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Clinical nutrition medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231175/mushroom-polysaccharides-chemistry-and-antiobesity-antidiabetes-anticancer-and-antibiotic-properties-in-cells-rodents-and-humans
#1
REVIEW
Mendel Friedman
More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides) are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides) also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential...
November 29, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190657/cross-sectional-analysis-of-biobank-japan-clinical-data-a-large-cohort-of-200-000-patients-with-47-common-diseases
#2
Makoto Hirata, Yoichiro Kamatani, Akiko Nagai, Yutaka Kiyohara, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Akiko Tamakoshi, Zentaro Yamagata, Michiaki Kubo, Kaori Muto, Taisei Mushiroda, Yoshinori Murakami, Koichiro Yuji, Yoichi Furukawa, Hitoshi Zembutsu, Toshihiro Tanaka, Yozo Ohnishi, Yusuke Nakamura, Koichi Matsuda
BACKGROUND: To implement personalized medicine, we established a large-scale patient cohort, BioBank Japan, in 2003. BioBank Japan contains DNA, serum, and clinical information derived from approximately 200,000 patients with 47 diseases. Serum and clinical information were collected annually until 2012. METHODS: We analyzed clinical information of participants at enrollment, including age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, and smoking and drinking status, across 47 diseases, and compared the results with the Japanese database on Patient Survey and National Health and Nutrition Survey...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177923/protein-calorie-malnutrition-nutritional-intervention-and-personalized-cancer-care
#3
Anju Gangadharan, Sung Eun Choi, Ahmed Hassan, Nehad M Ayoub, Gina Durante, Sakshi Balwani, Young Hee Kim, Andrew Pecora, Andre Goy, K Stephen Suh
Cancer patients often experience weight loss caused by protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) during the course of the disease or treatment. PCM is expressed as severe if the patient has two or more of the following characteristics: obvious significant muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous fat; nutritional intake of <50% of recommended intake for 2 weeks or more; bedridden or otherwise significantly reduced functional capacity; weight loss of >2% in 1 week, 5% in 1 month, or 7.5% in 3 months. Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a multifactorial condition of advanced PCM associated with underlying illness (in this case cancer) and is characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass...
February 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176669/effects-of-carotenoids-on-health-are-all-the-same-results-from-clinical-trials
#4
Arrigo F G Cicero, Alessandro Colletti
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of a lot of age-related pathologies and some types of cancers. Carotenoids have shown antioxidant properties, due to the ability to quench singlet oxygen and to scavenge free radicals that may prevent and treat a wide range of chronic diseases. The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical evidence present in literature about the effects of carotenoids on human health and to evaluate their effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases...
February 6, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157671/can-wheat-germ-have-a-beneficial-effect-on-human-health-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-crossover-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-its-health-effects
#5
André Moreira-Rosário, Helder Pinheiro, Conceição Calhau, Luís Filipe Azevedo
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide and diet is an important contributor to CVD risk. Thus, several food derivatives are being investigated for their beneficial impact on reducing cardiometabolic risk factors, either in risk groups or in healthy population as a preventive measure. Wheat germ is a food by-product with high nutritional value, especially as a concentrated source of dietary fibre and essential fatty acids, but its incorporation into the diet has been rare up to now...
November 10, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152810/interdisciplinary-care-rounds-in-the-community-changing-the-paradigm-of-supportive-service-involvement-in-cancer-care
#6
Hal E Crosswell, Terra Dillard, Jennifer Bayne, Tina Redenz, Kyle Duggan, Angela Belew
: 83 Background: Although cancer centers have focused on optimizing seamless Multidisciplinary Care (MDC) at tumor boards and/or clinics, there has been little published on effective ways to involve supportive services into the management of cancer patients. Historically, supportive services have been initiated when there is an active need rather than in anticipation of that need. As an alternative to pursuing such "crisis management" in our patients, Bon Secours St. Francis Cancer Center (BSSF) initiated Interdisciplinary Care (IDC) Rounds in an effort to anticipate patient needs, enhance quality of life (QoL), and potentially limit avoidable emergency room and hospital admissions...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149695/validation-of-ultrasonographic-muscle-thickness-measurements-as-compared-to-the-gold-standard-of-computed-tomography-in-dogs
#7
Lindsey E Bullen, Maria G Evola, Emily H Griffith, Gabriela S Seiler, Korinn E Saker
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the validity of ultrasonographic (US) muscle measurements as compared to the gold standard of computed tomography (CT) in the canine. DESIGN: This was a prospective study. POPULATION: Twenty-five, client-owned dogs scheduled for CT as part of a diagnostic work-up for the management of their primary disease process were included. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specific appendicular (cubital flexors and extensors, coxofemoral flexors and extensors) and axial (temporalis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, lumbar epaxials) muscle groups were selected for quantitative measure based on CT planning and patient position...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138171/motor-impairment-and-skeletal-mineralization-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#8
Noreen Akhter, Atif Ahmed Khan, Aisha Ayyub
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bone mineral density and the effect of motor impairment on bone mineral density in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January 2013 to January 2015. Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy were sampled by non-probability purposive sampling from the Cerebral Palsy clinic. On the basis of Gross Motor Function Classification level of motor impairment, the children were divided into mild Cerebral Palsy (level 1 & 2) and moderate to severe Cerebral Palsy (level 3-5) groups...
February 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132853/research-opportunities-and-challenges-in-the-era-of-healthy-living-medicine-unlocking-the-potential
#9
REVIEW
Shane A Phillips, Sharon Martino, Ross Arena
Non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, cancer, pulmonary disease, and diabetes are a very high global health concern. The health costs of risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension (HTN), is mounting and are unrelenting. As an example, it is estimated that direct and indirect costs due to HTN amounted to $46.4 billion in 2011 and projections of six-fold increases by 2030; the importance of low-cost nonpharmacological interventions involving collaborative teams of health care professionals is at a critical junction...
January 26, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131442/the-human-gut-microbiome-as-source-of-innovation-for-health-which-physiological-and-therapeutic-outcomes-could-we-expect
#10
Joël Doré, Marie-Christine Multon, Jehan-Michel Béhier
From the moment of birth, each human being builds a microbe-host symbiosis which is key for the preservation of its health and well-being. This personal symbiotic coexistence is the result of progressive enrichments in microorganism diversity through external supplies. This diversity is nowadays massively overthrown by drastic changes related to clinical practice in birth management, environmental exposure, nutrition and healthcare behaviors. The last two generations have been the frame of massive modifications in life and food habits, with people being more and more sedentary, overfed and permeated with drugs and pollutants...
January 3, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130686/sepsis-frontiers-in-supportive-care-organisation-and-research
#11
REVIEW
Anders Perner, Andrew Rhodes, Bala Venkatesh, Derek C Angus, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Jean-Charles Preiser, Jean-Louis Vincent, John Marshall, Konrad Reinhart, Michael Joannidis, Steven M Opal
Because of its high incidence and clinical complexity, sepsis is a major challenge to clinicians and researchers and a global burden to healthcare systems and society. Despite recent progress, short- and long-term morbidity, mortality and costs remain high in both developed and developing countries. Thus, further improvements in supportive interventions and organisation of care are likely to have a substantial impact upon global health. In this narrative review, invited experts describe the challenges and progress to be made in sepsis research and care in the near future...
January 27, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105733/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-sickle-cell-disease
#12
REVIEW
Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Adinegara Bl Abas, Nan Nitra Than, Han Ni, Jaspal Singh, Abdul Razzak Bin Mohd Said, Ifeyinwa Osunkwo
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a genetic chronic haemolytic and pro-inflammatory disorder. The clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease result from the presence of mutations on the beta globin genes that generate an abnormal haemoglobin product (called haemoglobin S) within the red blood cell. Sickle cell disease can lead to many complications such as acute chest syndrome, stroke, acute and chronic bone complications (including painful vaso-occlusive crisis, osteomyelitis, osteonecrosis and osteoporosis)...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105334/chronic-kidney-disease-in-children-and-the-role-of-epigenetics-future-therapeutic-trajectories
#13
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Henrietta U Okafor, Vivian N Muoneke, Odutola I Odetunde, Chioma L Odimegwu
Global differences in the observed causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children are well documented and are attributed to dissimilarities in clime, race, hereditary, and ancestry. Thus, familial clustering and disparities in CKD prevalence rates across ethnic and racial groups indicate that the progression of renal disease has a strong genetic component. Mammalian studies have demonstrated a feasible nexus between nutrition and non-genetic exposure (around the time of conception and in epigenetic changes) in the expression of major genes identified in renal organogenesis...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103873/masquelier-s-grape-seed-extract-from-basic-flavonoid-research-to-a-well-characterized-food-supplement-with-health-benefits
#14
REVIEW
Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast
Careful characterization and standardization of the composition of plant-derived food supplements is essential to establish a cause-effect relationship between the intake of that product and its health effect. In this review we follow a specific grape seed extract containing monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols from its creation by Jack Masquelier in 1947 towards a botanical remedy and nutraceutical with proven health benefits. The preparation's research history parallels the advancing insights in the fields of molecular biology, medicine, plant and nutritional sciences during the last 70 years...
January 19, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103773/agaricus-blazei-bioactive-compounds-and-their-effects-on-human-health-benefits-and-controversies
#15
Aline Cristine da Silva de Souza, Vanesa Gesser Correa, Geferson de Almeida Gonçalves, Andréia Assunção Soares, Adelar Bracht, Rosane Marina Peralta
BACKGROUND: The mushroom Agaricus blazei has evoked considerable scientific and practical interest in several fields, especially those linked to its medicinal properties. This review aims to summarize and evaluate the past decade findings related to nutritional and therapeutic uses of A. blazei, with especial emphasis on the most recent discoveries regarding its chemical composition and clinical investigations. METHODS: The specialized literature was searched for basic and clinical studies...
January 18, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099432/an-analysis-of-the-last-clinical-encounter-before-outpatient-mortality-among-children-with-hiv-infection-and-exposure-in-lilongwe-malawi
#16
Chris A Rees, Robert J Flick, David Sullivan, Menard Bvumbwe, Joseph Mhango, Mina C Hosseinipour, Peter N Kazembe
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contributes to nearly 20% of all deaths in children under five years of age in Malawi. Expanded coverage of antiretroviral therapy has allowed children to access treatment on an outpatient basis. Little is known about characteristics of the final outpatient encounter prior to mortality in the outpatient setting. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study assessed clinical factors associated with mortality among HIV-exposed infants and HIV-infected children less than 18 years of age at the Baylor College of Medicine Abbott Fund Children's Center of Excellence in Lilongwe, Malawi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095908/limiting-treatment-and-shortening-of-life-data-from-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-germany-on-frequencies-determinants-and-patients-involvement
#17
Birte Malena Dahmen, Jochen Vollmann, Stephan Nadolny, Jan Schildmann
BACKGROUND: Limiting treatment forms part of practice in many fields of medicine. There is a scarcity of robust data from Germany. Therefore, in this paper, we report results of a survey among German physicians with a focus on frequencies, aspects of decision making and determinants of limiting treatment with expected or intended shortening of life. METHODS: Postal survey among a random sample of physicians working in the area of five German state chambers of physicians using a modified version of the questionnaire of the EURELD Consortium...
January 17, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068145/comparison-of-patient-health-history-questionnaires-used-in-general-internal-and-family-medicine-integrative-medicine-and-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-clinics
#18
Justin G R Laube, Martin F Shapiro
OBJECTIVES: Health history questionnaires (HHQs) are a set of self-administered questions completed by patients prior to a clinical encounter. Despite widespread use, minimal research has evaluated the content of HHQs used in general internal medicine and family medicine (GIM/FM), integrative medicine, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; chiropractic, naturopathic, and Traditional Chinese Medicine [TCM]) clinics. Integrative medicine and CAM claim greater emphasis on well-being than does GIM/FM...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057105/-precision-nutrition-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#19
P Z Chen, H Wang
Precision medicine has been increasingly incorporated into clinical practice and is enabling a new era for disease prevention and treatment. As an important constituent of precision medicine, precision nutrition has also been drawing more attention during physical examinations. The main aim of precision nutrition is to provide safe and efficient intervention methods for disease treatment and management, through fully considering the genetics, lifestyle (dietary, exercise and lifestyle choices), metabolic status, gut microbiota and physiological status (nutrient level and disease status) of individuals...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051253/antioxidant-diet-and-genotyping-as-tools-for-the-prevention-of-liver-disease
#20
R Di Francia, L Rinaldi, M Cillo, E Varriale, G Facchini, C D'Aniello, G Marotta, M Berretta
It is well-known that 75% of risk factors of chronic liver disease (CLD) are related to nutrition. These circumstances potentially progress towards liver steatosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It still represents an enormous problem for the economy of public health worldwide. Furthermore, validated prevention programs could be the solution. Recent knowledge in understanding molecular determinants of energy liver metabolism and new genetic markers offers new insights into the pathogenesis of CLD and HCC...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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