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TBI pediatrics guidelines

Jarin Vaewpanich, Karin Reuter-Rice
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality. Secondary injury that occurs as a result of a direct impact plays a crucial role in patient prognosis. The guidelines for the management of severe TBI target treatment of secondary injury. Posttraumatic seizure, one of the secondary injury sequelae, contributes to further damage to the injured brain. Continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) helps detect both clinical and subclinical seizure, which aids early detection and prompt treatment...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Nithya Kannan, Jin Wang, Richard B Mink, Mark S Wainwright, Jonathan I Groner, Michael J Bell, Christopher C Giza, Douglas F Zatzick, Richard G Ellenbogen, Linda Ng Boyle, Pamela H Mitchell, Frederick P Rivara, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Monica S Vavilala
OBJECTIVES: Early resuscitation may improve outcomes in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined the association between timely treatment of hypotension and hypoxia during early care (prehospital or emergency department locations) and discharge outcomes in children with severe TBI. METHODS: Hypotension was defined as systolic blood pressure less than 70 + 2 (age in years), and hypoxia was defined as PaO2 less than 60 mm Hg or oxygen saturation less than 90% in accordance with the 2003 Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines...
July 12, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Paige J Ostahowski, Nithya Kannan, Mark S Wainwright, Qian Qiu, Richard B Mink, Jonathan I Groner, Michael J Bell, Christopher C Giza, Douglas F Zatzick, Richard G Ellenbogen, Linda Ng Boyle, Pamela H Mitchell, Monica S Vavilala
OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic seizure is a major complication following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in seizure prophylaxis in select pediatric trauma centers. The authors hypothesized that there would be wide variation in seizure prophylaxis selection and use, within and between pediatric trauma centers. METHODS In this retrospective multicenter cohort study including 5 regional pediatric trauma centers affiliated with academic medical centers, the authors examined data from 236 children (age < 18 years) with severe TBI (admission Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8, ICD-9 diagnosis codes of 800...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Jennifer K Lee, Ken M Brady, Nina Deutsch
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the most common cause of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in infants and the leading cause of child abuse-related deaths. For reasons that remain unclear, mortality rates after moderate AHT rival those of severe nonintentional TBI. The vulnerability of the developing brain to injury may be partially responsible for the poor outcomes observed after AHT. AHT is mechanistically more complex than nonintentional TBI. The acute-on-chronic nature of the trauma along with synergistic injury mechanisms that include rapid rotation of the brain, diffuse axonal injury, blunt force trauma, and hypoxia-ischemia make AHT challenging to treat...
June 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Mark Faul, Likang Xu, Scott M Sasser
OBJECTIVE: Guidelines suggest that Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) related hospitalizations are best treated at Level I or II trauma centers because of continuous neurosurgical care in these settings. This population-based study examines TBI hospitalization treatment paths by age groups. METHODS: Trauma center utilization and transfers by age groups were captured by examining the total number of TBI hospitalizations from National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and the number of TBI hospitalizations and transfers in the Trauma Data Bank National Sample Population (NTDB-NSP)...
September 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
Matthew D Ramirez, Ann C Mertens, Natia Esiashvili, Lillian R Meacham, Karen Wasilewski-Masker
BACKGROUND: The Children's Oncology Group (COG) publishes consensus guidelines with screening recommendations for early identification of treatment-related morbidities among childhood cancer survivors. We sought to estimate the yield of recommended yearly urinalysis screening for genitourinary complications as per Version 3.0 of the COG Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines and identify possible risk factors for abnormal screening in a survivor population. PROCEDURE: A database of pediatric cancer survivors evaluated between January 2008 and March 2012 at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta was queried for survivors at risk for genitourinary late effects...
May 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Sarah M Brolliar, Megan Moore, Hilaire J Thompson, Lauren K Whiteside, Richard B Mink, Mark S Wainwright, Jonathan I Groner, Michael J Bell, Christopher C Giza, Douglas F Zatzick, Richard G Ellenbogen, Linda Ng Boyle, Pamela H Mitchell, Frederick P Rivara, Monica S Vavilala
Despite demonstrated improvement in patient outcomes with use of the Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Guidelines (Guidelines), there are differential rates of adherence. Provider perspectives on barriers and facilitators to adherence have not been elucidated. This study aimed to identify and explore in depth the provider perspective on factors associated with adherence to the Guidelines using 19 focus groups with nurses and physicians who provided acute management for pediatric patients with TBI at five university-affiliated Level 1 trauma centers...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Fei Di, Qi Gao, Joe Xiang, Di Zhang, Xiuquan Shi, Xueqiang Yan, Huiping Zhu
Proper diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is becoming an increasingly problematic issue in China. This study investigated Chinese clinicians to provide information about their knowledge and experiences in diagnosis and treatment of pediatric TBI. We conducted a questionnaire survey among clinicians in the emergency departments and neurosurgery departments at 9 major hospitals in China. The questionnaire included demographic information, and knowledge and experiences regarding the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric TBI...
2015: PloS One
Yahya H Khormi, Ibrahim Gosadi, Sandra Campbell, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Cian O'kelly, David Zygun
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability around the world. Management based on Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) guidelines is widely accepted and thought to improve outcome. The objectives of this systematic review are to give an overview of adherence to the BTF guidelines, describe factors influencing adherence, and study the effect of guideline-based management on outcome. METHODS/DESIGN: We will search electronic bibliographic databases: PROSPERO, Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS, NHS, CINAHL, Cochrane Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global...
2015: Systematic Reviews
Thomas M O'Lynnger, Chevis N Shannon, Truc M Le, Amber Greeno, Dai Chung, Fred S Lamb, John C Wellons
OBJECT The goal of critical care in treating traumatic brain injury (TBI) is to reduce secondary brain injury by limiting cerebral ischemia and optimizing cerebral blood flow. The authors compared short-term outcomes as defined by discharge disposition and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores in children with TBI before and after the implementation of a protocol that standardized decision-making and interventions among neurosurgeons and pediatric intensivists. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective pre- and postprotocol study of 128 pediatric patients with severe TBI, as defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores < 8, admitted to a tertiary care center pediatric critical care unit between April 1, 2008, and May 31, 2014...
January 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Gregory Hansen, Jeff K Vallance
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) guidelines should direct patient management. This retrospective study compared ventilation monitoring practices of nontrauma center (NTC) personnel and air medical crews (AMCs) in pediatric patients with severe TBI at NTCs after endotracheal intubation. METHODS: Pediatric patient charts for level I trauma center admissions between 2008 and 2013 with severe TBI were screened. Inclusion criteria included admission Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8, head Abbreviated Injury Scale score of ≥ 3, and secure airway initiated or managed at an NTC...
September 2015: Air Medical Journal
Akhil Deepika, Manish Joseph Mathew, S Arun Kumar, Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Dhaval Shukla
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a condition in which there is extreme autonomic dysregulation leading to multiple episodes of sympathetic hyperactivity. Its occurrence after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in pediatric population is a neglected scenario. In our series, all pediatric patients with moderate and severe head injuries were studied and those patients who developed PSH were monitored for the PSH episodes. Four children out of 36 cases of pediatric severe traumatic brain injury developed features of PSH...
December 2015: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Nadia Roumeliotis, Géraldine Pettersen, Louis Crevier, Guillaume Émeriaud
BACKGROUND: Despite pediatric guidelines, variability exists in the management of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), as somewhere between 7 and 60% of children undergo intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. Reasons for this low adherence to TBI management guidelines remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current practices at CHU Sainte-Justine with regards to ICP monitoring in severe TBI and explore the reasons why ICP monitoring is not undertaken. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all patients age 1 month to 18 years, with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤8) from 2007 to 2014...
November 2015: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Vinay Kukreti, Hadi Mohseni-Bod, James Drake
Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is associated with worse outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current guidelines and management strategies are aimed at maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and treating elevated ICP. Despite controversies, ICP monitoring is important particularly after severe TBI to guide treatment and in developed countries is accepted as a standard of care. We provide a narrative review of the recent evidence for the use of ICP monitoring and management of ICP in pediatric TBI...
September 2014: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Esther Mihindu, Indermeet Bhullar, Joseph Tepas, Andrew Kerwin
Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) guidelines have a near 100 per cent negative predictive value for clinically important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) in children with mild head injury (Glasgow Coma Score [GCS] 14 or 15). Our goal was to retrospectively apply their criteria to our database to determine the potential impact on the rates of unnecessary head computed tomography (CT) and ciTBI detection. The records of pediatric patients with GCS 14 to 15 that had a head CT for suspected TBI after blunt trauma from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed...
September 2014: American Surgeon
Daniel W Spaite, Bentley J Bobrow, Uwe Stolz, Duane Sherrill, Vatsal Chikani, Bruce Barnhart, Michael Sotelo, Joshua B Gaither, Chad Viscusi, P David Adelson, Kurt R Denninghoff
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) exacts a great toll on society. Fortunately, there is growing evidence that the management of TBI in the early minutes after injury may significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. In response, evidence-based prehospital and in-hospital TBI treatment guidelines have been established by authoritative bodies. However, no large studies have yet evaluated the effectiveness of implementing these guidelines in the prehospital setting. This article describes the background, design, implementation, emergency medical services (EMS) treatment protocols, and statistical analysis of a prospective, controlled (before/after), statewide study designed to evaluate the effect of implementing the EMS TBI guidelines-the Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care (EPIC) study (NIH/NINDS R01NS071049, "EPIC"; and 3R01NS071049-S1, "EPIC4Kids")...
July 2014: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Monica S Vavilala, Mary A Kernic, Jin Wang, Nithya Kannan, Richard B Mink, Mark S Wainwright, Jonathan I Groner, Michael J Bell, Christopher C Giza, Douglas F Zatzick, Richard G Ellenbogen, Linda Ng Boyle, Pamela H Mitchell, Frederick P Rivara
OBJECTIVE: The effect of the 2003 severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) guidelines on outcomes has not been examined. We aimed to develop a set of acute care guideline-influenced clinical indicators of adherence and tested the relationship between these indicators during the first 72 hours after hospital admission and discharge outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective multicenter cohort study. SETTING: Five regional pediatric trauma centers affiliated with academic medical centers...
October 2014: Critical Care Medicine
Nina Hardcastle, Hubert A Benzon, Monica S Vavilala
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant contributor to death and disability in children. Considering the prevalence of pediatric TBI, it is important for the clinician to be aware of evidence-based recommendations for the care of these patients. The first edition of the Guidelines for the Acute Medical Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants, Children, and Adolescents was published in 2003. The Guidelines were updated in 2012, with significant changes in the recommendations for hyperosmolar therapy, temperature control, hyperventilation, corticosteroids, glucose therapy, and seizure prophylaxis...
July 2014: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Fuad Alkhoury, Tassos C Kyriakides
IMPORTANCE: The present study is the largest on the use and effect of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in pediatric trauma patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of ICP monitoring on survival in pediatric patients with severe head injuries using the National Trauma Data Bank. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The National Trauma Data Bank was queried (version 6.2, 2001-2006) for information on patients younger than 17 years admitted to an intensive care unit with blunt traumatic brain injury (TBI), Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 9, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score less than 9...
June 2014: JAMA Surgery
Sonny C Bata, Michael Yung
BACKGROUND: Paediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Australia. There are clear guidelines on head imaging for children with TBI, but there is conflicting evidence on the role of routine repeat head computed tomography (CT) scan. This study aims to determine whether routine repeat head CT scans in paediatric TBI alter surgical or medical management. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed at a level 1 tertiary paediatric trauma centre between January 2002 and July 2012...
June 2014: ANZ Journal of Surgery
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