limit the respiration of an otherwise healthy adult male victim...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136129/comparison-of-respirable-mass-concentrations-measured-by-a-personal-dust-monitor-and-a-personal-dataram-to-gravimetric-measurements
#3
Andrew Halterman, Sinan Sousan, Thomas M Peters
In 2016, the Mine Safety and Health Administration required the use of continuous monitors to measure respirable dust in mines and better protect miner health. The Personal Dust Monitor, PDM3700, has met stringent performance criteria for this purpose. In a laboratory study, respirable mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and a photometer (personal DataRam, pDR-1500) were compared to those measured gravimetrically for five aerosols of varying refractive index and density (diesel exhaust fume, welding fume, coal dust, Arizona road dust (ARD), and salt [NaCl] aerosol) at target concentrations of 0...
November 9, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135839/patterns-of-opioid-prescribing-and-predictors-of-chronic-opioid-use-in-an-industrial-cohort-2003-to-2013
#4
Mellisa A Pensa, Deron H Galusha, Linda F Cantley
OBJECTIVE: To appreciate the impact of the opioid epidemic in workers, we described opioid prescription patterns in a US industrial cohort over a 10-year period and assessed predictors of chronic prescription. METHODS: A multiyear (2003 to 2013) cross-sectional analysis of employer-sponsored health care claims for enrolled workers (N: 21,357 to 44,769) was performed. RESULTS: The proportion of workers prescribed opioids nearly doubled in the 10-year period...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126176/hand-arm-vibration-in-orthopaedic-surgery-a-neglected-risk
#5
F Mahmood, K B Ferguson, J Clarke, K Hill, E B Macdonald, D J M Macdonald
Background: Hand-arm vibration syndrome is an occupational disease caused by exposure to hand-arm transmitted vibration. The Health and Safety Executive has set limits for vibration exposure, including an exposure action value (EAV), where steps should be taken to reduce exposure, and an exposure limit value (ELV), beyond which vibrating equipment must not be used for the rest of the working day. Aims: To measure hand-arm transmitted vibration among orthopaedic surgeons, who routinely use hand-operated saws...
November 6, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122100/occupational-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-associated-with-diesel-motor-operation-in-an-air-raid-shelter-in-june-2015-jinan-city-china-an-epidemiological-investigation
#6
Liang Liang Cui, Jing Wen Zhou, Xing Yi Geng, Xin Wei Li, Zhong Liu, George A Conway, Ji Zhang
Occupational carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning related to diesel motor fumes in an air-raid shelter (ARS) was first identified in Jinan City, China, in June 2015. A total of 17 cases were identified, including 14 possible cases of firemen and 3 confirmed cases of water channel clean-up workers. The overall attack rate (AR) of firemen was 42% (14/33). The firemen had a significantly higher AR with a longer exposure and more protracted time of rescue in the ARS (P < 0.05). All the cases stated that they did not realize the potentially high level of exposure to CO in the ARS...
October 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117858/measuring-improvement-in-knowledge-of-drug-policy-reforms-following-a-police-education-program-in-tijuana-mexico
#7
J Arredondo, S A Strathdee, J Cepeda, D Abramovitz, I Artamonova, E Clairgue, E Bustamante, M L Mittal, T Rocha, A Bañuelos, H O Olivarria, M Morales, G Rangel, C Magis, L Beletsky
BACKGROUND: Mexico's 2009 "narcomenudeo reform" decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP) improved officers' drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge...
November 8, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117804/a-systematic-review-of-occupational-health-and-safety-business-cases
#8
Geunjae Lee
Business cases are arguments developed to secure management commitment and approval for investment in an intervention. This systematic review evaluated 12 experimental and quasi-experimental studies on occupational health and safety interventions (OHSI) in various settings. The search engines used in this systematic review include PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus. A cost and benefit analysis of OHSI was completed at the organizational level in these studies. The focus of this analysis included sample, design, theoretical framework, interventional strategies, and threats to validity and outcomes...
November 1, 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114898/adapting-the-t0-t4-implementation-science-model-to-occupational-health-and-safety-in-agriculture-forestry-and-fishing-a-scoping-review
#9
REVIEW
Pamela J Tinc, Anne Gadomski, Julie A Sorensen, Lars Weinehall, Paul Jenkins, Kristina Lindvall
BACKGROUND: Despite much research to develop life-saving innovations for the agriculture, forestry, and fishing workforce, these populations continue to face the highest fatal and non-fatal injury rates in the United States, as many of these solutions are not fully adopted. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to provide an overview of research to practice efforts in this field. The language used to describe these initiatives, the utility of the NIH T0-T4 model, and the progress along the research to practice continuum were examined...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113118/sleep-health-and-wellness-at-work-a-scoping-review
#10
REVIEW
Nicola Magnavita, Sergio Garbarino
Many occupational factors may interfere with sleep. Sleep disturbances can, in turn, endanger the health and safety of workers. This rapid review of the literature identifies the main factors that alter the quantity and quality of sleep, indicates the effects these alterations have on the wellbeing of workers and suggests some health promotion measures.
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112631/economic-evaluation-of-occupational-safety-and-health-interventions-from-the-employer-perspective-a-systematic-review
#11
Aikaterini Grimani, Gunnar Bergström, Martha Isabel Riaño Casallas, Emmanuel Aboagye, Irene Jensen, Malin Lohela-Karlsson
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of occupational safety and health interventions from the employer perspective. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search (2005-2016) in five electronic databases was conducted. Pre-2005 studies were identified from the reference lists of previous studies and systematic reviews, which have similar objective to those of this search. RESULTS: A total of nineteen RCT and quasi-experimental studies were included, targeting diverse health problems in a number of settings...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107371/understanding-farmers-safety-behaviour-towards-pesticide-exposure-and-other-occupational-risks-the-case-of-zanjan-iran
#12
Rohallah Rezaei, Christos A Damalas, Gholamhossein Abdollahzadeh
Preventive interventions for reducing occupational risks and health problems among farmers require the identification of factors contributing to unsafe behaviour, but research on this topic is rather limited. A theoretical model for studying factors affecting farmers' use of occupational safety and health (OSH) practices in Iran was developed. The model was empirically tested using data collected from a survey of 301 tomato farmers of Zanjan Province of Iran. The examined OSH practices encompassed a wide range of behaviours, grouped in four categories, i...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103361/titrating-the-rig-how-paramedics-work-in-and-on-their-ambulance
#13
Michael K Corman
In this article, I take readers inside of an ambulance and explore how paramedics work in and on their "apparatus unit" to make it a workable fit. This taken-for-granted work is important because much is at stake in the back of the ambulance, particularly in relation to quality of care and safety. I draw on data from an institutional ethnography into the socially organized work and work settings of paramedics, which included more than 200 hr of observations and more than 100 interviews with paramedics. The findings shed light on the situated work processes of paramedics as they orient and respond to their "apparatus unit" and enact quality and safety in practice...
November 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099468/assessing-acute-symptoms-related-to-occupational-exposures-among-nail-salon-technicians
#14
Derek G Shendell, Judith M Graber, Lindsey J Milich, Michael E Pratt
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional field study evaluated potential associations between acute symptoms among nail technicians and exposure of chemical hazards in New Jersey salons. METHODS: In 2016, an in-person safety and health survey was conducted. Data were gathered on symptoms, demographics, work history, tobacco use, area and/or task ventilation, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and safety training. Workplace hazards were identified by observational survey during site visit walk-throughs...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099341/exploring-relationships-among-occupational-safety-job-turnover-and-age-among-home-care-aides-in-maine
#15
Sandra S Butler
As the U.S. population ages, the number of people needing personal assistance in the home care setting is increasing dramatically. Personal care aides and home health workers are currently adding more jobs to the economy than any other single occupation. Home health workers face physically and emotionally challenging, and at times unsafe, work conditions, with turnover rates ranging from 44 percent to 65 percent annually. As part of a mixed-method, longitudinal study in Maine examining turnover, interviews with 252 home care aides were analyzed thematically...
January 1, 2017: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093579/-hygiene-and-legal-aspects-of-occupational-exposure-assessment-to-cytostatics
#16
REVIEW
Małgorzata Kupczewska-Dobecka, Anna Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Sławomir Czerczak, Katarzyna Konieczko
The employers responsibilities for the assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics in the workplace were analyzed in the light of existing legal regulations. Cytostatics may pose a threat to health and life of workers taking care of patients treated oncologically, i.e., pharmacists, physicians, nurses and other personnel. The significant scale of occupational exposure to cytostatics in Poland is confirmed by the data collected in the Central Register of Data on Exposure to Carcinogenic or Mutagenic Substances, Mixtures, Agents or Technological Processes, maintained by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland...
October 26, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090827/perceptions-of-health-and-cancer-risk-among-newly-recruited-firefighters-in-south-florida
#17
Natasha Schaefer Solle, Alberto J Caban-Martinez, Rachel A Levy, BreAnn Young, David Lee, Tyler Harrison, Erin Kobetz
PURPOSE: Despite hazardous exposures to cancer-causing agents in the line of duty, the main health and safety concerns of active firefighters have yet to be studied. We compare the perceptions of health and cancer risks between rookie and experienced firefighters. METHODS: Focus groups were used to investigate potential risk of job exposures, and broad-based concerns regarding work and health. An 18-item demographic survey was also administered. Five focus group sessions were conducted with a total of 57 firefighters...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083344/invasive-meningococcal-disease-on-the-workplaces-a-systematic-review
#18
Matteo Riccò, Luigi Vezzosi, Anna Odone, Carlo Signorelli
Background and aims of the work: Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) represents a global health threat, and occupational settings have the potential to contribute to its spreading. Therefore, here we present the available evidences on the epidemiology of IMD on the workplaces. METHODS: The following key words were used to explore PubMed: Neisseria meningitidis, meningococcus, meningococcal, invasive meningococcal disease, epidemiology, outbreaks, profession(al), occupation(al). RESULTS: We identified a total of 12 IMD cases among healthcare workers (HCW), 44 involving biological laboratory workers (BLW), 8 among school personnel, and eventually 27 from other settings, including 3 large industrial working populations...
October 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083100/mefloquine-for-preventing-malaria-during-travel-to-endemic-areas
#19
REVIEW
Maya Tickell-Painter, Nicola Maayan, Rachel Saunders, Cheryl Pace, David Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Mefloquine is one of four antimalarial agents commonly recommended for preventing malaria in travellers to malaria-endemic areas. Despite its high efficacy, there is controversy about its psychological side effects. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the efficacy and safety of mefloquine used as prophylaxis for malaria in travellers. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published on the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; Embase (OVID); TOXLINE (https://toxnet...
October 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075624/synergistic-effects-of-heavy-metals-and-pesticides-in-living-systems
#20
REVIEW
Nitika Singh, Vivek Kumar Gupta, Abhishek Kumar, Bechan Sharma
There is a widespread repeated exposure of the population to the pesticides and heavy metals of occupational and environmental origin. Such population is forced to undergo continuous stress imposed by combined exposure of the heavy metals and different classes of the pesticides used in agricultural as well as health practices. The existing reports from several workers have indicated that heavy metals and pesticides in combination may lead more severe impact on the human health when compared to their individual effects...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
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