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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454493/updating-the-recommendations-for-treatment-of-tardive-syndromes-a-systematic-review-of-new-evidence-and-practical-treatment-algorithm
#1
REVIEW
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Joseph H Friedman, Stanley Fahn
BACKGROUND: Management of tardive syndromes (TS) is challenging, with only a few evidence-based therapeutic algorithms reported in the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline in 2013. OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence-based recommendations and provide a practical treatment algorithm for management of TS by addressing 5 questions: 1) Is withdrawal of dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) an effective TS treatment? 2) Does switching from typical to atypical DRBAs reduce TS symptoms? 3) What is the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in treating TS? 4) Do patients with TS benefit from chemodenervation with botulinum toxin? 5) Do patients with TS benefit from surgical therapy? METHODS: Systematic reviews were conducted by searching PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane for articles published between 2012 and 2017 to identify new evidence published after the 2013 AAN guidelines...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453025/material-properties-of-the-brain-in-injury-relevant-conditions-experiments-and-computational-modeling
#2
Wei Zhao, Bryan Choate, Songbai Ji
Material properties of the brain have been extensively studied but remain poorly characterized. The vast variations in constitutive models and material constants are well documented. However, no study exists to translate the variations into disparities in impact-induced brain strains most relevant to brain injury. Here, we reviewed a subset of injury-relevant brain material properties either characterized in experiments or adopted in recent head injury models. To highlight how variations in measured brain material properties manifested in simulated brain strains, we selected six experiments that have provided a complete set of brain material model and constants to implement a common head injury model...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449625/toll-like-receptor-4-modulation-influences-human-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#3
Chiara Grasselli, Daniela Ferrari, Cristina Zalfa, Matias Soncini, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Fabio A Facchini, Laura Marongiu, Francesca Granucci, Massimiliano Copetti, Angelo Luigi Vescovi, Francesco Peri, Lidia De Filippis
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation is pivotal to innate immunity and has been shown to regulate proliferation and differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) in vivo. Here we study the role of TLR4 in regulating hNSC derived from the human telencephalic-diencephalic area of the fetal brain and cultured in vitro as neurospheres in compliance with Good Manifacture Procedures (GMP) guidelines. Similar batches have been used in recent clinical trials in ALS patients. We found that TLR2 and 4 are expressed in hNSCs as well as CD14 and MD-2 co-receptors, and TLR4 expression is downregulated upon differentiation...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447839/consensus-statement-on-the-need-for-innovation-transition-and-implementation-of-developmental-neurotoxicity-dnt-testing-for-regulatory-purposes
#4
Ellen Fritsche, Philippe Grandjean, Kevin M Crofton, Michael Aschner, Alan Goldberg, Tuula Heinonen, Ellen V S Hessel, Helena Hogberg, Susanne Hougaard Bennekou, Pamela J Lein, Marcel Leist, William R Mundy, Martin Paparella, Aldert H Piersma, Magdalini Sachana, Gabriele Schmuck, Roland Solecki, Andrea Terron, Florianne Monnet-Tschudi, Martin F Wilks, Hilda Witters, Marie-Gabrielle Zurich, Anna Bal-Price
This consensus statement voices the agreement of scientific stakeholders from regulatory agencies, academia and industry that a new framework needs adopting for assessment of chemicals with the potential to disrupt brain development. An increased prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children has been observed that cannot solely be explained by genetics and recently pre- and postnatal exposure to environmental chemicals has been suspected as a causal factor. There is only very limited information on neurodevelopmental toxicity, leaving thousands of chemicals, that are present in the environment, with high uncertainty concerning their developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential...
February 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444415/bace1-inhibition-by-genistein-biological-evaluation-kinetic-analysis-and-molecular-docking-simulation
#5
Kumju Youn, Ji-Hyun Park, Seonah Lee, Seungeun Lee, Jinhyuk Lee, Eun-Young Yun, Woo-Sik Jeong, Mira Jun
β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays a role in generating amyloid β (Aβ), thus playing a major part early in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). BACE1 has emerged as a crucial therapeutic target for decreasing the Aβ concentration in the AD brain. To explore natural BACE1 inhibitors, the present study concentrated on isoflavones, including genistein, formononetin, glycitein, daidzein, and puerarin. In this study, in vitro anti-AD activities were assessed using BACE1 inhibition assays, as well as enzyme kinetic predictions...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442469/brain-death-associated-pathological-events-and-therapeutic-options
#6
REVIEW
Paweł Chudoba, Wojciech Krajewski, Joanna Wojciechowska, Dorota Kamińska
BACKGROUND: At present, organ transplantation is the most efficient treatment of end-stage failure of various organs, including the heart, lungs, pancreas, intestines, kidney, and liver. Despite the efforts to use organs from living donors or from donors after circulatory death, most of the organs are recovered from brain dead (BD) donors. METHODS: The Medline and Web of Science databases were searched without time limit on November 2015 using the terms "brain dead donor" and "deceased donor" in conjunction with "transplantation", "graft", "organ", "hemodynamic", "hormonal", or "management"...
December 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441170/management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#7
REVIEW
Hari Hara Dash, Siddharth Chavali
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called the 'silent epidemic' of modern times, and is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and young adults in both developed and developing nations worldwide. In recent years, the treatment of TBI has undergone a paradigm shift. The management of severe TBI is ideally based on protocol-based guidelines provided by the Brain Trauma Foundation. The aims and objectives of its management are prophylaxis and prompt management of intracranial hypertension and secondary brain injury, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure, and ensuring adequate oxygen delivery to injured brain tissue...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437084/increasing-adherence-to-brain-trauma-foundation-guidelines-for-hospital-care-of-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Ali A Saherwala, Mary Kay Bader, Sonja E Stutzman, Stephen A Figueroa, Jamshid Ghajar, April R Gorman, Abu Minhajuddin, DaiWai M Olson
BACKGROUND: The Brain Trauma Foundation has developed treatment guidelines for the care of patients with acute traumatic brain injury. The Adam Williams Initiative is a program established to provide education and resources to encourage hospitals across the United States to incorporate the guidelines into practice. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship in hospitals between participation in the Adam Williams Initiative and adherence to the Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines for patients with acute traumatic brain injury...
February 2018: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434545/an-updated-survey-on-statistical-thresholding-and-sample-size-of-fmri-studies
#9
Andy W K Yeung
Background: Since the early 2010s, the neuroimaging field has paid more attention to the issue of false positives. Several journals have issued guidelines regarding statistical thresholds. Three papers have reported the statistical analysis of the thresholds used in fMRI literature, but they were published at least 3 years ago and surveyed papers published during 2007-2012. This study revisited this topic to evaluate the changes in this field. Methods: The PubMed database was searched to identify the task-based (not resting-state) fMRI papers published in 2017 and record their sample sizes, inferential methods (e...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433347/neuroimaging-utilization-and-findings-in-headache-outpatients-significance-of-red-and-yellow-flags
#10
Nathan P Young, Muhamad Y Elrashidi, Paul M McKie, Jon O Ebbert
Background Neuroimaging for headache commonly exceeds published guideline recommendations and may be overutilized. Methods We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of all outpatient community patients at Mayo Clinic Rochester who underwent a neuroimaging study for a headache indication in 2015. We assessed the neuroimaging utilization pattern, clinical application of red flags, and concordance with neuroimaging guidelines. Results We identified 190 outpatients who underwent 304 neuroimaging studies for headache...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433335/relationship-between-the-prognostic-value-of-ventilatory-efficiency-and-age-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#11
Yuko Kato, Shinya Suzuki, Tokuhisa Uejima, Hiroaki Semba, Osamu Nagayama, Etsuko Hayama, Takuto Arita, Naoharu Yagi, Hiroto Kano, Shunsuke Matsuno, Takayuki Otsuka, Yuji Oikawa, Takashi Kunihara, Junji Yajima, Takeshi Yamashita
Background Ventilatory efficiency decreases with age. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance and cut-off value of the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO 2 ) slope according to age in patients with heart failure. Methods and results We analysed 1501 patients with heart failure from our observational cohort who performed maximal symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing and separated them into three age groups (≤55 years, 56-70 years and ≥71 years) in total and according to the three ejection fraction categories defined by European Society of Cardiology guidelines...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431872/interventions-to-prevent-hypothermia-at-birth-in-preterm-and-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#12
REVIEW
Emma M McCall, Fiona Alderdice, Henry L Halliday, Sunita Vohra, Linda Johnston
BACKGROUND: Newborn admission temperature is a strong predictor of outcomes across all gestations. Hypothermia immediately after birth remains a worldwide issue and, if prolonged, is associated with harm. Keeping preterm infants warm is difficult even when recommended routine thermal care guidelines are followed in the delivery room. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of interventions designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room, compared with routine thermal care or any other single/combination of intervention(s) also designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room...
February 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427000/tardive-dyskinesia-associated-with-atypical-antipsychotics-prevalence-mechanisms-and-management-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Katharina Stegmayer, Sebastian Walther, Peter van Harten
All antipsychotics, including the atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), may cause tardive dyskinesia (TD), a potentially irreversible movement disorder, the pathophysiology of which is currently unknown. The prevention and treatment of TD remain major challenges for clinicians. We conducted a PubMed search to review the prevalence and etiology of and management strategies for TD associated with AAPs. TD prevalence rates varied substantially between studies, with an estimated prevalence of around 20% in patients using AAPs...
February 9, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426675/the-use-of-cerebral-imaging-for-investigating-delirium-aetiology
#14
Zina Hijazi, Peter Lange, Rosie Watson, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the frequency and patterns of use of cerebral imaging in delirium and to describe pathological changes associated with delirium using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: This retrospective observational study included patients with delirium admitted to a tertiary hospital (The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia) between January 2015 and August 2016. Data on cerebral imaging was collected and positive imaging findings were defined as: Acute or subacute infarct, haemorrhage, abscess, neoplasm, vasculitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, encephalitis, acute demyelination, or fat embolism...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425689/an-easy-to-use-liquid-chromatography-method-with-fluorescence-detection-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-five-neuroactive-amino-acids-in-different-regions-of-rat-brain
#15
Beatriz M Fonseca, Ana C Cristóvão, Gilberto Alves
INTRODUCTION: To comprehend the normal function and pathological characteristics of certain neurological disorders it is important to evaluate the neuroactive amino acids levels in animal models. METHODS: This work describes a simple liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) method for the simultaneous determination of aspartic acid (Asp), glutamic acid (Glu), glutamine (Gln), taurine (Tau) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), using methyl-L-arginine as internal standard, in samples of rat brain tissue...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425576/evidence-based-and-consensus-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-iron-treatment-of-restless-legs-syndrome-willis-ekbom-disease-in-adults-and-children-an-irlssg-task-force-report
#16
Richard P Allen, Daniel L Picchietti, Michael Auerbach, Yong Won Cho, James R Connor, Christopher J Earley, Diego Garcia-Borreguero, Suresh Kotagal, Mauro Manconi, William Ondo, Jan Ulfberg, John W Winkelman
BACKGROUND: Brain iron deficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of RLS, and current RLS treatment guidelines recommend iron treatment when peripheral iron levels are low. In order to assess the evidence on the oral and intravenous (IV) iron treatment of RLS and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) in adults and children, the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) formed a task force to review these studies and provide evidence-based and consensus guidelines for the iron treatment of RLS in adults, and RLS and PLMD in children...
January 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425146/nanoparticle-based-strategies-to-treat-neuro-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Rémy Poupot, Dylan Bergozza, Séverine Fruchon
Neuro-inflammation is a pivotal physio-pathological feature of brain disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. As such, it is a relevant therapeutic target against which drugs have to be proposed. Targeting neuro-inflammation implies crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) to reach the Central Nervous System (CNS). Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are promising candidates to carry and deliver drugs to the CNS by crossing the BBB. There are several strategies to design ENPs intended for crossing through the BBB...
February 9, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419556/determining-the-upper-and-lower-limits-of-cerebral-autoregulation-with-cerebral-oximetry-autoregulation-curves-a-case-series
#18
Lucia Rivera-Lara, Andres Zorrilla-Vaca, Ryan J Healy, Wendy Ziai, Charles Hogue, Romergryko Geocadin, Batya Radzik, Caitlin Palmisano, Marek A Mirski
OBJECTIVE: Critical care guidelines recommend a single target value for mean arterial blood pressure in critically ill patients. However, growing evidence regarding cerebral autoregulation challenges this concept and supports individualizing mean arterial blood pressure targets to prevent brain and kidney hypo- or hyperperfusion. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation derived from near-infrared spectroscopy is an acceptable surrogate for cerebral blood flow and has been validated to measure cerebral autoregulation...
February 6, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415801/bio-profiling-and-bio-prognostication-of-chronic-heart-failure-with-mid-range-ejection-fraction
#19
Pedro Moliner, Josep Lupón, Jaume Barallat, Marta de Antonio, Mar Domingo, Julio Núñez, Elisabet Zamora, Amparo Galán, Javier Santesmases, Cruz Pastor, Antoni Bayes-Genis
BACKGROUND: Recent ESC guidelines on heart failure (HF) have introduced a new phenotype based on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), called the mid-range (HFmrEF). This phenotype falls between the classical reduced (HFrEF) and preserved (HFpEF) HF phenotypes. We aimed to characterize the HFmrEF biomarker profile and outcomes. METHODS: 1069 consecutive ambulatory patients were included in the study (age 66.2 ± 12.8 years); 800 with HFrEF (74.8%), 134 with HFmrEF (12...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415005/influence-of-tissue-conductivity-on-foetal-exposure-to-extremely-low-frequency-magnetic-fields-at-50-hz-using-stochastic-dosimetry
#20
Serena Fiocchi, Emma Chiaramello, Marta Parazzini, Paolo Ravazzani
Human exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) at 50 Hz is still a topic of great interest due to the possible correlation with childhood leukaemia. The estimation of induced electric fields in human tissues exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) strictly depends on several variables which include the dielectric properties of the tissues. In this paper, the influence of the conductivity assignment to foetal tissues at different gestational ages on the estimation of the induced electric field due to ELF-MF exposure at 50 Hz has been quantified by means of a stochastic approach using polynomial chaos theory...
2018: PloS One
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