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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938794/association-between-plant-based-diets-and-plasma-lipids-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Yoko Yokoyama, Susan M Levin, Neal D Barnard
Context: Although a recent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed that adoption of a vegetarian diet reduces plasma lipids, the association between vegetarian diets and long-term effects on plasma lipids has not been subjected to meta-analysis. Objective: The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and clinical trials that have examined associations between plant-based diets and plasma lipids. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for articles published in English until June 2015...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938793/effects-of-protein-or-amino-acid-supplementation-on-the-physical-growth-of-young-children-in-low-income-countries
#2
Joanne E Arsenault, Kenneth H Brown
Child growth stunting is common in low-income countries, possibly due to insufficient protein intakes. Most previous studies have concluded that children's protein intakes are adequate in relation to estimated requirements, but these studies did not consider issues of protein digestibility and effects of infection on dietary protein utilization. Using an alternative approach to assess the possible role of protein inadequacy in children's growth restriction, the results of 18 intervention trials in which supplementary protein or amino acids were provided to children ages 6-35 months and growth outcomes were reviewed...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938791/effects-of-a-high-dose-of-microbial-phytase-and-myo-inositol-supplementation-on-growth-performance-tibia-mineralization-nutrient-digestibility-litter-moisture-content-and-foot-problems-in-broiler-chickens-fed-phosphorus-deficient-diets
#3
D Farhadi, A Karimi, Gh Sadeghi, J Rostamzadeh, M R Bedford
A total of 660 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into eleven dietary treatments. Treatments included a maize-soybean meal-based diet with recommended calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) (positive control; PC), an nPP-deficient diet (negative control; NC), NC diets supplemented with different levels of phytase (0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 5,000, and 6,000 FTU/kg), a NC diet plus 0.15% myo-inositol, and a NC diet with reduced Ca level (Ca to nPP ratio same as PC)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938789/impacts-of-dietary-calcium-phytate-and-phytase-on-inositol-hexakisphosphate-degradation-and-inositol-phosphate-release-in-different-segments-of-digestive-tract-of-broilers
#4
W Li, R Angel, S-W Kim, K Brady, S Yu, P W Plumstead
A total of 720 straight-run Heritage 56 M × fast feathering Cobb 500F broiler chickens was fed from 11 to 13 d of age to determine the impacts of dietary calcium (Ca), phytate phosphorus (PP), and phytase concentrations on inositol phosphate (IP3-6) profile in different digestive tract (GI) segments. The experiment was a 2 × 2 × 3 randomized block design with 2 Ca (0.7 and 1.0%) and 2 PP (0.23 and 0.34%) concentrations and 3 doses of Buttiauxella sp. phytase (0, 500, and 1,000 FTU/kg). The experiment was replicated in time (block) with 3 replicates per treatment (Trt) of 10 birds per block...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938782/perch-use-by-broiler-breeders-and-its-implication-on-health-and-production
#5
S G Gebhardt-Henrich, M J Toscano, H Würbel
Broiler breeders are commonly kept without perches, although perching has been shown to be a high-priority behavior in laying hens. We studied whether broiler breeders used elevated perches of different lengths during the night and how access to perches affected health and production. Using the Ross 308 hybrid, pens offering 4 different perch spaces per bird (5, 10, 14, and 20 cm) in a cross-over design were compared with pens without perches. The number of birds on perches at midnight were recorded 7 times during production...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938780/effects-of-dietary-threonine-supplementation-on-intestinal-barrier-function-and-gut-microbiota-of-laying-hens
#6
X Y Dong, M M M Azzam, X T Zou
The effects of supplemental dietary threonine (Thr) on laying performance, expression of intestinal mucin 2 (MUC2) and secretory IgA (sIgA), and intestinal microbiota of laying hens fed a low CP diet were investigated. A total of 240 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 28 wk of age, was allocated to 3 dietary treatments, each of which included 5 replicates of 16 hens. Hens were fed a control diet (16% CP), a low CP diet (14% CP), or a low CP diet supplemented with 0.3% L-Thr for 12 weeks. Chemical analyses of the diets for Thr are 0...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938775/effects-of-different-types-of-dark-brooders-on-injurious-pecking-damage-and-production-related-traits-at-rear-and-lay-in-layers
#7
A B Riber, D A Guzman
Injurious pecking (IP) remains one of the major welfare challenges in housing of laying hens worldwide due to the negative consequences it inflicts on animal welfare and economy. One potential solution to reduce IP is the use of dark brooders as the primary heat source during rearing. The objective was to investigate effects of rearing layer chicks with different management strategies and size allowances of dark brooders on IP and production-related traits during rear and lay. Groups of 100 to 103 Isa Warren chicks were reared either with one of 4 brooder types (n = 4 per treatment) or with whole-house heating (control: n = 6)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938774/evaluation-of-encapsulated-sodium-butyrate-on-growth-performance-energy-digestibility-gut-development-and-salmonella-colonization-in-broilers
#8
J D Liu, H O Bayir, D E Cosby, N A Cox, S M Williams, J Fowler
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of an encapsulated sodium butyrate (Na-B) with targeted releasing times on broiler performance, energy digestibility, intestinal morphology, and ceca Salmonella colonization. In experiment 1, 3 different Na-B products (CMA, CMP, and CMS) were evaluated following a challenge with a nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhimurium (STNAR). Cobb-Cobb male birds were placed 8 per pen into 6 replicates for each treatment. Treatments included 6 Na-B treatments (500 and 1,000 ppm of each product) plus 2 control (non-challenged and challenged)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938771/comparative-estimation-of-inevitable-endogenous-ileal-flow-of-amino-acids-in-pekin-ducks-under-varying-dietary-or-physiological-conditions-and-their-significance-to-nutritional-requirements-for-amino-acids
#9
D O Akinde
In 2 experiments in Pekin ducks the inevitable endogenous ileal flow (IEIF) of AA was estimated at changing intake and source of crude fiber (CF) or soybean oil (SO) level. Also the roles of dry matter intake (DMI) and BW or age as well as the proportion of IEIF in the dietary requirement for AA were studied. In experiment 1 three basal CP (20, 60, or 100 g/kg) diets were formulated containing a low CF (LCF, 30 g/kg) or high (HCF, 80 g/kg) level; achieved with cellulose supplementation. All diets were similar in every other respect including having SO content of 40 g/kg...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938766/dietary-effects-of-bacillus-subtilis-fmbj-on-the-antioxidant-capacity-of-broilers-at-an-early-age
#10
Lili Zhang, Kaiwen Bai, Jingfei Zhang, Wen Xu, Qiang Huang, Tian Wang
This study was designed to evaluate the usage of Bacillus subtilis fmbj (BS fmbj) in broiler diets, and its effects on the antioxidant capacity of broilers at an early age. A total of 240 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, namely the control (CON) group (fed basal diets with 0 cfu/kg BS fmbj), the BS-1 group (fed basal diet with 0.2 × 1011 cfu/kg BS fmbj), BS-2 group (fed basal diet with 0.3 × 1011 cfu/kg BS fmbj), and BS-3 group (fed basal diet with 0.4 × 1011 cfu/kg BS fmbj)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938746/women-s-career-priority-is-associated-with-attitudes-towards-family-planning-and-ethical-acceptance-of-reproductive-technologies
#11
Michael K Simoni, Lin Mu, Stephen C Collins
STUDY QUESTION: Do women who place high importance on career success have different perceptions of pregnancy planning, delayed reproduction, and the ethical acceptability of ART than women with less emphasis on their career? SUMMARY ANSWER: Career-focused women place more importance on pregnancy planning, have greater confidence in delayed childbearing, and are more ethically accepting of donor gamete ART than women who do not place as much importance on career success...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938728/modeling-of-live-birth-rates-and-cost-effectiveness-of-oocyte-cryopreservation-for-cancer-patients-prior-to-high-and-low-risk-gonadotoxic-chemotherapy
#12
B Lyttle Schumacher, N Grover, T Mesen, A Steiner, J Mersereau
STUDY QUESTION: What is the live-birth rate (LBR) and cost-effectiveness of fertility preservation with oocyte cryopreservation (FP-OC) compared to expectant management in cancer patients age 25-40 based on estimated gonadotoxicity of treatments 5 years after cancer diagnosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oocyte cryopreservation prior to cancer treatment is more costly, yet more effective (producing more live births), than not undergoing oocyte cryopreservation but it is most beneficial for patients undergoing high-risk chemotherapy (HRC)...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938710/hormone-therapy-use-and-risk-of-chronic-disease-in-the-nurses-health-study-a-comparative-analysis-with-the-women-s-health-initiative
#13
Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Francine Grodstein, Bernard A Rosner, Meir J Stampfer, Frank B Hu, Walter C Willett, JoAnn E Manson
Observational studies and randomized controlled trials of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) and chronic disease risk appear to have divergent results for cardiovascular disease. However, differences may be related to a modifying effect of age, time since menopause, and HT formulation. In the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (enrolling during 1980-1994 and following participants until 2002), we investigated associations between the use of oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) (0.625 mg/day) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (<10 mg/day) or oral CEE alone and cardiovascular disease, cancer, all-cause mortality, and other major endpoints among postmenopausal women, aged 50-79 years at HT initiation...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938582/effect-of-hepatic-steatosis-on-the-progression-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-prospective-cohort-and-in-vitro-study
#14
Yangqin Chen, Chunlei Fan, Yuhan Chen, Hui Liu, Shanshan Wang, Peiling Dong, Lei Li, Huiguo Ding
AIM: To characterize the effect of hepatic steatosis (HS) on the progression of chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: A total of 162 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients confirmed by liver biopsy were involved in this study. All subjects were prospectively followed-up for 5 years in real-life clinical practice. Fibrosis stage was determined using aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI). The end-point was cirrhosis, liver cancer or death. The effects of steatosis on the biological behavior of hepatocellular carcinoma cells were investigated using oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2, HLE, PLC, and SMMC-7721 cells...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938579/the-effects-of-air-pollution-on-mortality-and-clinicopathological-features-of-esophageal-cancer
#15
Xiaochen Huang, Shanghui Guan, Jiangfeng Wang, Linli Zhao, Yibin Jia, Zilong Lu, Cuiping Yin, Shengsi Yang, Qingxu Song, Lihui Han, Cong Wang, Jingyi Li, Wei Zhou, Xiaolei Guo, Yufeng Cheng
This study aimed to estimate the associations between air pollution and esophageal cancer. In the ecologic cross-sectional study, correlation analyses were made between city-level mean concentrations of particulate matter less than 10μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), SO2, NO2 and city-level age-standardized mortality rates of esophageal cancer in Shandong Province, China. PM10 (p=0.046) and NO2 (p=0.03) both had significant linear correlations with esophageal cancer mortality rates. After introducing smoking as a risk factor in models of multiple linear regression analyses, PM10 was still an independent risk factor that increased esophageal cancer mortality rates...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938562/the-effect-of-pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-and-excessive-gestational-weight-gain-on-the-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-in-advanced-maternal-age
#16
Beibei Dong, Hong Yu, Qiong Wei, Mengmeng Zhi, Chunhua Wu, Xiangyun Zhu, Ling Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: With the popularization of a two-child policy in China, the number of pregnant women of advanced maternal age will increase steadily. We aimed to assess the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain in the first and second trimester and the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) in the advanced maternal age group and control group defined as maternal age of 20-35 years. RESULTS: The risk of GDM for obesity before pregnancy was 2...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938553/homocysteine-induced-peripheral-microcirculation-dysfunction-in-zebrafish-and-its-attenuation-by-l-arginine
#17
Sang Joon Lee, Sung Ho Park, Jinhyuk Fred Chung, Woorak Choi, Hyung Kyu Huh
Elevated blood homocysteine (Hcy) level is frequently observed in aged individuals and those with age-related vascular diseases. However, its effect on peripheral microcirculation is still not fully understood. Using in vivo zebrafish model, the degree of Hcy-induced peripheral microcirculation dysfunction is assessed in this study with a proposed dimensionless velocity parameter [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] represent the peripheral microcirculation perfusion and the systemic perfusion levels, respectively...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938532/modulation-of-gdf11-expression-and-synaptic-plasticity-by-age-and-training
#18
Emanuela De Domenico, Giovanna D'Arcangelo, Isabella Faraoni, Mattia Palmieri, Virginia Tancredi, Grazia Graziani, Paola Grimaldi, Lucio Tentori
The Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11) has been controversially involved in the aging/rejuvenation process. To clarify whether GDF11 is differently expressed during aging, we have evaluated GDF11 levels in skeletal muscles and hippocampi of young and old mice, sedentary or subjected to a 12-weeks triweekly training protocol. The results of real-time PCR and Western blot analyses indicate that skeletal muscles of sedentary old mice express higher levels of GDF11 compared to young animals (p < 0.05)...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938473/the-role-of-episodic-postprandial-peptides-in-exercise-induced-compensatory-eating
#19
Catherine Gibbons, John E Blundell, Phillipa Caudwell, Dominic-Luc Webb, Per M Hellström, Erik Näslund, Graham Finlayson
Purpose: Prolonged physical activity gives rise to variable degrees of body weight and fat loss, and is associated with variability in appetite control (hunger and energy intake). Whether these effects are modulated by postprandial 'episodic' peptides is unclear. We examined the role of postprandial peptide response in compensatory eating during 12-weeks aerobic exercise and in response to high (HFLC) and low fat (LFHC) meals. Methods: 32 overweight/obese individuals - 16 completed 12-weeks aerobic exercise and 16 were age- and BMI-matched non-exercising controls...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938446/vitamin-d-and-testosterone-in-healthy-men-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Stefan Pilz, Christian Trummer, Verena Schwetz, Oliver Pachernegg, Annemieke C Heijboer, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch
Context: Available evidence shows an association of vitamin D with androgen levels in men. However, results from preliminary randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. Objective: To evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation increases total testosterone (TT) levels in healthy men. Design: The Graz Vitamin D&TT-RCT is a single-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted between December 2012 and January 2017...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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