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Pregnancy in adolescents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429909/association-between-maternal-vitamin-d-status-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-cognitive-function-during-childhood-and-adolescence
#1
Sargoor R Veena, Ghattu V Krishnaveni, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, Kotrangada P Thajna, Bhavya G Hegde, Catharine R Gale, Caroline Hd Fall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Animal studies have demonstrated poor cognitive outcomes in offspring in relation to maternal vitamin D deficiency before and/or during pregnancy. Human studies linking maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy with offspring cognitive function are limited. We aimed to test the hypothesis that lower maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy is associated with poor offspring cognitive ability in an Indian population. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Cognitive function was assessed in children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort during childhood (age 9-10 years; n=468) and adolescence (age 13-14 years; n=472) using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring learning, long-term retrieval/ storage, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, visuo-spatial ability, and attention and concentration...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427374/prenatal-determinants-of-physical-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-adolescence-northern-finland-birth-cohort-1986-study
#2
Marjaana Tikanmäki, Tuija Tammelin, Marja Vääräsmäki, Marika Sipola-Leppänen, Satu Miettola, Anneli Pouta, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Eero Kajantie
BACKGROUND: Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. METHODS: Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426620/committee-opinion-no-699-adolescent-pregnancy-contraception-and-sexual-activity
#3
(no author information available yet)
In 2015, the birth rate among U.S. adolescents and young adults (aged 15-19 years) reached a historic low at 22.3 per 1,000 women. Despite positive trends, the United States continues to have the highest adolescent pregnancy rate among industrialized countries with data. Racial and ethnic disparities in adolescent pregnancy rates continue to exist, as do state-based differences in pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports access for adolescents to all contraceptive methods approved by the U...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426619/committee-opinion-no-698-hormone-therapy-in-primary-ovarian-insufficiency
#4
(no author information available yet)
Primary ovarian insufficiency describes a spectrum of declining ovarian function and reduced fecundity due to a premature decrease in initial follicle number, an increase in follicle destruction, or poor follicular response to gonadotropins. The sequelae of primary ovarian insufficiency include vasomotor symptoms, urogenital atrophy, osteoporosis and fracture, cardiovascular disease, and increased all-cause mortality. In women with primary ovarian insufficiency, systemic hormone therapy (HT) is an effective approach to treat the symptoms of hypoestrogenism and mitigate long-term health risks if there are no contraindications to treatment...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426615/committee-opinion-no-699-adolescent-pregnancy-contraception-and-sexual-activity
#5
(no author information available yet)
In 2015, the birth rate among U.S. adolescents and young adults (aged 15-19 years) reached a historic low at 22.3 per 1,000 women. Despite positive trends, the United States continues to have the highest adolescent pregnancy rate among industrialized countries with data. Racial and ethnic disparities in adolescent pregnancy rates continue to exist, as do state-based differences in pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports access for adolescents to all contraceptive methods approved by the U...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426614/committee-opinion-no-698-summary-hormone-therapy-in-primary-ovarian-insufficiency
#6
(no author information available yet)
Primary ovarian insufficiency describes a spectrum of declining ovarian function and reduced fecundity due to a premature decrease in initial follicle number, an increase in follicle destruction, or poor follicular response to gonadotropins. The sequelae of primary ovarian insufficiency include vasomotor symptoms, urogenital atrophy, osteoporosis and fracture, cardiovascular disease, and increased all-cause mortality. In women with primary ovarian insufficiency, systemic hormone therapy (HT) is an effective approach to treat the symptoms of hypoestrogenism and mitigate long-term health risks if there are no contraindications to treatment...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416040/effect-of-early-sexual-debut-on-high-school-completion-in-south-africa
#7
A V Bengesai, H T A Khan, R Dube
Early sexual debut is of major concern because it is a correlate for health and economic shocks experienced in adulthood. In South Africa, this concern has provided impetus for research directed at the HIV and AIDS epidemic, teenage pregnancy and the effect of adolescent sexual behaviour on persistence in school. Of interest to the present study is high school completion, which is a well-established empirical barometer of adult socioeconomic opportunities. Using data from the five waves of the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), this paper examines the association between sexual behaviours initiated in pre- and early adolescence and high school completion rates...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414685/association-of-state-mandated-abstinence-only-sexuality-education-with-rates-of-adolescent-hiv-infection-and-teenage-pregnancy
#8
L M Elliot, M M Booth, G Patterson, M Althoff, C K Bush, M A Dery
INTRODUCTION: Abstinence-only sexuality education (AOSE); is required in the public school systems of many states, raising public health concerns and perpetuating health disparities through school systems. This study aimed to determine the correlations between state-mandated AOSE and the rates of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy. METHODS: Using publicly available data on all 50 United States' laws and policies on AOSE, states were ranked according to their level of abstinence emphasis on sexuality education (Level 0 - Level 3);...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408099/the-sexuality-of-young-women-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities-a-neglected-focus-in-the-american-foster-care-system
#9
Michelle S Ballan, Molly Burke Freyer
Youths with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) are overrepresented in the American foster care system and experience heightened rates of pregnancy compared to their nondisabled peers. Yet limited information is known about sexually active or pregnant young women with ID/DD in foster care. Consequently, important healthcare needs of this population are not adequately addressed. This article explores sexuality education and sexual healthcare for female adolescents in foster care with ID/DD and recommends practice guidelines to support and prepare their emergent sexual development...
April 6, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407063/trends-in-the-sexual-behaviour-of-15-year-olds-in-scotland-2002-14
#10
Fergus G Neville, Juliet McEachran, Aixa Aleman-Diaz, Ross Whitehead, Alina Cosma, Dorothy Currie, Candace Currie
Early sexual initiation and inadequate contraceptive use can place adolescents at increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. These behaviours are patterned by gender and may be linked to social inequalities. This paper examines trends in sexual initiation and contraceptive use by gender and family affluence for Scottish adolescents. Cross-sectional data from four nationally representative survey cycles (2002, 2004, 2010, 2014) (n = 8895) (mean age = 15.57) were analysed. Logistic regressions examined the impact of survey year on sexual initiation, condom use and birth control pill (BCP) use at last sex; as well as any changes over time in association between family affluence and the three sexual behaviours...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403340/fertility-rates-and-perinatal-outcomes-of-adolescent-pregnancies-a-retrospective-population-based-study
#11
Maria de Lourdes de Souza, Fiona Ann Lynn, Linda Johnston, Eduardo Cardoso Teixeira Tavares, Odaléa Maria Brüggemann, Lúcio José Botelho
Objective: analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. Results: differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72...
April 6, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399923/making-good-on-a-call-to-expand-method-choice-for-young-people-turning-rhetoric-into-reality-for-addressing-sustainable-development-goal-three
#12
Fariyal Fatma Fikree, Catharine Lane, Callie Simon, Gwyn Hainsworth, Patricia MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Investments in the nearly two billion young people, aged 10-24 years, in the world today are necessary to meet global development commitments, specifically the Sustainable Development Goals and Ending Preventable Child and Maternal Deaths. More than 12 million married and unmarried adolescents (aged 15-19) will give birth in 2016. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the second leading cause of death among 15-19 year-old women and early childbearing can significantly curtail social and economic prospects for young women...
April 11, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398993/prevention-of-hiv-in-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-key-to-an-aids-free-generation
#13
Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Cheryl Baxter, Deborah Birx
The Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive (Global Plan) has ensured that more infants in high-HIV burden countries survive childhood HIV-free. Although equal numbers of boy and girl children have survived to age 10, a gender divergence starts to emerge as they enter adolescence. Up to 3 times as many young women aged 15-24 years in eastern and southern Africa are living with HIV compared with their male peers. Further, more adolescent girls and young women are sick and/or dying from AIDS-related or HIV-related complications during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, underscoring the importance of strengthening HIV treatment and prevention services for this group...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397629/the-impact-of-life-stress-on-adult-depression-and-anxiety-is-dependent-on-gender-and-timing-of-exposure
#14
Carly E Herbison, Karina Allen, Monique Robinson, John Newnham, Craig Pennell
There is debate about the relative importance of timing of stressful events prenatally and over the life course and risk for subsequent depressive/anxious illness. The aim of this study was to examine the relative roles of prenatal stress and postnatal stress trajectories in predicting depression and anxiety in early adulthood in males and females. Exposure to life stress events was examined in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study during pregnancy and ages 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17 years...
April 11, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395560/fertility-preservation-in-women-with-cns-tumors
#15
Alicia Tosoni, Damiano Balestrini, Alba A Brandes
Fertility impairment due to treatments is a major concern for adolescents and young adult patients who survived cancer. Areas covered: Chemotherapy may determine a detrimental effect on ovary function, leading to infertility, and premature ovarian failure. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation is a standard strategy for fertility preservation; other strategies, such as gonadal tissue cryopreservation and the use of gonadotropin - releasing hormone agonist, are still considered experimental. There are few data available regarding the effect of pregnancy on glioma, which indicates tumor progression during pregnancy in 33-45% of patients...
May 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393324/maternal-prenatal-stress-and-other-developmental-risk-factors-for-adolescent-depression-spotlight-on-sex-differences
#16
Seth D Maxwell, Anna M Fineberg, Deborah A Drabick, Shannon K Murphy, Lauren M Ellman
Maternal stress during pregnancy has been linked to premorbid abnormalities associated with depression (e.g., difficult temperament, cognitive deficits) in offspring. However, few studies have looked across developmental periods to examine maternal stress during pregnancy and offspring depression during adolescence and whether these associations differ by sex. The current study used data from 1711 mother-offspring dyads (offspring sex: 49.8% male) in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Maternal narratives collected during pregnancy were qualitatively coded for stress-related themes by independent raters...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392610/growth-trajectories-of-mexican-origin-adolescent-mothers-educational-expectations
#17
Diamond Y Bravo, Russell B Toomey, Adriana J Umaña-Taylor, Kimberly A Updegraff, Laudan B Jahromi
Pregnant and parenting adolescents are at significant risk for educational underachievement. Educational expectations play a critical role for understanding subsequent educational attainment; yet, limited empirical attention has been given to changes in educational expectations across the transition to parenthood among adolescent mothers. This longitudinal study explored stability and change in educational expectations across the transition to parenthood among 191 first-time pregnant Mexican-origin adolescents (Mage = 16...
March 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391967/physicians-talking-about-sex-sexuality-and-protection-with-adolescents
#18
REVIEW
Lindsay Fuzzell, Cleveland G Shields, Stewart C Alexander, J Dennis Fortenberry
Adolescent-physician communication about sexual behaviors, sexuality, and protective behaviors is vital for the support of sexual minorities and the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. The objective of this review is to identify sexual topics that physicians and adolescents discuss during medical encounters and examine the quantity and quality of that communication. We performed a systematic literature review of major databases through May 2016. We identified 33 papers that focused on adolescent-physician communication about three major sexual health topics: coital or noncoital sexual behaviors, sexual orientation or attractions, and sexually protective or preventative behaviors...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388997/barriers-to-health-care-providers-provision-of-long-acting-reversible-contraception-to-adolescent-and-nulliparous-young-women
#19
Brooke Hopkins
Despite recommendations for long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) as a first-line contraceptive method for adolescents and young women, its use in the United States remains low. This integrative review highlights previously unidentified barriers to health care providers' provision of LARC to adolescent and nulliparous young women. Four themes emerged: Appropriateness of Candidates and Contraceptive Safety, Provider Training and Work Setting, Appropriate Resources, and Opportunity. Raising awareness of barriers to LARC use may galvanize providers to find solutions...
April 2017: Nursing for Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380206/adolescent-pregnancy-and-transition-to-adulthood-in-young-users-of-the-sus
#20
Elisabeth Meloni Vieira, Aylene Bousquat, Claudia Renata Dos Santos Barros, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto Alves
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to contextualize adolescent pregnancy from milestones associated with the process of transition from youth to adulthood. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 200 adolescents, users of the Brazilian Unified Health System. The sample size for the estimation of proportions has been calculated assuming a population ratio of 0.50 and 95% confidence level. The dependent variables - planned pregnancy, living with a partner, and having left the parents' house - have been considered as markers of transition from dependence to independence, from youth to adulthood...
March 30, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
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