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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106694/the-endoscopic-prelacrimal-recess-approach-to-the-pterygopalatine-fossa-and-infratemporal-fossa
#1
Li Gao, Lei Zhou, Zhengshou Dai, Xinsheng Huang
PURPOSE: The authors studied the anatomic importance of the endoscopic prelacrimal recess approach (PLRA) to the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) and infratemporal fossa (ITF). METHODS: Ten adult heads (20 sides) from cadavers fixed in formalin were dissected using the PLRA. Anatomic dissections were detailed and several crucial landmarks measured. RESULTS: Identification of the infraorbital neurovascular bundle is the crucial step for the detection of other branches of the maxillary artery...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106660/different-branching-patterns-of-the-spinal-accessory-nerve-impact-on-neck-dissection-technique-and-postoperative-shoulder-function
#2
Boštjan Lanišnik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite nerve-sparing surgery, postoperative shoulder morbidity remains high and significantly impacts patient's quality of life. This review will focus on recent findings of anatomical nuances of the cranial nerve XI (CN XI) along its course in the neck and possible reasons for postoperative morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent studies identified three different branching patterns of the CN XI in the neck. In type 1 (66%), the branch for trapezius muscle exits at the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (mSCM)...
January 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094663/high-pressure-low-flow-remodeling-of-the-rat-saphenous-vein-wall
#3
Judit R Hetthéssy, Anna-Mária Tőkés, Sándor Kérész, Petra Balla, Gabriella Dörnyei, Emil Monos, György L Nádasy
Objective To better understand factors that may play a role in the development of varicosities. Methods We induced combined flow-pressure disturbance in the saphenous system of the rat by performing chronic partial clipping of the main branch. Biomechanical and quantitative histological testing was undertaken. Results A rich microvenous network developed. Bloodflow decreased to 0.65 ± 0.18 µl/s (control side, 3.5 ± 1.4 µl/s) and pressure elevated to 6.8 ± 0.7 mmHg (control side, 2.3 ± 0...
January 1, 2017: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033685/clinical-anatomy-and-surgical-significance-of-the-lingual-foramina-and-their-canals
#4
REVIEW
Puhan He, Mindy K Truong, Nimer Adeeb, R Shane Tubbs, Joe Iwanaga
The lingual foramina and canals can be categorized as medial or lateral based on their relation to the midline of the mandible. Investigation of the mandibular lingual region is often done with gross anatomical dissections of cadavers, 2D panoramic radiographic imaging, CT and cone beam CT (CBCT). While gross studies are the most reliable at qualifying canal contents and course, CBCT proved to be superior to other radiographic techniques for visualizing lingual foramina and canals. The submental and sublingual arteries, and their branches are found in the lingual vascular canals...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033192/variations-of-cords-of-brachial-plexus-and-branching-pattern-of-nerves-emanating-from-them
#5
Rajani Singh
Brachial plexus is complex network of nerves, formed by joining and splitting of ventral rami of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1 forming trunks, divisions, and cords. The nerves emerging from trunks and cords innervate the upper limb and to some extent pectoral region. Scanty literature describes the variations in the formation of cords and nerves emanating from them. Moreover, the variations of cords of brachial plexus and nerves emanating from them have iatrogenic implications in the upper limb and pectoral region...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032166/periorbital-and-intraorbital-studies-of-the-terminal-branches-of-the-ophthalmic-artery-for-periorbital-and-glabellar-filler-placements
#6
Tanvaa Tansatit, Prawit Apinuntrum, Thavorn Phetudom
BACKGROUND: Filler injections for sunken upper eyelid correction and glabellar augmentation at the orbitoglabellar region need to be performed correctly. Precise knowledge of the emerging sites of all terminal branches of the ophthalmic artery is essential for these procedures to be conducted safely. METHODS: The terminal branches of the ophthalmic artery were studied in both periorbital and intraorbital dissections. The aim of this study was to verify the critical positions of the emerging sites at the orbital septum that may act as potential retrograde channels for filler emboli...
December 28, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032160/cadaveric-assessment-of-lip-injections-locating-the-serious-threats
#7
Tanvaa Tansatit, Prawit Apinuntrum, Thavorn Phetudom
BACKGROUND: Lip augmentation could be a possible cause of blindness following filler injections. This study evaluated the risk by simulating clinical scenarios of marginal injections to the upper and lower lips and then evaluated the risk of vascular injuries. METHODS: A 22G cannula was inserted bilaterally along the wet-dry junction of the upper and lower lip margins in fifteen cadavers, and then both lips were dissected to verify possible injuries to the superior and inferior labial arteries...
December 28, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029686/comparison-of-four-different-nerve-conduction-techniques-of-the-superficial-fibular-sensory-nerve
#8
Mathew R Saffarian, Nathan C Condie, Erica A Austin, Katie E McCausland, Michael T Andary, James R Sylvain, Iian R Mull, Eric D Zemper, Mary L Jannausch
INTRODUCTION: There are many different nerve conduction study (NCS) techniques to study the superficial fibular sensory nerve (SFSN). OBJECTIVES: We present reference distal latency values and comparative data regarding 4 different NCS for the SFSN. METHODS: Four different NCS techniques, Spartan technique (ST), Izzo techniques-medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches- (IMT and IIT), and Daube technique, were performed on (114) healthy volunteers...
December 28, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027174/anatomy-of-the-platysma-muscle
#9
Kun Hwang, Ji Yeon Kim, Jae Hyun Lim
The aim of this paper was to review the anatomy the platysma systematically.The term "platysma AND anatomy" was used to search PubMed and Scopus, producing 394 and 214 papers, respectively. After excluding 95 duplicate titles, 513 abstracts and 98 full papers were reviewed. Among these 98 papers, 83 were excluded and 5 were added. Ultimately, 20 papers were analyzed.The most common aging-related change of the platysma was shortening (70.7%), followed by thinning (25.2%). The platysma most commonly originated from the upper portion of thorax anterior to clavicle (67...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025352/chronic-whiplash-associated-disorders-wad-responses-to-nerve-blocks-of-cervical-zygapophyseal-joints
#10
Mats Persson, Jan Sörensen, Björn Gerdle
OBJECTIVE: This study explores the prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD). DESIGN: Forty-seven patients with chronic WAD were scheduled for medial branch blocks of the cervical spine. METHODS: The patient's localization of the pain together with established pain maps guided to the first level of zygapophyseal joint to be tested. The joint was anesthetized by injecting bupivacaine (0.5 ml; 5 mg/ml) to the medial branches of the cervical dorsal rami above and below the joint...
December 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005653/anatomy-of-the-corrugator-muscle
#11
Kun Hwang, Jung Hun Lee, Hee Joong Lim
The aim of this article is to systematically review the anatomy and action of the corrugator muscle. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the terms "corrugator" AND "anatomy." Among the 60 full texts from the 145 relevant abstracts, 34 articles without sufficient content were excluded and 4 articles drawn from the reference lists were added. Among the 30 articles analyzed (721 hemifaces), 28% classified by oblique head and transverse head, and 72% did not. Corrugator originated mostly from the medial supraorbital rim (45%), followed by the medial frontal bone (31%), the medial infraorbital rim (17%), and the upper nasal process (7%)...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998291/skeleton-based-cerebrovascular-quantitative-analysis
#12
Xingce Wang, Enhui Liu, Zhongke Wu, Feifei Zhai, Yi-Cheng Zhu, Wuyang Shui, Mingquan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease is the most common cause of death worldwide, with millions of deaths annually. Interest is increasing toward understanding the geometric factors that influence cerebrovascular diseases, such as stroke. Cerebrovascular shape analyses are essential for the diagnosis and pathological identification of these conditions. The current study aimed to provide a stable and consistent methodology for quantitative Circle of Willis (CoW) analysis and to identify geometric changes in this structure...
December 20, 2016: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989972/frontal-lobe-decortication-frontal-lobectomy-with-ventricular-preservation-in-epilepsy-part-1-anatomical-landmarks-and-surgical-technique
#13
Hung Tzu Wen, Leila Maria Da Róz, Albert L Rhoton, Luiz Henrique Martins Castro, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
BACKGROUND: An extensive frontal resection is a frequently performed neurosurgical procedure, especially for treating brain tumor and refractory epilepsy. However, there is paucity of reports available regarding its surgical anatomy and technique. OBJECTIVES: To present the anatomical landmarks and surgical technique of the frontal lobe decortication (FLD) in epilepsy. The goals are to maximize the gray matter removal, spare primary and supplementary motor areas, and preserving frontal horn...
October 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960179/angioplasty-and-stenting
#14
Thomas W Leung, Ashley M Wabnitz, Zhongrong Miao, Marc I Chimowitz
The high rate of recurrent strokes in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAS) despite medical therapy prompted intracranial angioplasty and/or stenting an adjunctive treatment option. The minute calibers of cerebral arteries, the relative paucity of supporting medial and adventitia layers, the presence of end-anastomosing perforator branches, and the vascular tortuosity from groin to head all demand specialized operative skills and dedicated tools. Since the stroke mechanism of ICAS is diverse, patient selection for endovascular treatment requires a sound understanding of the underlying pathophysiology...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958312/cerebral-infarction-pattern-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#15
Mei-Ling Sharon Tai, Shanthi Viswanathan, Kartini Rahmat, Hazman Mohd Nor, Khairul Azmi Abdul Kadir, Khean Jin Goh, Norlisah Ramli, Fatimah Kamila Abu Bakar, Norzaini Rose Mohd Zain, Jun Fai Yap, Beng Hooi Ong, Mohd Hanip Rafia, Chong Tin Tan
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) causes significant morbidity and mortality. The primary objective was to re-examine the concept of "TB zone" and "ischaemic zone" in cerebral infarction in patients with tuberculous meningitis. The secondary objective was to evaluate cerebral infarction, vasculitis and vasospasm in tuberculous meningitis infections. Between 2009 and 2014, TBM patients were recruited. Neuroimaging was performed and findings of cerebral infarction, vasculitis and vasospasm were recorded. Infarcts were classified based on arterial supply and Hsieh's classification...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956200/anatomic-relationships-of-the-pelvic-autonomic-nervous-system-in-female-cadavers-clinical-applications-to-pelvic%C3%A2-surgery
#16
Christopher M Ripperda, Lindsey A Jackson, John N Phelan, Kelley S Carrick, Marlene M Corton
BACKGROUND: The integrity of the pelvic autonomic nervous system is essential for proper bowel, bladder, and sexual function. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the anatomic path of the pelvic autonomic system and to examine relationships to clinically useful landmarks. STUDY DESIGN: Detailed dissections were performed in 17 female cadavers. Relationships of the superior hypogastric plexus to aortic bifurcation and midpoint of sacral promontory were examined; the length and width of plexus was documented...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939323/anatomical-and-ultrasonic-study-based-on-selective-tibial-neurotomy
#17
Sheng Zhong, Guihong Li, Liu Yang, Qi Yan, Yufa Wang, Gang Zhao, Youqiong Li
BACKGROUND: Selective tibial neurotomy (STN) was considered as an effective procedure for the treatment of spastic feet. It's also widely used for treating obese calves in some Asian countries currently. This study aimed to provide morphological measurement data and theoretical support for the operation and intraoperative localization. METHODS: Fifty lower legs from 20 embalmed cadavers and five fresh corpses were dissected to observe and record the relationship of four branches given off from the tibial nerve, as well as the length, width and thickness of the triceps surae...
December 8, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932309/binge-alcohol-alters-exercise-driven-neuroplasticity
#18
Emily A Barton, Yanbin Lu, Murad Megjhani, Mark E Maynard, Prathamesh M Kulkarni, Badrinath Roysam, J Leigh Leasure
Exercise is increasingly being used as a treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD), but the interactive effects of alcohol and exercise on the brain remain largely unexplored. Alcohol damages the brain, in part by altering glial functioning. In contrast, exercise promotes glial health and plasticity. In the present study, we investigated whether binge alcohol would attenuate the effects of subsequent exercise on glia. We focused on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an alcohol-vulnerable region that also undergoes neuroplastic changes in response to exercise...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921449/reduction-mammaplasty-with-the-modified-round-block-technique-in-chinese-patients-and-its-anatomy-study
#19
Wei Ding, Yinjia Ding, Hua Jiang
BACKGROUND: Although reduction mammaplasty is one of the most common procedures in plastic surgery, it is associated with some serious complications, especially in cases of severe hypertrophy or advanced ptosis, including necrosis of the nipple and areola, absence of normal sensation of the nipple-areolar complex, and loss of lactational function for future nursing. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is vital for successful reduction mammaplasty. This article describes the blood supply and innervation of the breasts, and introduces a modified round block technique for reduction mammaplasty based on this anatomy...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900340/retropatellar-accessory-portals-for-improved-access-to-the-patella-anatomic-description-and-evaluation-of-safety
#20
Jason L Koh, Anthony L Logli
BACKGROUND: Standard knee arthroscopy portals are frequently used to address retropatellar chondral pathology. Alternative portals may offer a safe and simple substitute, particularly when reaching the base of deep lesions is required. PURPOSE: To describe and assess the safety of accessory retropatellar portals. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: An anatomic study was performed on 10 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees...
November 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
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