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Clinical nutrition medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099432/an-analysis-of-the-last-clinical-encounter-before-outpatient-mortality-among-children-with-hiv-infection-and-exposure-in-lilongwe-malawi
#1
Chris A Rees, Robert J Flick, David Sullivan, Menard Bvumbwe, Joseph Mhango, Mina C Hosseinipour, Peter N Kazembe
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contributes to nearly 20% of all deaths in children under five years of age in Malawi. Expanded coverage of antiretroviral therapy has allowed children to access treatment on an outpatient basis. Little is known about characteristics of the final outpatient encounter prior to mortality in the outpatient setting. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study assessed clinical factors associated with mortality among HIV-exposed infants and HIV-infected children less than 18 years of age at the Baylor College of Medicine Abbott Fund Children's Center of Excellence in Lilongwe, Malawi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095908/limiting-treatment-and-shortening-of-life-data-from-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-germany-on-frequencies-determinants-and-patients-involvement
#2
Birte Malena Dahmen, Jochen Vollmann, Stephan Nadolny, Jan Schildmann
BACKGROUND: Limiting treatment forms part of practice in many fields of medicine. There is a scarcity of robust data from Germany. Therefore, in this paper, we report results of a survey among German physicians with a focus on frequencies, aspects of decision making and determinants of limiting treatment with expected or intended shortening of life. METHODS: Postal survey among a random sample of physicians working in the area of five German state chambers of physicians using a modified version of the questionnaire of the EURELD Consortium...
January 17, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068145/comparison-of-patient-health-history-questionnaires-used-in-general-internal-and-family-medicine-integrative-medicine-and-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-clinics
#3
Justin G R Laube, Martin F Shapiro
OBJECTIVES: Health history questionnaires (HHQs) are a set of self-administered questions completed by patients prior to a clinical encounter. Despite widespread use, minimal research has evaluated the content of HHQs used in general internal medicine and family medicine (GIM/FM), integrative medicine, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; chiropractic, naturopathic, and Traditional Chinese Medicine [TCM]) clinics. Integrative medicine and CAM claim greater emphasis on well-being than does GIM/FM...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057105/-precision-nutrition-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#4
P Z Chen, H Wang
Precision medicine has been increasingly incorporated into clinical practice and is enabling a new era for disease prevention and treatment. As an important constituent of precision medicine, precision nutrition has also been drawing more attention during physical examinations. The main aim of precision nutrition is to provide safe and efficient intervention methods for disease treatment and management, through fully considering the genetics, lifestyle (dietary, exercise and lifestyle choices), metabolic status, gut microbiota and physiological status (nutrient level and disease status) of individuals...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051253/antioxidant-diet-and-genotyping-as-tools-for-the-prevention-of-liver-disease
#5
R Di Francia, L Rinaldi, M Cillo, E Varriale, G Facchini, C D'Aniello, G Marotta, M Berretta
It is well-known that 75% of risk factors of chronic liver disease (CLD) are related to nutrition. These circumstances potentially progress towards liver steatosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It still represents an enormous problem for the economy of public health worldwide. Furthermore, validated prevention programs could be the solution. Recent knowledge in understanding molecular determinants of energy liver metabolism and new genetic markers offers new insights into the pathogenesis of CLD and HCC...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041869/-palliative-care-after-neonatal-intensive-care-contributions-of-leonetti-law-and-remaining-challenges
#6
P Kuhn, L Dillenseger, N Cojean, B Escande, C Zores, D Astruc
The 2005 enactment of the "Patients' rights and end-of-life care" act, known as the Leonetti law, has been accompanied by practical changes in the processes of withdrawal and withholding of active life-sustaining treatments. This law has also promoted the implementation of palliative care in perinatal medicine to avoid unreasonable therapeutic interventions and to preserve the dying patient's quality of life and human dignity. Recently, a new law has been voted by the French National Assembly and new reflections on the ethical aspects of the end of life in neonatal medicine should resume again within the French Society of Neonatology in the working group on ethical issues in neonatology...
December 29, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010854/a-tale-of-two-runners-a-case-report-of-athletes-experiences-with-eating-disorders-in%C3%A2-college
#7
Paula A Quatromoni
Athletes are at higher risk than the general population for eating disorders, and risk is heightened for athletes in thin-build sports, including track. Collegiate athletes are particularly vulnerable to disordered eating when the transition from home to the college environment adds to the stress of performance pressures and the high demands of the sport environment. Male and female athletes who develop eating disorders share some common characteristics, yet their experiences can be quite different, in part as a consequence of their sex and how eating disorders develop, and are recognized, acknowledged, and treated, within the culture of sports...
January 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004327/nutritional-and-bioenergetic-considerations-in-critically-ill-patients-with-acute-neurological-injury
#8
Peter A Abdelmalik, Susan Dempsey, Wendy Ziai
The brain, due to intensive cellular processes and maintenance of electrochemical gradients, is heavily dependent on a constant supply of energy. Brain injury, and critical illness in general, induces a state of increased metabolism and catabolism, which has been proven to lead to poor outcomes. Of all the biochemical interventions undertaken in the ICU, providing nutritional support is perhaps one of the most undervalued, but potentially among the safest, and most effective interventions. Adequate provisions of calories and protein have been shown to improve patient outcomes, and guidelines for the nutritional support of the critically ill patient are reviewed...
December 21, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000196/-analysis-of-clinical-characteristics-of-perianal-crohn-s-disease-in-a-single-center
#9
Ping Zhu, Yugen Chen, Yunfei Gu, Hongjin Chen, Xiaohai An, Yingrui Cheng, Ying Gao, Bolin Yang
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the clinical features of perianal Crohn disease (PCD). METHODS: Clinical data of 52 PCD patients who were treated at the Department of Colorectal Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine from June 2011 to October 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Montreal classification, clinical symptoms, the subtype of perianal lesions, history of perianal surgery and medical treatment, disease active indexes, serum inflammation markers and nutritional indexes were included...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994480/combining-pain-therapy-with-lifestyle-the-role-of-personalized-nutrition-and-nutritional-supplements-according-to-the-simpar-feed-your-destiny-approach
#10
REVIEW
Manuela De Gregori, Carolina Muscoli, Michael E Schatman, Tiziana Stallone, Fabio Intelligente, Mariangela Rondanelli, Francesco Franceschi, Laura Isabel Arranz, Silvia Lorente-Cebrián, Maurizio Salamone, Sara Ilari, Inna Belfer, Massimo Allegri
Recently, attention to the lifestyle of patients has been rapidly increasing in the field of pain therapy, particularly with regard to the role of nutrition in pain development and its management. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the role of nutrition and nutraceuticals, microbiome, obesity, soy, omega-3 fatty acids, and curcumin supplementation as key elements in modulating the efficacy of analgesic treatments, including opioids. These main topics were addressed during the first edition of the Study In Multidisciplinary Pain Research workshop: "FYD (Feed Your Destiny): Fighting Pain", held on April 7, 2016, in Rome, Italy, which was sponsored by a grant from the Italian Ministry of Instruction on "Nutraceuticals and Innovative Pharmacology"...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965781/preacutionary-labelling-of-cross-reactive-foods-the-case-of-rapeseed
#11
REVIEW
Alessandro Fiocchi, Lamia Dahdah, Carla Riccardi, Oscar Mazzina, Vincenzo Fierro
Food allergic individuals are exposed to unnecessary dietary restrictions due to precautionary food allergy labelling (PFAL). Two forms of PFAL exist: type I identifies the possible presence of allergenic contaminaion in foods ('may content…'), type II indicates as potentially dangerous ingredients or contaminants that do no belong to official list of food allergens. PFAL type II is based on the fear of cross-reactivity with foods belonging to that list. PFAL type II is less known, but may be tempting for the legal offices of food companies, for clinicians in a 'defensive medicine' key, and even for legislators...
2016: Asthma research and practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965220/the-use-of-rats-and-mice-as-animal-models-in-ex-vivo-bone-growth-and-development-studies
#12
A A Abubakar, M M Noordin, T I Azmi, U Kaka, M Y Loqman
In vivo animal experimentation has been one of the cornerstones of biological and biomedical research, particularly in the field of clinical medicine and pharmaceuticals. The conventional in vivo model system is invariably associated with high production costs and strict ethical considerations. These limitations led to the evolution of an ex vivo model system which partially or completely surmounted some of the constraints faced in an in vivo model system. The ex vivo rodent bone culture system has been used to elucidate the understanding of skeletal physiology and pathophysiology for more than 90 years...
December 2016: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956775/relationship-between-hepcidin-and-oxidant-antioxidant-status-in-calves-with-suspected-neonatal-septicemia
#13
E E Erkilic, H M Erdogan, M Ogun, A H Kirmizigul, E Gokce, M Kuru, A Kukurt
AIM: This study has been conducted for the purpose of determining serum hepcidin, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and Fe levels in calves with suspected neonatal septicemia before and after treatment and the clinical significance of hepcidin in calves with suspected neonatal septicemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study material consisted of 15 calves of different ages and sexes brought to the Training, Research and Application Center at the Kafkas University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine with suspected neonatal septicemia...
November 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934657/the-importance-of-quality-specifications-in-safety-assessments-of-amino-acids-the-cases-of-l-tryptophan-and-l-citrulline
#14
REVIEW
Hellen A Oketch-Rabah, Amy L Roe, Bill J Gurley, James C Griffiths, Gabriel I Giancaspro
The increasing consumption of amino acids from a wide variety of sources, including dietary supplements, natural health products, medical foods, infant formulas, athletic and work-out products, herbal medicines, and other national and international categories of nutritional and functional food products, increases the exposure to amino acids to amounts far beyond those normally obtained from the diet, thereby necessitating appropriate and robust safety assessments of these ingredients. Safety assessments of amino acids, similar to all food constituents, largely rely on the establishment of an upper limit [Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)] considered to be a guide for avoiding high intake, above which adverse or toxic effects might occur...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919521/unsolved-forgotten-and-ignored-features-of-the-placebo-response-in-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Paul Enck, Sibylle Klosterhalfen, Katja Weimer
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify topics of research that have been neglected, undervalued, or overseen in the past 2 decades of placebo/nocebo research. METHODS: A highly specialized literature database containing >3200 articles on the placebo or nocebo effects or response was screened for articles covering placebo effects in nutrition, sports medicine, physical therapy, and psychotherapy; for article covering gender, age, and culture as influencing factors; for articles dealing with long-term outcome, multimodality; and for articles related to technical (eHealth, mHealth) aspects of placebo effects...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912954/effect-of-diet-based-on-the-principles-of-iranian-traditional-medicine-on-cirrhosis-a-clinical-trial
#16
Mohammad Javad Ehsani, Jamileh Mahdavi Jafari, Jale Aliasl, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Latif Gachkar, Rasool Choopani
OBJECTIVES: Cirrhosis is associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) focused on nutritional intervention in order to improve liver function. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a diet designed based on ITM and current dietary recommendations. DESIGN: This controlled trial study was performed on 57 subjects with cirrhosis in 5 tertiary hospitals in Teharn, Iran. SETTING: Subjects were included if they were diagnosed with class A or B cirrhosis between October 2013 and December 2014...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890486/towards-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-understand-and-manage-obesity-and-related-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Stephan C Bischoff, Yves Boirie, Tommy Cederholm, Michael Chourdakis, Cristina Cuerda, Nathalie M Delzenne, Nicolaas E Deutz, Denis Fouque, Laurence Genton, Carmen Gil, Berthold Koletzko, Miguel Leon-Sanz, Raanan Shamir, Joelle Singer, Pierre Singer, Nanette Stroebele-Benschop, Anders Thorell, Arved Weimann, Rocco Barazzoni
Overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle result in overweight or obesity defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. According to the WHO, the worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008. In 2008, over 50% of both men and women in the WHO European Region were overweight, and approximately 23% of women and 20% of men were obese. Comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches should include nutritional treatment to favor the best metabolic and nutritional outcome, as well as to induce potential disease-specific benefits from selected nutritional regimens...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886382/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-cucumis-sativus-seed-extract-on-serum-lipids-in-adult-hyperlipidemic-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#18
Rasool Soltani, Mohammad Hashemi, Alimohammad Farazmand, Gholamreza Asghari, Kiyan Heshmat-Ghahdarijani, Ali Kharazmkia, Syed Mustafa Ghanadian
Hyperlipidemia is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis; therefore, control of this risk factor is very important in preventing atherosclerosis. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed is used traditionally as a lipid-lowering nutritional supplement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cucumber seed extract on serum lipid profile in adult patients with mild hyperlipidemia. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, hyperlipidemic patients with inclusion criteria were randomly and equally assigned to either Cucumis or placebo groups and used one medicinal or placebo capsule, respectively, once daily with food for 6 wk...
January 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884128/a-randomised-controlled-demonstration-trial-of-multifaceted-nutritional-intervention-and-or-probiotics-the-healthy-mums-and-babies-humba-trial
#19
Karaponi Okesene-Gafa, Minglan Li, Rennae S Taylor, John M D Thompson, Caroline A Crowther, Christopher J D McKinlay, Lesley M E McCowan
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and has lifelong negative implications for offspring health. The Institute of Medicine recommends limited gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese women for optimal maternal and infant outcomes. However, there is a gap regarding an effective and sustainable intervention strategy to achieve this goal. The aim of the healthy mums and babies (HUMBA) demonstration trial is to assess whether a multifaceted nutritional intervention and/or an oral probiotic treatment in obese pregnant women can reduce excessive GWG and optimise pregnancy outcomes...
November 24, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878797/choosing-wisely-at-the-end-of-life-the-crucial-role-of-medical-indication
#20
Gian Domenico Borasio, Ralf J Jox
At the end of life, several treatments are administered routinely that lack medical indication and may cause significant harm to patients. Examples include artificial hydration and oxygen therapy in the dying phase, as well as enteral nutrition in advanced dementia. Medical indication is defined as the appropriateness of a therapeutic or diagnostic measure in the patient's concrete clinical situation, in light of the best available evidence. The decision about the absence or presence of a medical indication is a core competence of physicians...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
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