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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437060/degenerative-subtalar-joints-complicated-by-medial-plantar-intraneural-cysts-cutting-the-cystic-articular-branch-prevents-recurrence
#1
P Laumonerie, F Lapègue, N Reina, M Tibbo, M Rongières, M Faruch, P Mansat
AIMS: The pathogenesis of intraneural ganglion cysts is controversial. Recent reports in the literature described medial plantar intraneural ganglion cysts (mIGC) with articular branches to subtalar joints. The aim of the current study was to provide further support for the principles underlying the articular theory, and to explain the successes and failures of treatment of mICGs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2006 and 2017, five patients with five mICGs were retrospectively reviewed...
February 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430734/gaba-and-serotonin-expressing-neurons-take-part-in-inhibitory-as-well-as-excitatory-input-pathways-to-the-circadian-clock-of-the-madeira-cockroach-rhyparobia-maderae
#2
Maria Giese, Julia Gestrich, Azar Massah, Jonas Peterle, HongYing Wei, Monika Stengl
In the Madeira cockroach pigment-dispersing factor-immunoreactive (PDF-ir) neurons innervating the circadian clock, the accessory medulla (AME) in the brain's optic lobes, control circadian behavior. Circadian activity rhythms are entrained to daily light-dark cycles only by compound eye photoreceptors terminating in the lamina and medulla. Still, it is unknown which neurons connect the photoreceptors to the clock to allow for light-entrainment. Here, we characterized by multiple-label immunocytochemistry the serotonin (5-HT)-ir anterior fiber fan and GABA-ir pathways connecting the AME- and optic lobe neuropils...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418118/innervation-of-the-long-head-of-the-triceps-brachii-in-humans-a-fresh-look
#3
Michael D Wade, Arthur R McDowell, Janine M Ziermann
The triceps brachii muscle occupies the posterior compartment of the arm in humans and has three heads. The lateral and medial heads originate from the humerus and the long head arises from the infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula. All heads form a common tendon that inserts onto the olecranon and the deep antebrachial fascia on each side of it. Each head receives its own motor branch, which all are thought to originate from the radial nerve. However, several studies reported that the motor branch of the long head of the triceps (LHT) arises from the axillary nerve or the posterior cord...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415312/novel-demonstration-of-the-anterior-femoral-cutaneous-nerves-using-ultrasound
#4
Christopher Pivec, Gerd Bodner, Johannes A Mayer, Peter C Brugger, Istvan Paraszti, Veith Moser, Hannes Traxler, Georg Riegler
PURPOSE: Neuropathy of the intermediate (IFCN) and medial femoral cutaneous nerve (MFCN) is a potential iatrogenic complication of thigh surgery and its diagnosis is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of the visualization and diagnostic assessment of the IFCN and MFCN with high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, HRUS with high-frequency probes (15 - 22MHz) was used to locate the IFCN and the MFCN in 16 fresh cadaveric lower limbs...
February 7, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410358/hypoglossal-nerve-stimulation-in-a-pre-clinical-anesthetized-rabbit-model-relevant-to-osa
#5
Girriso F Benderro, Jenniffer Gamble, Matthew A Schiefer, Jonathan Z Baskin, Yeritza Hernandez, Kingman P Strohl
We tested the functional effects of hypoglossal (CNXII) stimulation in the anesthetized rabbit before and after injections of saline into the tongue base to obstruct the airway. Data (n = 6) show little or no effect of CN XII trunk stimulation; however, medial branch stimulation (20-100 Hz; 50-500 μs pulse width, and incremental increases from 10 μA) reduced upper airway resistance. Medial branch stimulation was less effective in reducing resistance than anterior advancement of the hyoid. Endoscopic viewing (n-3) of the retropalate showed this region as the narrowest and dynamically changed by anterior hyoid displacement, with less evident effects than CNXII stimulation...
February 1, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399751/revisiting-the-relationship-between-the-submandibular-duct-lingual-nerve-and-hypoglossal-nerve
#6
Ceren Günenç Beşer, Burcu Erçakmak, Hasan Barış Ilgaz, Alper Vatansever, Mustafa Fevzi Sargon
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relations between submandibular duct, lingual nerve and hypoglossal nerve for making a reassessment of this area in fresh frozen specimens. Also, the distance between the angle of the mandible and the vertical line drawn from the point where submandibular duct crossed lingual nerve to the base of the mandible was measured to determine a new landmark for neck surgeons. METHODS: 14 fresh frozen head and neck specimens were dissected and evaluated...
February 5, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397266/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-the-ankle-as-a-possible-predictor-of-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-pilot-study
#7
Lana Hirai Gimber, Linda Garland, Elizabeth A Krupinski, Tyson S Chadaz, Michael Schwenk, Bijan Najafi, Mihra S Taljanovic
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is seen in up to 75% of treated cancer patients and can drastically limit their medical management and affect quality of life. Clinical and electrodiagnostic testing for CIPN have many pitfalls. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is being increasingly used in the evaluation of peripheral nerves. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) shows promise in the workup of peripheral nerves. In this prospective pilot study, we investigated a possible relationship between DTI and peripheral neuropathy of the ankle and foot in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy...
January 6, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379870/topoisomerase-ii%C3%AE-selectively-regulates-motor-neuron-identity-and-peripheral-connectivity-through-hox-pbx-dependent-transcriptional-programs
#8
Michaela Edmond, Olivia Hanley, Polyxeni Philippidou
Vital motor functions, such as respiration and locomotion, rely on the ability of spinal motor neurons (MNs) to acquire stereotypical positions in the ventral spinal cord and to project with high precision to their peripheral targets. These key properties of MNs emerge during development through transcriptional programs that dictate their subtype identity and connectivity; however, the molecular mechanisms that establish the transcriptional landscape necessary for MN specification are not fully understood. Here, we show that the enzyme topoisomerase IIβ (Top2β) controls MN migration and connectivity...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367598/cerebral-perfusion-insufficiency-and-relationships-with-cognitive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-multiparametric-neuroimaging-study
#9
Chi-Wei Huang, Shih-Wei Hsu, Ya-Ting Chang, Shu-Hua Huang, Yung-Cheng Huang, Chen-Chang Lee, Wen-Neng Chang, Chun-Chung Lui, Na-Ching Chen, Chiung-Chih Chang
Micro- or macro-circulatory insufficiency has a negative impact in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study used arterial spin-labeled magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) and ethylcysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography (ECD-SPECT) in 50 patients with AD and 30 age-matched controls to investigate how hypoperfusion patterns were associated with gray matter atrophy and clinical data. All participants completed 3DT1-MRI, ECD-SPECT and ASL-MRI examinations. Medial temporal cortex (MTC) volumes were correlated with regional signals showing significantly lower relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in ASL-MRI or perfusion index (PI) in ECD-SPECT...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362697/long-horned-ceratopsidae-from-the-foremost-formation-campanian-of-southern-alberta
#10
Caleb M Brown
The horned Ceratopsidae represent one of the last radiations of dinosaurs, and despite a decade of intense work greatly adding to our understanding of this diversification, their early evolution is still poorly known. Here, two postorbital horncores from the upper Foremost Formation (Campanian) of Alberta are described, and at ∼78.5 Ma represent some of the geologically oldest ceratopsid material. The larger of these specimens is incorporated into a fused supraorbital complex, and preserves a massive, straight, postorbital horncore that is vertical in lateral view, but canted dorsolaterally in rostral view...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362000/determining-direction-of-axonal-flow-in-the-equine-ramus-communicans-by-ultrastructural-examination-of-the-plantar-nerves-2-months-after-transecting-the-ramus
#11
Fakhri Al-Bagdadi, Jim Schumacher, Jessi Carter, Ferenc Tóth, Robert W Henry
The ramus communicans, neural connection between medial and lateral plantar nerves of the horse, was transected to determine the degree to which medial and lateral plantar nerves contribute to the plantar ramus. After 2 months, sections of plantar nerves immediately proximal and distal to the communicating branch were collected and processed for electron microscopy. All examined nerves had undergone Wallerian degeneration and contained regenerating and mature fibers. Layers of the myelin sheath were separated by spaces and vacuoles, indicating demyelination of medial and lateral plantar nerves...
January 24, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356719/transfer-of-a-radial-nerve-branch-to-the-brachialis-nerve-for-restoration-of-elbow-flexion
#12
Kyle J Chepla, Blaine T Bafus
Nerve transfers for brachial plexus reconstruction and the treatment of peripheral nerve injury have demonstrated excellent clinical outcomes and may be superior to nerve grafting. Previously described nerve transfers for restoration of elbow flexion include the Oberlin (ulnar to musculocutaneous) and double fasicular (median to biceps and ulnar to brachialis) transfers. However, these transfers cannot be performed in patients with loss of elbow flexion and concomitant high median and ulnar nerve injury. Other transfers utilizing the thoracodorsal or intercostal nerves have been described; however, this requires sacrifice of the latissimus dorsi muscle or potential nerve donors for a free, functioning gracilis muscle transfer...
January 19, 2018: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354741/identifying-the-superior-and-inferior-gluteal-arteries-during-a-sacrectomy-via-a-posterior-approach
#13
David Christopher Kieser, Pierre Coudert, Derek Thomas Cawley, Elodie Gaignard, Takashi Fujishiro, Kaissar Farah, Louis Boissiere, Ibrahim Obeid, Vincent Pointillart, Jean-Marc Vital, Olivier Gille
Background: Identifying the gluteal vessels during a posterior sacrectomy can be challenging. This study defines anatomical landmarks that can be used to approximate the location of the superior and inferior gluteal arteries (SGA and IGA) during a posterior sacrectomy. Methods: Cadaveric dissection of six fresh adult pelvises to determine the location of the SGA and IGA in relation to the posterior-inferior aspect of the sacroiliac joint (PISIJ), lateral sacral margin and sacrococcygeal joint (SCJ)...
December 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346229/anatomical-variations-of-the-vertebral-artery-in-the-upper-cervical-spine-clinical-relevance-for-procedures-targeting-the-c1-c2-and-c2-c3-joints
#14
Maria Francisca Elgueta, Johanna Ortiz Jimenez, Nina Nan Wang, Almudena Pérez Lara, Jeffrey Chankowsky, Roshanak Charghi, De Q Tran, Roderick J Finlayson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Accidental breach of the vertebral artery (VA) during the performance of cervical pain blocks can result in significant morbidity. Whereas anatomical variations have been described for the foraminal (V2) segment of the VA, those involving its V3 portion (between the C2 transverse process and dura) have not been investigated and may be of importance for procedures targeting the third occipital nerve or the lateral atlantoaxial joint. METHODS: Five hundred computed tomography angiograms of the neck performed in patients older than 50 years for the management of cerebrovascular accident or cervical trauma (between January 2010 and May 2016) were retrospectively and independently reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists...
January 16, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343476/role-of-macrophage-socs3-in-the-pathogenesis-of-aortic-dissection
#15
Satoko Ohno-Urabe, Hiroki Aoki, Michihide Nishihara, Aya Furusho, Saki Hirakata, Norifumi Nishida, Sohei Ito, Makiko Hayashi, Hideo Yasukawa, Tsutomu Imaizumi, Hidetoshi Akashi, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Yoshihiro Fukumoto
BACKGROUND: Aortic dissection (AD) is a life-threatening medical emergency caused by the abrupt destruction of the intimomedial layer of the aortic walls. Given that previous studies have reported the involvement of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in AD pathogenesis, we investigated the role of signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 signaling, a downstream pathway of interleukin-6 in macrophages in pathogenesis of AD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We characterized the pathological and molecular events triggered by aortic stress, which can lead to AD...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337170/virtual-cerebral-aneurysm-clipping-with-real-time-haptic-force-feedback-in-neurosurgical-education
#16
Matthias Gmeiner, Johannes Dirnberger, Wolfgang Fenz, Maria Gollwitzer, Gabriele Wurm, Johannes Trenkler, Andreas Gruber
OBJECTIVE: Realistic, safe and efficient modalities for simulation-based training are highly warranted to enhance the quality of surgical education and should be incorporated in resident training. The aim of this study was to develop a patient-specific virtual cerebral aneurysm-clipping simulator with haptic force-feedback and real-time deformation of the aneurysm and vessels. METHODS: A prototype simulator was developed from 2012-2016. Evaluation of virtual clipping by blood flow simulation was integrated in this software and the prototype was evaluated by 18 neurosurgeons...
January 11, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323728/3d-reconstruction-of-prostate-cancer-architecture-with-serial-immunohistochemical-sections-hallmarks-of-tumour-growth-tumour-compartmentalization-and-implications-for-grading-and-heterogeneity
#17
Yuri Tolkach, Stefan Thomann, Glen Kristiansen
BACKGROUND: Conventional morphology of the prostate cancer (PCA) considers only two-dimensional architecture of the tumour. Our aim was to examine the feasibility of 3D-reconstruction of tumour morphology based on multiple consecutive histological sections and to decipher relevant features of PCA architecture. METHODS: Seventy-five consecutive histological sections (5μm) of a typical prostate adenocarcinoma (Gleason-Score 3+4=7) were immunostained (Pan-Cytokeratin) and scanned for further 3D reconstructions with Fiji / ImageJ software...
January 11, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317696/unraveling-individual-differences-in-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat-therapeutic-efficacy-of-methylphenidate
#18
Kristen A McLaurin, Hailong Li, Rosemarie M Booze, Amanda J Fairchild, Charles F Mactutus
Despite the heterogeneity of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), assignment of categorical diagnoses based on the level of impairment (e.g., Frascati criteria) obfuscates the well-acknowledged variability observed within the population of HIV-1+ individuals. The present study sought to elucidate the natural heterogeneity in adult HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats using three interrelated aims. First, heterogeneity of the HIV-1 transgene was examined using a pretest-posttest design to assess therapeutic efficacy of oral self-administration (OSA) of methylphenidate (MPH; 2...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302495/modified-transoral-endoscopic-thyroid-surgery-for-treatment-of-thyroid-cancer-operative-steps-and-video
#19
Xiao-Wei Peng, Hui Li, Zan Li, Xiao Zhou, Da-Jiang Song, Bo Zhou, Chun-Liu Lv, Wen Peng
In this video we describe a kind of modified transoral endoscopic thyroid surgery involving meticulous dissection of mental nerve. Inclusion criteria are: the diameter of benign tumors such as thyroid cyst, nodular goiter were limited less than 50 mm; the malignant thyroid tumors including follicular and papillary microcarcinoma were defined as a papillary carcinoma <2 cm in diameter and endoscopic surgery required for the patient. A 6 cm arc-shaped incision was designed at oral vestibule. The branches of mental nerves at both sides were identified and exposed carefully...
December 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290554/a-non-canonical-reticular-limbic-central-auditory-pathway-via-medial-septum-contributes-to-fear-conditioning
#20
Guang-Wei Zhang, Wen-Jian Sun, Brian Zingg, Li Shen, Jufang He, Ying Xiong, Huizhong W Tao, Li I Zhang
In the mammalian brain, auditory information is known to be processed along a central ascending pathway leading to auditory cortex (AC). Whether there exist any major pathways beyond this canonical auditory neuraxis remains unclear. In awake mice, we found that auditory responses in entorhinal cortex (EC) cannot be explained by a previously proposed relay from AC based on response properties. By combining anatomical tracing and optogenetic/pharmacological manipulations, we discovered that EC received auditory input primarily from the medial septum (MS), rather than AC...
December 21, 2017: Neuron
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