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postural instability aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153480/spatial-orientation-and-postural-control-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#1
E Pawlitzki, C Schlenstedt, N Schmidt, I Tödt, F Gövert, G Hartwigsen, K Witt
Postural instability is one of the most disabling and risky symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how this is mediated by a centrally impaired spatial orientation. Therefore, we performed a spatial orientation study in 21 PD patients (mean age 68years, SD 8.5 years, 9 women) in a medically on condition and 21 healthy controls (mean age 68.9years, SD 5.5years, 14 women). We compared their spatial responses to the horizontal axis (Sakashita's visual target cancellation task), the vertical axis (bucket-test), the sagittal axis (tilt table test) and postural stability using the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FAB)...
November 13, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121059/effects-of-decades-of-physical-driving-on-body-movement-and-motion-sickness-during-virtual-driving
#2
Thomas A Stoffregen, Chih-Hui Chang, Fu-Chen Chen, Wei-Jhong Zeng
We investigated relations between experience driving physical automobiles and motion sickness during the driving of virtual automobiles. Middle-aged individuals drove a virtual automobile in a driving video game. Drivers were individuals who had possessed a driver's license for approximately 30 years, and who drove regularly, while non-drivers were individuals who had never held a driver's license, or who had not driven for more than 15 years. During virtual driving, we monitored movement of the head and torso...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113357/brain-gray-matter-abnormalities-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-revisited
#3
PingLei Pan, Yi Liu, Yang Zhang, Hui Zhao, Xing Ye, Yun Xu
Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) have demonstrated heterogeneous findings regarding gray matter (GM) abnormalities. Here, we used Seed-based d Mapping, a coordinate-based meta-analytic approach to identify consistent regions of GM anomalies across studies of PSP. Totally, 18 original VBM studies, comprising 284 patients with PSP and 367 healthy controls were included. As compared to healthy controls, patients with PSP demonstrated significant GM reductions in both cortical and subcortical regions, including the frontal motor cortices, medial (including anterior cingulate cortex) and lateral frontal cortices, insula, superior temporal gyrus, striatum (putamen and caudate nucleus), thalamus, midbrain, and anterior cerebellum...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089992/corticoreticular-tract-lesion-in-children-with-developmental-delay-presenting-with-gait-dysfunction-and-trunk-instability
#4
Yong Min Kwon, Jessica Rose, Ae Ryoung Kim, Su Min Son
The corticoreticular tract (CRT) is known to be involved in walking and postural control. Using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we investigated the relationship between the CRT and gait dysfunction, including trunk instability, in pediatric patients. Thirty patients with delayed development and 15 age-matched, typically-developed (TD) children were recruited. Fifteen patients with gait dysfunction (bilateral trunk instability) were included in the group A, and the other 15 patients with gait dysfunction (unilateral trunk instability) were included in the group B...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083438/global-performance-of-executive-function-is-predictor-of-risk-of-frailty-and-disability-in-older-adults
#5
C Rosado-Artalejo, J A Carnicero, J Losa-Reyna, C Castillo, B Cobos-Antoranz, A Alfaro-Acha, L Rodríguez-Mañas, F J García-García
INTRODUCTION: The executive function is a complex set of skills affected during the aging process and translate into subclinical cerebrovascular disease. Postural instability or motor slowness are some clinical manifestations, being consubstantial with the frailty phenotype, genuine expression of aging. Executive dysfunction is also considered a predictor of adverse health events in the elderly. AIM: To study whether the executive dysfunction can be used as an early marker for frailty and the viability of use as a predictor of mortality, hospitalization and/or disability in a Mediterranean population...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078029/constipation-is-not-associated-with-dat-dopaminergic-pathology-in-early-de-novo-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Gennaro Pagano, Tayyabah Yousaf, Heather Wilson, Flavia Niccolini, Sotirios Polychronis, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri, Marios Politis
BACKGROUND: Constipation is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. Deposition of α-synuclein inclusions that spread from the gut to the substantia nigra through the vagus nerve has been recently speculated as a pre-motor and early stage of Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether constipation is associated with dopaminergic pathology at DAT SPECT in early de novo (untreated) Parkinson's disease patients. Our hypothesis is that constipation is associated with other signs of pre-motor Parkinson's disease and independent of DAT dopaminergic pathology...
October 27, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060412/evaluation-of-postural-instability-in-stroke-patient-during-quiet-standing
#7
Wei Wang, Ke Li, Na Wei, Cuiping Yin, Shouwei Yue
This study was designed to investigate the postural instability in stroke survivals during quiet standing. Eleven stroke patients and 11 healthy volunteers (gender- and age-matched) were recruited for this experiment. The center of pressure (COP) signals from both planta in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions were recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system (BTS Bioengineering Corp, Italy) when subjects stood on the two adjacent force platforms quietly with their eyes open (EO) for 30 s and with their eyes close (EC) for another 30 s...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046173/effects-of-physical-driving-experience-on-body-movement-and-motion-sickness-during-virtual-driving
#8
Chih-Hui Chang, Fu-Chen Chen, Wei-Ching Kung, Thomas A Stoffregen
BACKGROUND: In previous research on motion sickness in simulated and virtual vehicles, subjects' experience controlling the corresponding physical vehicles has been confounded with their age. During driving of virtual automobiles in a video game, we separated chronological age from experience driving physical automobiles. METHODS: Subjects drove a virtual automobile in a driving video game. Drivers were young adults with several years of experience driving physical automobiles, while nondrivers were individuals in the same age group who did not have a driver's license and had never driven an automobile...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023280/corrective-exercises-improve-movement-efficiency-and-sensorimotor-function-but-not-fatigue-sensitivity-in-chronic-ankle-instability-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Sajad Bagherian, Nader Rahnama, Erik A Wikstrom
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of corrective exercises on functional movement patterns, sensorimotor function, self-reported function, and fatigue sensitivity in collegiate athletes with chronic ankle instability (CAI). DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Laboratory of sports sciences. PARTICIPANTS: Forty male volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group (age 21.2 ± 1.7 years, height 174...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020012/wearable-sensors-objectively-measure-gait-parameters-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Johannes C M Schlachetzki, Jens Barth, Franz Marxreiter, Julia Gossler, Zacharias Kohl, Samuel Reinfelder, Heiko Gassner, Kamiar Aminian, Bjoern M Eskofier, Jürgen Winkler, Jochen Klucken
Distinct gait characteristics like short steps and shuffling gait are prototypical signs commonly observed in Parkinson's disease. Routinely assessed by observation through clinicians, gait is rated as part of categorical clinical scores. There is an increasing need to provide quantitative measurements of gait, e.g. to provide detailed information about disease progression. Recently, we developed a wearable sensor-based gait analysis system as diagnostic tool that objectively assesses gait parameter in Parkinson's disease without the need of having a specialized gait laboratory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985263/the-effect-of-perindopril-on-postural-instability-in-older-people-with-a-history-of-falls-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Deepa Sumukadas, Rosemary Price, Marion E T McMurdo, Petra Rauchhaus, Allan Struthers, Stephen McSwiggan, Graham Arnold, Rami Abboud, Miles Witham
Design: double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomised trial. Methods: we recruited people aged >65 years with at least one fall in the previous year. Participants received 4 mg perindopril or placebo daily for 15 weeks. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in force-plate measured anteroposterior (AP) sway at 15 weeks. Secondary outcomes included other measures of postural sway, limits of stability during maximal forward, right and left leaning, blood pressure, muscle strength, 6-min walk distance and falls...
July 11, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960581/inhibitory-motor-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-subtypes
#12
Tao Gong, Yuanyuan Xiang, Muhammad G Saleh, Fei Gao, Weibo Chen, Richard A E Edden, Guangbin Wang
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is divided into postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD) and tremor-dominant (TD) subtypes. Increasing evidence has suggested that the GABAergic neurotransmitter system is involved in the pathogenesis of PD. PURPOSE: To evaluate the differences of GABA levels between PD motor subtypes using MEscher-GArwood Point Resolved Spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS). STUDY TYPE: COHORT.: SUBJECTS: PD patients were classified into PIGD (n = 13) and TD groups (n = 9); 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were also recruited...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949814/a-longitudinal-assessment-of-standing-balance-in-healthy-adults
#13
Roger W Simmons, Susan S Levy, Nicole K Simmons
Background/Study Context: The study was a longitudinal assessment of age-related changes in standing balance and response strategy usage in healthy adults. METHODS: Balance of 17 individuals with a mean age of 44.5 years was assessed and then reassessed 19.5 years later. Participants stood on computer-controlled dual-force platforms enclosed by a visual surround and completed six tests in which visual and/or somatosensory information was systematically degraded or eliminated. RESULTS: Results for each test and a weighted composite balance score revealed no significant change in postural control over the time period studied...
September 26, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929183/altered-neurofilament-protein-expression-in-the-lateral-vestibular-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Thomas P Wellings, Alan M Brichta, Rebecca Lim
A major cause of morbidity in Parkinson's disease (PD) is postural instability. The neuropathology underlying postural instability is unknown. Postural control is mediated by Deiters' neurons of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN), which are the brainstem origin of descending vestibulospinal reflexes. Deiters' neurons express the cytostructural protein, non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP). In PD, reduced expression of NPNFP in substantia nigra (SN) neurons is believed to contribute to dysfunction...
December 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921721/effects-of-the-availability-of-accurate-proprioceptive-information-on-older-adults-postural-sway-and-muscle-co-contraction
#15
Chesney E Craig, Glenn H M Calvert, Michail Doumas
During conditions of increased postural instability, older adults exhibit greater lower limb muscle co-contraction. This response has been interpreted as a compensatory postural strategy, which may be used to increase proprioceptive information from muscle spindles or to stiffen the lower limb as a general response to minimise postural sway. The current study aimed to test these two hypotheses by investigating use of muscle co-contraction during sensory transitions that manipulated proprioceptive input. Surface EMG was recorded from the bilateral tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis muscles, in young (aged 18-30) and older adults (aged 68-80) during blind-folded postural assessment...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893391/the-effects-of-early-stages-of-aging-on-postural-sway-a-multiple-domain-balance-assessment-using-a-force-platform
#16
Adriana M Degani, Charles T Leonard, Alessander Danna-Dos-Santos
Technical advancements in instrumentation and analytical methods have improved the ability of assessing balance control. This study investigated the effects of early stages of aging on postural sway using traditional and contemporary postural indices from different domains. Eleven healthy young adults and fourteen healthy non-faller older adults performed two postural tasks: (a) functional limits of stability and (b) unperturbed bipedal stance for 120s. Postural indices from spatial, temporal, frequency, and structural domains were extracted from the body's center of pressure (COP) signals and its Rambling and Trembling components...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879446/parkinsonian-symptoms-in-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-population-based-study
#17
Karin Molde, Lars Söderström, Katarina Laurell
It may be challenging to differentiate normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) from neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In this population-based study, we wanted to describe the frequency of parkinsonian symptoms among individuals with and without NPH, and whether the motor examination part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-m) score differs between these groups. Furthermore, we wanted to find out whether there was a relationship between UPDRS-m score, NPH symptoms, and radiological signs of NPH...
October 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875772/atypical-caudal-regression-syndrome-with-agenesis-of-lumbar-spine-and-presence-of-sacrum-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Edyta Szumera, Barbara Jasiewicz, Tomasz Potaczek
Context Caudal regression syndrome is a rare disorder, not well described in the literature. Findings Authors treated two patients with congenital absence of thoracolumbar vertebrae and lower limbs paraplegia. Patients had hypoplasia of the lower trunk and extremities with motion between upper and lower torso. Imaging showed caudal spine agenesis, but cleft sacrum was present. Due to severe kyphotic deformity and spinal instability, deformity correction and posterior fusion was performed at the age 6 and 8...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856094/alterations-in-striato-thalamo-pallidal-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-as-a-prodrome-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Eran Dayan, Nina Browner
Although the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains anchored around the cardinal motor symptoms of bradykinesia, rest tremor, rigidity and postural instability, it is becoming increasingly clear that the clinical phase of the disease is preceded by a long period of neurodegeneration, which is not readily evident in terms of motor dysfunction. The neurobiological mechanisms that underpin this prodromal phase of PD remain poorly understood. Based on converging evidence of basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction in early PD, we set out to establish whether the prodromal phase of the disease is characterized by alterations in functional communication within the input and output structures of the BG...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811697/role-of-iron-and-copper-in-the-pathogenesis-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Mohit Kumar Gangania, Jyoti Batra, Suman Kushwaha, Rachna Agarwal
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an old age disorder of basal ganglia which involves oligomerization of α-synuclein protein and formation of intercellular inclusions known as "Lewy bodies" in substantia nigra and caudate nuclei in brain which is progressive in nature. It is second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor at rest, muscle rigidity, slowness of movement (bradykinesia, akinesia), and changes in posture (instability). Both excess and deficiency in levels of transition metals (especially iron, copper) can be detrimental to the central nervous system...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
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