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Pregnancy in adolescents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209774/methyl-donor-supplementation-alters-cognitive-performance-and-motivation-in-female-offspring-from-high-fat-diet-fed-dams
#1
Sarah E McKee, Nicola M Grissom, Christopher T Herdt, Teresa M Reyes
During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209547/pregnancy-after-urinary-diversion-at-young-ages-risks-and-outcome
#2
N Huck, S Schweizerhof, P Honeck, A Neisius, J Thüroff, R Stein
OBJECTIVE: To assess the urological and obstetric outcomes during and after pregnancy following urinary diversion (UD) performed during childhood or adolescence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our urinary diversion database, we identified 25 females who became pregnant between 1981 and 2013. Reasons for urinary diversion were neurogenic bladder, exstrophy, trauma, sinus urogenitalis and interstitial cystitis. 17 had continent cutaneous diversion, 4 continent anal diversion and 4 colonic conduit...
February 13, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207425/evidence-based-interventions-for-improvement-of-maternal-and-child-nutrition-in-low-income-settings-what-s-new
#3
Tyler Vaivada, Michelle F Gaffey, Jai K Das, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal and child malnutrition continues to disproportionately affect low and middle-income countries, contributing to high rates of morbidity, mortality, and suboptimal development. This article reviews evidence from recent systematic reviews and studies on the effectiveness of interventions to improve nutritional status in these especially vulnerable populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Macronutrients provided to expectant mothers in the form of balanced protein energy supplements can improve fetal growth and birth outcomes, and new research suggests that lipid nutrient supplements can reduce both stunting and wasting in newborns...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196030/physical-activities-and-lifestyle-factors-related-to-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#4
Kota Watanabe, Takehiro Michikawa, Ikuho Yonezawa, Masashi Takaso, Shohei Minami, Shigeru Soshi, Takashi Tsuji, Eijiro Okada, Katsumi Abe, Masamichi Takahashi, Keiko Asakura, Yuji Nishiwaki, Morio Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: In addition to genetic factors, environmental and lifestyle factors are thought to play an important role in the onset of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore lifestyle factors related to AIS. METHODS: This study included 2,759 Japanese female junior high school students who planned a secondary screening after an initial moiré topography screening indicated possible scoliosis. The students and their mothers, or guardians, were asked to fill out a questionnaire consisting of 38 questions about demographic factors, lifestyle-related factors, social factors, household environment, participation in sports, health status, and factors related to the mother's pregnancy and delivery...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192175/increased-anxiety-like-phenotype-in-female-guinea-pigs-following-reduced-neurosteroid-exposure-in-utero
#5
Angela L Cumberland, Hannah K Palliser, Gabrielle K Crombie, David W Walker, Jonathan J Hirst
Neurosteroids are essential for aiding proper fetal neurodevelopment. Pregnancy compromises such as preterm birth, prenatal stress and intrauterine growth restriction are associated with an increased risk of developing behavioural and mood disorders, particularly during adolescence. These pathologies involve the premature loss or alteration of trophic steroid hormones reaching the fetus leading to impaired neurodevelopment. While the specific programming mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated, in adult life, dysfunctions of allopregnanolone action are prevalent in individuals with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety disorders...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178971/building-social-capital-to-promote-adolescent-wellbeing-a-qualitative-study-with-teens-in-a-latino-agricultural-community
#6
Marissa Raymond-Flesch, Colette Auerswald, Linda McGlone, Megan Comfort, Alexandra Minnis
BACKGROUND: Latino youth, particularly in rural settings, experience significant disparities in rates of teen pregnancy and violence. Few data are available regarding social and structural influences on Latino youth's developmental trajectories, specifically on factors that promote wellbeing and protect them from engagement in high-risk sexual and violence-related behaviors. METHODS: Forty-two youth aged 13 to 19 years old were recruited from middle schools and youth leadership programs to participate in one of eight community-based focus groups in Salinas, a predominantly Latino, urban center in California's rural central coast...
February 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176946/lower-education-among-low-income-brazilian-adolescent-females-is-associated-with-planned-pregnancies
#7
Alexandre Faisal-Cury, Karen M Tabb, Guilherme Niciunovas, Carrie Cunningham, Paulo R Menezes, Hsiang Huang
Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168593/a-community-needs-index-for-adolescent-pregnancy-prevention-program-planning-application-of-spatial-generalized-linear-mixed-models
#8
Glen D Johnson, Kristine Mesler, Marilyn A Kacica
Objective The objective is to estimate community needs with respect to risky adolescent sexual behavior in a way that is risk-adjusted for multiple community factors. Methods Generalized linear mixed modeling was applied for estimating teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence by postal ZIP code in New York State, in a way that adjusts for other community covariables and residual spatial autocorrelation. A community needs index was then obtained by summing the risk-adjusted estimates of pregnancy and STD cases...
February 6, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163169/does-maoa-increase-susceptibility-to-prenatal-stress-in-young-children
#9
Suena H Massey, Amalia E Hatcher, Caron A C Clark, James L Burns, Daniel S Pine, Andrew D Skol, Daniel K Mroczek, Kimberly A Espy, David Goldman, Edwin Cook, Lauren S Wakschlag
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated a gene-by-prenatal-environment interaction whereby the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) modified the impact of prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) on adolescent disruptive behavior (DB), with the MAOA risk genotype varying by sex. We extend this work by examining whether this mechanism is evident with another common adversity, prenatal stress exposure (PSE), and whether sex differences are present earlier in development in closer proximity to exposure...
February 3, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163088/risk-of-luteal-phase-pregnancy-with-any-cycle-day-initiation-of-subdermal-contraceptive-implants
#10
Molly Richards, Stephanie B Teal, Jeanelle Sheeder
OBJECTIVES: To determine rates of luteal phase pregnancy (LPP) in young women initiating subdermal implants on any day of the menstrual cycle. STUDY DESIGN: We assessed a retrospective cohort of young women receiving contraceptive implants at an adolescent Title-X clinic. Patients with negative pregnancy tests were eligible for same-day insertion, regardless of cycle day, contraceptive use, or last intercourse. We computed LPP rates for those within manufacturer guidelines for insertion (≤5 days of menstrual onset or ≤7 days post-discontinuing hormonal contraception) and outside these guidelines...
February 2, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160250/thiopurines-and-methotrexate-use-in-ibd-patients-in-a-biologic-era
#11
REVIEW
Gerassimos J Mantzaris
Although we have been living in the era of biologic therapy for several decades, the use of immunomodulators (primarily thiopurines [azathioprine and mercaptopurine] and less so methotrexate) still remains an important component of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pharmaceutical arsenal. Thiopurines as monotherapy exert corticosteroid-sparing effects and can maintain long-term remission in a considerable proportion of patients who have frequent relapses and are or have become mesalazine and/or corticosteroid intolerant or refractory...
February 3, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158988/microsatellite-polymorphisms-associated-with-human-behavioural-and-psychological-phenotypes-including-a-gene-environment-interaction
#12
Andrew T M Bagshaw, L John Horwood, David M Fergusson, Neil J Gemmell, Martin A Kennedy
BACKGROUND: The genetic and environmental influences on human personality and behaviour are a complex matter of ongoing debate. Accumulating evidence indicates that short tandem repeats (STRs) in regulatory regions are good candidates to explain heritability not accessed by genome-wide association studies. METHODS: We tested for associations between the genotypes of four selected repeats and 18 traits relating to personality, behaviour, cognitive ability and mental health in a well-studied longitudinal birth cohort (n = 458-589) using one way analysis of variance...
February 3, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152472/exposure-to-phthalates-is-associated-with-lipid-profile-in-peripubertal-mexican-youth
#13
Wei Perng, Deborah J Watkins, Alejandra Cantoral, Adriana Mercado-García, John D Meeker, Martha Maria Téllez-Rojo, Karen E Peterson
Animal models indicate that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect circulating lipid concentrations by interfering with hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Little is known of the relationship between EDC exposure and lipid profile in humans. We measured bisphenol A (BPA) and 9 phthalate metabolites in maternal urine collected at up to three time points during pregnancy as a measure of in utero exposure, and in the child's urine at 8-14 years as a measure of concurrent, peripubertal exposure among 248 participants of a Mexico City pre-birth cohort...
January 30, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143467/examination-of-youth-sexual-and-reproductive-health-transitions-in-nigeria-and-kenya-using-longitudinal-data
#14
Ilene S Speizer, David Guilkey, Lisa M Calhoun, Meghan Corroon, Rick O'Hara
BACKGROUND: The adolescent (ages 15-19) and young adult (ages 20-24) years are a crucial time as many sexual and reproductive health (SRH) transitions take place in these years. The study of youth SRH transitions in sub-Saharan Africa is limited due to a paucity of longitudinal data needed to examine the timing and circumstances of these transitions. METHODS: This paper uses recently collected longitudinal data from select urban areas in Kenya and Nigeria that include a large youth sample at baseline (2010/2011) and endline (2014)...
January 31, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133615/pregnancy-during-adolescence-and-associated-risks-an-8-year-hospital-based-cohort-study-2007-2014-in-romania-the-country-with-the-highest-rate-of-teenage-pregnancy-in-europe
#15
Demetra-Gabriela Socolov, Magdalena Iorga, Alexandru Carauleanu, Ciprian Ilea, Iolanda Blidaru, Lucian Boiculese, Razvan-Vladimir Socolov
Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20-24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth <37 weeks (1.21 [1.08-1.35]), foetal growth restriction (1.34 [1.21-1.48]), episiotomy (1.27 [1.21-1.34]), uterine revision (1...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127873/early-menarche-and-risk-taking-behavior-in-korean-adolescent-students
#16
Hyun Soo Kim, Byeong Moo Choe, Jae Hong Park, Seong Hwan Kim
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between early menarche and risk-taking behavior in a representative sample of Korean adolescent students. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of 33 829 female adolescents (grades 7-12) from the 2014 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the association between early menarche and risk-taking behavior...
January 27, 2017: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115537/the-adolescent-s-right-to-confidential-care-when-considering-abortion
#17
(no author information available yet)
In this statement, the American Academy of Pediatrics reaffirms its position that the rights of adolescents to confidential care when considering abortion should be protected. Adolescents should be encouraged to involve their parents and other trusted adults in decisions regarding pregnancy termination, and most do so voluntarily. The majority of states require that minors have parental consent for an abortion. However, legislation mandating parental involvement does not achieve the intended benefit of promoting family communication, and it increases the risk of harm to the adolescent by delaying access to appropriate medical care...
January 23, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111096/prevalence-and-correlates-of-alcohol-and-tobacco-use-among-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states-evidence-from-the-nsduh-2005-2014
#18
Sehun Oh, Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Michael G Vaughn, Diana M DiNitto
Alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy are among the strongest and most preventable risk factors for adverse neonatal health outcomes, but few developmentally sensitive, population-based studies of this phenomenon have been conducted. To address this gap, the present study examined the prevalence and correlates of alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant adolescents (aged 12-17) and adults (aged 18-44) in the United States. Data were derived from the population-based National Survey of Drug Use and Health (80,498 adolescent and 152,043 adult women) between 2005 and 2014...
January 19, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110865/prevalence-of-thinness-in-adolescent-girls-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-and-associations-with-wealth-food%C3%A2-security-and-inequality
#19
Toby Candler, Silvia Costa, Michelle Heys, Anthony Costello, Russell M Viner
PURPOSE: Adequate nutrition during adolescence is important for optimal physical and cognitive development and for pregnancy either during adolescence or later life. Thinness among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries has been little studied. METHODS: We used body mass index data from 40 countries from the Global School Health Survey to estimate the prevalence of moderate and severe thinness in 12- to 18-year-olds using the World Health Organization 2007 growth reference...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109736/social-disparities-in-the-relationship-between-depression-and-unintended-pregnancy-during-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#20
Kelli Stidham Hall, Jennifer L Richards, Kathleen Mullan Harris
PURPOSE: We investigated the influence of depression on subsequent risk of unintended pregnancy and social disparities within this relationship, during adolescence and young adulthood. METHODS: Drawing upon 15-year, nationally representative data from 8,810 young U.S. women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we estimated associations between depression and time to first pregnancies reported as unintended, overall and stratified by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and age with Cox proportional hazard models...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
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