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Pregnancy in adolescents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813108/consequences-of-gestational-diabetes-to-the-brain-and-behavior-of-the-offspring
#1
Ricardo A L DE Sousa, Yasmin S Torres, Claudia P Figueiredo, Giselle F Passos, Julia R Clarke
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GD) is a form of insulin resistance triggered during the second/third trimesters of pregnancy in previously normoglycemic women. It is currently estimated that 10% of all pregnancies in the United States show this condition. For many years, the transient nature of GD has led researchers and physicians to assume that long-term consequences were absent. However, GD diagnosis leads to a six-fold increase in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) in women and incidence of obesity and T2D is also higher among their infants...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806985/parents-and-teachers-views-on-sexual-health-education-and-screening-for-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-in-school-adolescent-girls-in-kenya-a-qualitative-study
#2
George Wanje, Linnet Masese, Ethel Avuvika, Anisa Baghazal, Grace Omoni, R Scott McClelland
BACKGROUND: To successfully develop and implement school-based sexual health interventions for adolescent girls, such as screening for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, it is important to understand parents' and teachers' attitudes towards sexual health education and acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we approached parents and teachers from three high schools to participate in in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus-group discussions (FGDs)...
August 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802914/forced-but-not-free-choice-nicotine-during-lactation-alters-maternal-behaviour-and-noradrenergic-system-of-pups-impact-on-social-behaviour-of-adolescent-isolated-male-rats
#3
Doriana Chirico, Emilia Romano, Marco Famele, Rosa Draisci, Rosanna Mancinelli, Tiziana Pascucci, Walter Adriani
Adverse effects of nicotine during pregnancy have been greatly studied, while nowadays few works are focused on consequences of maternal tobacco smoking after birth. The present study investigated the behavioural and early neurochemical effects of nicotine treatment during first weeks of post-natal life in rats. We used "free choice" treatment (H2O+NIC dams could drink from two bottles, containing 10mg/L nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt, or water) versus "forced choice" (NIC+NIC mothers could drink from two bottles both containing nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt, range from 0...
August 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800472/phthalate-and-bisphenol-a-exposure-during-in-utero-windows-of-susceptibility-in-relation-to-reproductive-hormones-and-pubertal-development-in-girls
#4
Deborah J Watkins, Brisa N Sánchez, Martha Maria Téllez-Rojo, Joyce M Lee, Adriana Mercado-García, Clara Blank-Goldenberg, Karen E Peterson, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: Over the past several decades, the age of pubertal onset in girls has shifted downward worldwide. As early pubertal onset is associated with increased risky behavior and psychological issues during adolescence and cardiometabolic disease and cancer in adulthood, this is an important public health concern. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critical windows of in utero development may play a role in this trend. Our objective was to investigate trimester-specific phthalate and BPA exposure in relation to pubertal development among girls in the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohort...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799164/preconception-care-for-diabetic-women-for-improving-maternal-and-infant-health
#5
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Philippa Middleton, Caroline A Crowther, Emily Shepherd
BACKGROUND: Infants born to mothers with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of congenital anomalies, perinatal mortality and significant morbidity in the short and long term. Pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes are at greater risk of perinatal morbidity and diabetic complications. The relationship between glycaemic control and health outcomes for both mothers and infants indicates the potential for preconception care for these women to be of benefit...
August 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794095/the-majority-of-irregular-menstrual-cycles-in-adolescence-are-ovulatory-results-of-a-prospective-study
#6
Alexia S Peà A, Dorota A Doherty, Helen C Atkinson, Martha Hickey, Robert J Norman, Roger Hart
PURPOSE: While ovulation is most likely to occur in adolescent girls with regular menstrual cycles, there are limited data on the incidence of ovulation in girls with irregular menstrual cycles in early postmenarcheal years. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of ovulation in healthy postmenarcheal girls with irregular menstrual cycles. METHODS, DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Prospective cohort study over 12 weeks including 40 healthy postmenarcheal girls recruited from the population-based cohort of adolescents from Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study with irregular menstrual cycles defined by either menstrual cycles <21 days or >35 days in duration or cycle length that varied from month to month by >4 days according to menstrual diaries...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782350/rate-of-teenage-pregnancy-in-jordan-and-its-impact-on-maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes
#7
Yousef S Khader, Anwar Batieha, Rana Kareem Al Fursan, Rami Al-Hader, Sa'ad S Hijazi
Objective Research regarding the adverse outcomes of adolescent childbearing has suffered from many limitations such as a small sample size and non-representative samples. This study was conducted to determine the rate of teenage pregnancy among Jordanian adolescents and its associated adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods The study is a part of a comprehensive national study of perinatal mortality that was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in Jordan. All women who gave birth after 20 weeks of gestation in 18 maternity hospitals in Jordan between 2011 and 2012 were invited to participate in the study...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776916/the-association-of-breastfeeding-with-insulin-resistance-at-17%C3%A2-years-prospective-observations-from-hong-kong-s-children-of-1997-birth-cohort
#8
Lai Ling Hui, Man Ki Kwok, E Anthony S Nelson, So Lun Lee, Gabriel M Leung, C Mary Schooling
Breastfeeding has many benefits for mother and infant. Whether breastfeeding also protects against type 2 diabetes is unclear. To clarify the role of breastfeeding in type 2 diabetes, we assessed the association of breastfeeding with insulin resistance in late adolescence in a birth cohort from a non-Western setting where breastfeeding was not associated with higher socio-economic position. We used multivariable linear regression, with multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting, to examine the adjusted associations of contemporaneously reported feeding in the first 3 months of life (exclusively breastfed, mixed feeding, or always formula-fed) with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at 17 years in a subset (n = 710, 8...
August 4, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776843/self-efficacy-about-sexual-risk-protective-behaviors-intervention-impact-trajectories-among-american-indian-youth
#9
Christina M Mitchell, Carol E Kaufman, Nancy Rumbaugh Whitesell, Janette Beals, Ellen M Keane
For adolescents, normative development encompasses learning to negotiate challenges of sexual situations; of special importance are skills to prevent early pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Disparities in sexual risk among American Indian youth point to the importance of intervening to attenuate this risk. This study explored the impact of Circle of Life (COL), an HIV prevention intervention based on social cognitive theory, on trajectories of self-efficacy (refusing sex, avoiding sexual situations) among 635 students from 13 middle schools on one American Indian reservation...
September 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776253/adolescent-health-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-2015-study
#10
Ali H Mokdad
OBJECTIVES: The 22 countries of the East Mediterranean Region (EMR) have large populations of adolescents aged 10-24 years. These adolescents are central to assuring the health, development, and peace of this region. We described their health needs. METHODS: Using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we report the leading causes of mortality and morbidity for adolescents in the EMR from 1990 to 2015. We also report the prevalence of key health risk behaviors and determinants...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771383/the-korea-nurses-health-study-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Oksoo Kim, Younjhin Ahn, Hea-Young Lee, Hee Jung Jang, Sue Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Heeja Jung, Eunyoung Cho, Joong-Yeon Lim, Min-Ju Kim, Walter C Willett, Jorge E Chavarro, Hyun-Young Park
BACKGROUND: The Korea Nurses' Health Study (KNHS) is a prospective cohort study of female nurses, focusing on the effects of occupational, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors on the health of Korean women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female registered nurses aged 20-45 years and living in the Republic of Korea were invited to join the study, which began in July 2013. They were asked to complete a web-based baseline survey. The study protocols and questionnaires related to the KNHS are based on the Nurses' Health Study 3 (NHS3) in the United States, although they were modified to reflect the Korean lifestyle...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770631/go-grrrls-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-gender-specific-intervention-to-reduce-sexual-risk-factors-in-middle-school-females
#12
Craig Winston LeCroy, Jenny McCullough Cosgrove, Katie Cotter, Marie Fordney
PURPOSE: Adolescent females continue to face health consequences associated with risky sexual behaviors such as unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a gender-specific intervention targeted to early adolescent females. METHOD: This study used an intent to treat randomized clinical trial comparing a broad-based female empowerment curriculum with a dose-matched science and technology female leadership curriculum...
August 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766314/sex-differences-in-contraception-non-use-among-urban-adolescents-risk-factors-for-unintended-pregnancy
#13
Allison R Casola, Deborah B Nelson, Freda Patterson
BACKGROUND: Contraception non-use among sexually active adolescents is a major cause of unintended pregnancy (UP). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we sought to identify overall and sex-specific correlates of contraception non-use using the 2015 Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) (N = 9540). Multivariate regression models were used to examine mental health, sexual activity, substance use, and violence indicators on reported contraception non-use among sexually active youth...
September 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759402/access-to-emergency-contraception-after-removal-of-age-restrictions
#14
Tracey A Wilkinson, Porsche Clark, Sally Rafie, Aaron E Carroll, Elizabeth Miller
BACKGROUND: Levonorgestrel emergency contraception (EC) is safe and effective for postcoital pregnancy prevention. Starting in 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration removed age restrictions, enabling EC to be sold over the counter to all consumers. We sought to compare the availability and access for female adolescents with the 2012 study, using the same study design. METHODS: Female mystery callers posing as 17-year-old adolescents in need of EC used standardized scripts to telephone 979 pharmacies in 5 US cities...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758023/strategies-to-improve-the-uptake-of-effective-contraception-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-adolescents
#15
EDITORIAL
Nadia Kancheva Landolt, Jullapong Achalapong, Pope Kosalaraksa, Witaya Petdachai, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Stephen Kerr, Pongrak Boonyanurak, Jintanat Ananworanich, Torsak Bunupuradah
OBJECTIVE: To assess strategies to improve safe-sex practices in sexually active female adolescents living with HIV, through linking reproductive health (RH) care with HIV care. METHODS: A single arm, 48-week prospective study was conducted with 77 sexually active adolescents in five sites in Thailand. Guided RH education was carried out through video, brochures and individual counselling. Participants were offered free effective contraception (EC), in addition to a barrier method (dual contraception) versus barrier method only...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754005/can-early-omega-3-fatty-acid-exposure-reduce-risk-of-childhood-allergic-disease
#16
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
A causal link between increased intake of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and increased incidence of allergic disease has been suggested. This is supported by biologically plausible mechanisms, related to the roles of eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Fish and fish oils are sources of long chain omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs particularly with regard to eicosanoid synthesis. Thus, n-3 PUFAs may protect against allergic sensitisation and allergic manifestations...
July 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752512/medical-treatment-guidelines-for-preventive-treatment-of-migraine
#17
Tzu-Chou Huang, Tzu-Hsien Lai, Treatment Guideline Subcommittee Of Taiwan Headache Society Taiwan Headache Society
The Treatment Guideline Subcommittee of the Taiwan Headache Society evaluated the medications currently used for migraine prevention in Taiwan. We assessed the results of new published drug trials, information from medical database and referred to the latest guidelines published. After comprehensive discussion, we proposed Taiwanese consensus about the preventive treatment for migraine including recommendation levels, strength of evidences, and related prescription information regarding dosage and adverse effects...
March 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750213/maternal-infection-and-stress-during-pregnancy-and-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescent-offspring
#18
Shannon K Murphy, Anna M Fineberg, Seth D Maxwell, Lauren B Alloy, Lauren Zimmermann, Nickilou Y Krigbaum, Barbara A Cohn, Deborah A G Drabick, Lauren M Ellman
Maternal infection during pregnancy has been linked to increased risk of offspring depression. Additionally, maternal stress during pregnancy has been consistently linked with adverse offspring outcomes associated with depression. Relatedly, stress has been associated with increased risk of infection; however no study has investigated stress-infection interactions during pregnancy and risk for offspring depression. Participants were drawn from the Child Health and Development Studies (CHDS), a prospective, longitudinal study that enrolled pregnant women from 1959 to 1966...
July 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750172/transgenerational-modification-of-hippocampus-tnf-%C3%AE-and-s100b-levels-in-the-offspring-of-rats-chronically-exposed-to-morphine-during-adolescence
#19
Jamal Amri, Mehdi Sadegh, Neda Moulaei, Mohammad Reza Palizvan
BACKGROUND: TNF-α and S100B are important signaling factors that are involved in many aberrant conditions of the brain. Chronic morphine exposure causes aberrant modifications in the brain. OBJECTIVES: We examined the consequences of chronic morphine consumption by parents before mating on hippocampus TNF-α and S100B levels in the parents and their offspring. METHODS: A total of 12 adult female and 12 adult male Wistar rats were used as parents...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748585/evolution-of-adolescent-fertility-after-decriminalization-of-abortion-in-montevideo-uruguay
#20
José-Ignacio Antón, Zuleika Ferre, Patricia Triunfo
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect on adolescent fertility in Montevideo of the Uruguayan law on the voluntary termination of pregnancy that was passed in 2012. METHODS: The change in the number of births to teenage mothers between 2010 and 2014 was analyzed, along with their characteristics before and after decriminalization of abortion. RESULTS: Descriptive analysis of abortion before and after decriminalization showed that there was no reduction, during the period analyzed, in adolescent fertility, nor any changes in the distribution of births...
August 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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