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age effect

Michelle L Beck, Molly Thompson, William A Hopkins
Research on reptile ecoimmunology lags behind that on other vertebrates, despite the importance of such studies for conservation and evolution. Because the innate immune system is highly conserved across vertebrate lineages, assessments of its performance may be particularly useful in reptiles. The bacteria-killing assay requires a single, small blood sample and quantifies an individual's ability to kill microorganisms. The assay's construct validity and interpretability make it an attractive measure of innate immunity, but it requires proper optimization and sample storage...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Bodil Ivarsson, Roger Hesselstrand, Göran Rådegran, Barbro Kjellström
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are rare diseases with a gradual decline in physical health. Adherence to treatment is crucial in these very symptomatic and life threatening diseases. OBJECTIVE: To describe PAH and CTEPH patients experience of their self-reported medication adherence, beliefs about medicines and information about treatment. METHODS: A quantitative, descriptive, national cohort survey that included adult patients from all PAH-centres in Sweden...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Anna Gunn, Janet McLeod, Rebecca Chapman, Hayley Ball, Mark Fitzgerald, Teresa Howard, Peter Cameron, Biswadev Mitra
OBJECTIVE: The Prevent Alcohol and Risk-Related Trauma in Youth (P.A.R.T.Y.) Program at The Alfred uses vivid clinical reality to build resilience and prevent injury by following a trauma patient's journey through hospital. The present study aims to analyse the effect of P.A.R.T.Y. on safety perceptions of driving after alcohol, seat belt use and risk-taking activities. METHODS: Pre-programme, immediately post-programme and 3-5 months post-programme surveys with questions focused on the programme aims were distributed to all consented participants...
January 21, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Yong K Kwon, Nathaly Llore, Stuart S Kaufman, Cal S Matsumoto, Thomas M Fishbein, Raffaele Girlanda
Intestinal transplantation in children has evolved with more isolated small intestine transplants being performed compared to combined liver-intestine transplants. Consequently, surgical techniques have changed, frequently requiring the use of vascular homografts of small caliber to revascularize the isolated small intestine, the impact of which on outcomes is unknown. Among 106 pediatric intestine and multivisceral transplants performed at our center since 2003, 33 recipients of an isolated small intestine graft were included in this study...
January 22, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Maria Marcu, Mihaela Hedesiu, Benjamin Salmon, Ruben Pauwels, Andreas Stratis, Anne Caroline Costa Oenning, Mike E Cohen, Reinhilde Jacobs, Mihaela Baciut, Raluca Roman, Cristian Dinu, Horatiu Rotaru, Ioan Barbur
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of CBCT units and a wide variability of radiation doses have been reported in dentistry lately. AIM: To estimate the effective, cumulative, and organ absorbed doses in children exposed to CBCT over 2 years. DESIGN: A prospective study was conducted in children who underwent CBCT diagnostic imaging with the ProMax3D machine. Organ and effective doses were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation using 5- and 8-year-old pediatric voxel phantoms...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
Pamela Rueda-Cediel, Kurt E Anderson, Tracey J Regan, Helen M Regan
The IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria is a quantitative framework for classifying species according to extinction risk. Population models may be used to estimate extinction risk or population declines. Uncertainty and variability arise in threat classifications through measurement and process error in empirical data and uncertainty in the models used to estimate extinction risk and population declines. Furthermore, species traits are known to affect extinction risk. We investigated the effects of measurement and process error, model type, population growth rate, and age at first reproduction on the reliability of risk classifications based on projected population declines on IUCN Red List classifications...
January 22, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Kemal Tekin, Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu, Hasan Kiziltoprak, Sibel Doguizi, Merve Inanc, Pelin Yilmazbas
BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine normative static and dynamic pupillometry data in different age groups in a healthy population, and to investigate the effects of age on pupillometric characteristics. METHODS: Pupillometry measurements were undertaken on 155 healthy participants using an automatic quantitative pupillometry system. Static pupillometry measurements were undertaken; these included scotopic pupil diameter (PD), mesopic PD, low photopic PD and high photopic PD values...
January 21, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Emilija Wilson, Jennifer Zeitlin, Aurélie Piedvache, Bjoern Misselwitz, Kyllike Christensson, Rolf F Maier, Mikael Norman, Anna-Karin Edstedt Bonamy
AIM: This study investigated the different strategies used in 11 European countries to prevent hypothermia, which continues to affect a large proportion of preterm births in the region. METHODS: We examined the association between the reported use of hypothermia prevention strategies in delivery rooms and body temperatures on admission to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in 5,861 infants born at 22+0 - 31+6 weeks of gestation. The use of plastic bags, wraps, caps, exothermic heat and mattresses was investigated...
January 21, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
J L Rapson, H C Schott, B D Nielsen, L J McCutcheon, P A Harris, R J Geor
BACKGROUND: Age and diet may affect insulin sensitivity (SI) but these factors have received limited investigation in horses. OBJECTIVES: To measure minimal model parameters during an insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) after adaptation to a forage only diet (HAY) or forage supplemented with either starch/sugar rich (SS) or oil/fibre rich (FF) concentrate feeds; and to assess glucose and insulin responses to a standardised meal challenge (SMC, 4 g/kg BW of SS) after diet adaptation in adult and aged mares...
January 21, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Tina Y Gao, Nicola Anstice, Raiju J Babu, Joanna M Black, William R Bobier, Shuan Dai, Cindy X Guo, Robert F Hess, Michelle Jenkins, Yannan Jiang, Lisa Kearns, Lionel Kowal, Carly S Y Lam, Peter C K Pang, Varsha Parag, Jayshree South, Sandra Elfride Staffieri, Angela Wadham, Natalie Walker, Benjamin Thompson
PURPOSE: Optical treatment alone can improve visual acuity (VA) in children with amblyopia, thus clinical trials investigating additional amblyopia therapies (such as patching or videogames) for children require a preceding optical treatment phase. Emerging therapies for adult patients are entering clinical trials. It is unknown whether optical treatment is effective for adults with amblyopia and whether an optical correction phase is required for trials involving adults. METHODS: We examined participants who underwent optical treatment in the Binocular Treatment for Amblyopia using Videogames (BRAVO) clinical trial (ANZCTR ID: ACTRN12613001004752)...
January 22, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
George Bazoukis, Konstantinos P Letsas, Gary Tse, Katerina K Naka, Panagiotis Korantzopoulos, Evangelia Ntzani, Konstantinos Vlachos, Athanasios Saplaouras, Eirini Pagkalidou, Lampros K Michalis, Antonios Sideris, Michael Efremidis
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is increasingly used in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term results of a single radiofrequency catheter ablation procedure in heart failure (HF) patients with AF. HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that left atrial ablation is an effective therapeutic modality in patients with heart failure. METHODS: Our study included HF patients with LVEF <50% who underwent catheter ablation for AF at our department between January 2010 and March 2017...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Sean Skwerer
PURPOSE: Many biological objects, including neuronal dendrites, blood vasculature, airways, phylogenetic trees produce tree structured data. Current methods of analysis either ignore the complex structure of trees or use distance based methods which limit the scope of multivariate modelling. METHODS: We propose a branching process model which enables analysis of both the branching structure and associated properties. Our novel parametrization preserves an important aspect of tree structure, namely its branch order...
January 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Mercedes Cabellos Olivares, María Labalde Martínez, Miguel Torralba, José R Rodríguez Fraile, Juan C Atance Martínez
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Protocol (ERAS) in relation to reduce the Systemic Inflammatory Response (SIR) to surgery using C-reactive protein (CRP) in the first (POD1), second (POD2) and third (POD3) postoperative day. METHODS: We enrolled 121 patients (ERAS group) that underwent elective colorectal surgery with ERAS, and compared them with 135 patients (preERAS group) that had undergone surgery prior to the implementation...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Dawn C Buse, Scott W Powers, Amy A Gelfand, Juliana H VanderPluym, Kristina M Fanning, Michael L Reed, Aubrey Manack Adams, Richard B Lipton
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of parental migraine on adolescents (aged 13-21 years) living within the parental home from the adolescent's perspective. BACKGROUND: Family members are affected by their parent's migraine. We surveyed adolescents on the social, academic, and emotional effects of their parent's migraine. METHODS: The Chronic Migraine Epidemiology and Outcomes (CaMEO) study was a longitudinal Web-based study with cross-sectional modules designed to assess migraine symptoms, severity, frequency, and disability; migraine-related consulting practices, healthcare utilization, medication use, comorbid health conditions, and family related burden associated with migraine...
January 22, 2018: Headache
Yusuf Dundar, Richard B Cannon, Jason P Hunt, Marcus Monroe, Gita Suneja, Ying J Hitchcock
BACKGROUND: To assess the effectiveness and outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy regimens for nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC) of the head and neck, particularly for elderly patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with head and neck NMSC was conducted. Radiotherapy dose per fraction regimens included ≤200, 240-250, 300-400, and 500-600 cGy. Demographics, tumor characteristics, local control (LC), regional control (RC), and survival outcomes were analyzed...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Michael D Jenkinson, Damiano Giuseppe Barone, Andrew Bryant, Luke Vale, Helen Bulbeck, Theresa A Lawrie, Michael G Hart, Colin Watts
BACKGROUND: Extent of resection is considered to be a prognostic factor in neuro-oncology. Intraoperative imaging technologies are designed to help achieve this goal. It is not clear whether any of these sometimes very expensive tools (or their combination) should be recommended as standard care for people with brain tumours. We set out to determine if intraoperative imaging technology offers any advantage in terms of extent of resection over standard surgery and if any one technology was more effective than another...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Nandi Siegfried, Dickens H Akena, Dan J Stein, Ekwaro A Obuku, John A Joska
BACKGROUND: Rates of major depression among people living with HIV (PLWH) are substantially higher than those seen in the general population and this may adversely affect antiretroviral treatment outcomes. Several unique clinical and psychosocial factors may contribute to the development and persistence of depression in PLWH. Given these influences, it is unclear if antidepressant therapy is as effective for PLWH as the general population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of antidepressant therapy for treatment of depression in PLWH...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lilah M Besser, Daniel A Rodriguez, Noreen McDonald, Walter A Kukull, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Stephen R Rapp, Teresa Seeman
Preliminary studies suggest that neighborhood social and built environment (BE) characteristics may affect cognition in older adults. Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the neighborhood environment due to a decreasing range of routine travel with increasing age. We examined if multiple neighborhood BE characteristics are cross-sectionally associated with cognition in a diverse sample of older adults, and if the BE-cognition associations vary by individual-level demographics. The sample included 4539 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis...
January 9, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Mujun Sun, Stuart J McDonald, Rhys D Brady, Terence J O'Brien, Sandy R Shultz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and typically involves a robust immune response. Although a great deal of preclinical research has been conducted to identify an effective treatment, all phase III clinical trials have been unsuccessful to date. These translational shortcomings are in part due to a failure to recognize and account for the heterogeneity of TBI, including how extracranial factors can influence the aftermath of TBI. For example, most preclinical studies have utilized isolated TBI models in young adult males, while clinical trials typically involve highly heterogeneous patient populations (e...
January 17, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Melinda Pénzes, Kristie L Foley, Valentin Nădășan, Edit Paulik, Zoltán Ábrám, Róbert Urbán
PURPOSE: With an increasingly diverse tobacco product market, it is imperative to understand the trajectories of product experimentation in order to design effective prevention programs. This study aims to explore the bidirectional associations of conventional cigarette, e-cigarette and waterpipe experimentation in a large adolescent sample. METHODS: Longitudinal assessment of conventional cigarette, e-cigarette and waterpipe use initiation was conducted in a school-based cohort of 1369 9th graders (mean age=14...
January 11, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
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