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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431428/computational-and-in-vitro-experimental-investigation-of-intrathecal-drug-distribution-parametric-study-of-the-effect-of-injection-volume-cerebrospinal-fluid-pulsatility-and-drug-uptake
#1
Kevin M Tangen, Roxanne Leval, Ankit I Mehta, Andreas A Linninger
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal drug delivery is an attractive option to circumvent the blood-brain barrier for pain management through its increased efficacy of pain relief, reduction in adverse side effects, and cost-effectiveness. Unfortunately, there are limited guidelines for physicians to choose infusion or drug pump settings to administer therapeutic doses to specific regions of the spine or the brain. Although empiric trialing of intrathecal drugs is critical to determine the sustained side effects, currently there is no inexpensive in vitro method to guide the selection of spinal drug delivery parameters...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431035/medical-symptom-validity-test-performance-following-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-expectations-based-on-orientation-log-classification
#2
Stephen N Macciocchi, Ronald T Seel, Angela Yi, Sarah Small
Objective: This study examined performance on the Medical Symptom Validity test (MSVT) during acute rehabilitation for moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) stratified by Orientation Log (O-Log) scores. Method: Participants were 77 prospectively enrolled persons who sustained moderate-severe TBI and were acutely hospitalized secondary to the cognitive, medical and physical sequelae of their TBI. Participants were administered neuropsychological metrics, the O-Log and the MSVT a mean of 44 days post injury...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430697/abusive-head-trauma-and-mortality-an-analysis-from-an-international-comparative-effectiveness-study-of-children-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Nikki Miller Ferguson, Ajit Sarnaik, Darryl Miles, Nadeem Shafi, Mark J Peters, Edward Truemper, Monica S Vavilala, Michael J Bell, Stephen R Wisniewski, James F Luther, Adam L Hartman, Patrick M Kochanek
OBJECTIVES: Small series have suggested that outcomes after abusive head trauma are less favorable than after other injury mechanisms. We sought to determine the impact of abusive head trauma on mortality and identify factors that differentiate children with abusive head trauma from those with traumatic brain injury from other mechanisms. DESIGN: First 200 subjects from the Approaches and Decisions in Acute Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Trial-a comparative effectiveness study using an observational, cohort study design...
April 20, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429866/successful-multiple-organ-donation-after-donor-brain-death-due-to-actinomyces-israelii-meningitis
#4
Leonel Lagunes, Oscar Len, Alberto Sandiumenge, Elena Martínez-Saez, Tomás Pumarola, Marta Bodro, Antonio Macías, Jose T Silva, F Xavier Nuvials, Ramon Charco, Francesc Moreso, Teresa Pont
The increasing gap between availability of solid organs for transplantation and the demand has led to the inclusion of donors which according to current guidelines may be discarded, some of them because of the possibility for transmission of infection to their recipients. We present the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of a case of a brain-dead donor with a localized and treated Actinomyces israelii central nervous system infection who, after a thorough evaluation, led to successful transplant procedures in four recipients...
April 21, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429473/surgery-for-limited-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Hayley Barnes, Katharine See, Stephen Barnett, Renée Manser
BACKGROUND: Current treatment guidelines for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) recommend concomitant platinum-based chemo-radiotherapy plus prophylactic cranial irradiation, based on the premise that SCLC disseminates early, and is chemosensitive. However, although there is usually a favourable initial response, relapse is common and the cure rate for limited-stage SCLC remains relatively poor. Some recent clinical practice guidelines have recommended surgery for stage 1 (limited) SCLC followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, but this recommendation is largely based on the findings of observational studies...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427911/safety-parameter-considerations-of-anodal-transcranial-directcurrentstimulation-in-rats
#6
Mark P Jackson, Dennis Truong, Milene L Brownlow, Jessica A Wagner, R Andy McKinley, Marom Bikson, Ryan Jankord
A commonly referenced transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) safety threshold derives from tDCS lesion studies in the rat and relies on electrode current density (and related electrode charge density) to support clinical guidelines. Concerns about the role of polarity (e.g. anodal tDCS), sub-lesion threshold injury (e.g. neuroinflammatory processes), and role of electrode montage across rodent and human studies support further investigation into animal models of tDCS safety. Thirty-two anesthetized rats received anodal tDCS between 0-5 mA for 60 minutes through one of three epicranial electrode montages...
April 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427510/central-nervous-system-gliomas
#7
REVIEW
Michele Reni, Elena Mazza, Silvia Zanon, Gemma Gatta, Charles J Vecht
Evidence-based practical guidelines on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment on the most frequent adult brain tumours are delineated. In Europe, 27,000 new cases of malignant glial tumours and 1000 new cases of malignant ependymal tumours are diagnosed every year. The most common glial tumours are glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic glioma, comprising more than 50% and 10%, respectively, of the total gliomas. Prognosis of gliomas is generally poor. Environmental and genetic factors have been correlated with an increased risk of developing brain tumours...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425226/a-review-of-pediatric-pulmonary-hypertension-with-new-guidelines
#8
Serdar Kula, Ayhan Pektaş
This study aims to review pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH) by comparing the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Respiratory Society (ERS), the American Heart Association (AHA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network (EPPVDN). All three sets of guidelines define PH as having a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥25 mmHg and accept the validity of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Every child with a high index of suspicion for PH should undergo an initial work-up of chest X-rays, electrocardiography, and echocardiography...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421482/cost-effectiveness-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-and-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-a-critical-review
#9
REVIEW
Nataniel H Lester-Coll, David J Sher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize and appraise published cost-effectiveness studies on stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). RECENT FINDINGS: We performed a Medline search of cost-effectiveness studies of SRS, SBRT, and other cancer treatment modalities such as surgery and systemic therapy from 2006 to 2016. We included studies that used both modeling and retrospective review techniques. We excluded studies of benign disease...
June 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419389/letter-guidelines-for-the-management-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-fourth-edition
#10
Victor Volovici, Iain K Haitsma, Clemens M F Dirven, Ewout W Steyerberg, Hester F Lingsma, Andrew I R Maas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414398/tuberous-sclerosis-complex-a-review
#11
Stephanie Carapetian Randle
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurocutaneous syndrome that can present at any age and can affect multiple organ systems. This disorder is usually identified in infants and children based on characteristic skin lesions, seizures, and cellular overgrowth or hamartomas in the heart, brain, and kidneys. Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene leading to dysfunction of hamartin or tuberin, respectively. Hamartin and tuberin form a protein complex that helps regulate cellular hyperplasia...
April 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412442/human-brain-mapping-a-systematic-comparison-of-parcellation-methods-for-the-human-cerebral-cortex
#12
REVIEW
Salim Arslan, Sofia Ira Ktena, Antonios Makropoulos, Emma C Robinson, Daniel Rueckert, Sarah Parisot
The macro-connectome elucidates the pathways through which brain regions are structurally connected or functionally coupled to perform a specific cognitive task. It embodies the notion of representing and understanding all connections within the brain as a network, while the subdivision of the brain into interacting functional units is inherent in its architecture. As a result, the definition of network nodes is one of the most critical steps in connectivity network analysis. Although brain atlases obtained from cytoarchitecture or anatomy have long been used for this task, connectivity-driven methods have arisen only recently, aiming to delineate more homogeneous and functionally coherent regions...
April 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410658/the-role-of-neuroimaging-in-the-assessment-of-the-cognitively-impaired-elderly
#13
REVIEW
Sara Kollack-Walker, Collin Y Liu, Adam S Fleisher
This article reviews the current diagnostic tools that are available for structural, functional, and molecular imaging of the brain, summarizing some of the key findings that have been reported in individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment, prodromal AD, or other prevalent dementias. Given recent advances in the development of amyloid PET tracers, current guidelines for the use of amyloid PET imaging in patients with cognitive complaints are reviewed. In addition, data addressing the potential value of amyloid PET imaging in the clinical setting are highlighted...
May 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402563/in-reply-guidelines-for-the-management-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-fourth-edition
#14
Gregory W J Hawryluk, Jamie S Ullman, Annette M Totten, Jamshid Ghajar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399718/neural-correlates-of-the-healthiness-evaluation-processes-of-food-labels
#15
M Prevost, P Hot, L Muller, B Ruffieux, E Cousin, C Pichat, M Baciu
OBJECTIVES: This fMRI study evaluated the cognitive mechanisms and the cerebral substrates when evaluating the healthiness of food products from nutritional information displayed either with a traffic light (TL) system, a colored nutritional label, or with a guideline daily amount (GDA) system, a numeric label. We postulated that TL label would recruit emotional processes and activation of subjacent cerebral regions (e.g. insula and amygdala). On the contrary, the nutritional information presented in a GDA label, would recruit, due to its numeric format and higher complexity, supplementary cognitive processes and activation of related brain regions (e...
April 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398105/management-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-at-the-emergency-department-and-hospital-admission-in-europe-a-survey-of-71-neurotrauma-centers-participating-in-the-center-tbi-study
#16
Kelly A Foks, Maryse C Cnossen, Diederik W J Dippel, Andrew Maas, David Menon, Joukje van der Naalt, Ewout W Steyerberg, Hester Lingsma, Suzanne Polinder
Previous studies have indicated that there is no consensus about management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) at the emergency department (ED) and during hospital admission. We aim to study variability between management policies for TBI patients at the ED and hospital ward across Europe. Centers participating in the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study received questionnaires about different phases of TBI care. These questionnaires included 71 questions about TBI management at the ED and at the hospital ward...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395917/-compliance-with-recommendations-in-secondary-prevention-of-stroke-in-primary-care
#17
Carmen Tamayo-Ojeda, Neus Parellada-Esquius, Betlem Salvador-González, Pilar Ángeles Oriol-Torón, M Dolores Rodríguez-Garrido, Dolores Muñoz-Segura
OBJECTIVE: Knowing compliance with secondary prevention recommendations of stroke in primary care and to identify factors associated with compliance. DESIGN: Multi-centre cross-sectional. SETTING: Health primary care centres in a metropolitan area (944,280 inhabitants). PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18years and over with ischemic brain disease diagnosis prior to 6months before the study. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Clinical history records of demographic variables, risk factors and cardiovascular comorbidity, drugs, blood pressure values (BP), LDL-cholesterol and medical visits by doctor and nurses after the event...
April 7, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393670/confounding-brain-stem-function-during-pediatric-brain-death-determination-two-case-reports
#18
Gregory Hansen, Ari R Joffe
A patient who has been declared brain dead is considered to be both legally and clinically dead. However, we report 2 pediatric cases in which the patients demonstrated clinical signs of brain stem function that are not recognized or tested in current Canadian or US guidelines.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391603/embedded-clinical-decision-support-in-electronic-health-record-decreases-use-of-high-cost-imaging-in-the-emergency-department-embed-study
#19
Kelly Bookman, David West, Adit Ginde, Jennifer Wiler, Robert McIntyre, Andrew Hammes, Nichole Carlson, David Steinbruner, Matthew Solley, Richard Zane
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the impact of evidence-based clinical decision support tools integrated directly into provider workflow in the electronic health record on utilization of CT brain, c-spine and pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: Validated, well accepted scoring tools for head injury, c-spine injury and pulmonary embolism were embedded into the electronic health record in a manner minimally disruptive to provider workflow. This was a longitudinal, before/after study in 5 emergency departments in a healthcare system with a common electronic health record...
April 9, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391295/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-brain-metastases-from-solid-tumors-guidelines-from-the-european-association-of-neuro-oncology-eano
#20
Riccardo Soffietti, Ufuk Abacioglu, Brigitta Baumert, Stephanie E Combs, Sara Kinhult, Johan M Kros, Christine Marosi, Philippe Metellus, Alexander Radbruch, Salvador S Villa Freixa, Michael Brada, Carmine M Carapella, Matthias Preusser, Emilie Le Rhun, Roberta Rudà, Joerg C Tonn, Damien C Weber, Michael Weller
The management of patients with brain metastases has become a major issue due to the increasing frequency and complexity of the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In 2014, the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO) created a multidisciplinary Task Force to draw evidence-based guidelines for patients with brain metastases from solid tumors. Here, we present these guidelines, which provide a consensus review of evidence and recommendations for diagnosis by neuroimaging and neuropathology, staging, prognostic factors, and different treatment options...
February 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
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