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Hailong Chen, Ke Lv, Zhongquan Dai, Guohua Ji, Tingmei Wang, Yanli Wang, Yongliang Zhang, Guanghan Kan, Yinghui Li, Lina Qu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of memory-related antioxidant genes and miRNAs under simulated weightlessness and the regulation of mechano growth factor (MGF) E domain, the peptide preventing nerve damage. RESULTS: Igf-iea and mgf mRNA levels, expression of antioxidant genes sod1 and sod2 and levels of miR-134 and miR-125b-3p increased in rat hippocampus after 14 days tail suspension to simulate weightlessness which was inhibited with intramuscular injection of E domain peptide...
September 13, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
M Janmaleki, M Pachenari, S M Seyedpour, R Shahghadami, A Sanati-Nezhad
This study focused on the effects of simulated microgravity (s-μg) on mechanical properties, major cytoskeleton biopolymers, and morphology of endothelial cells (ECs). The structural and functional integrity of ECs are vital to regulate vascular homeostasis and prevent atherosclerosis. Furthermore, these highly gravity sensitive cells play a key role in pathogenesis of many diseases. In this research, impacts of s-μg on mechanical behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were investigated by utilizing a three-dimensional random positioning machine (3D-RPM)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Li-Fan Zhang, Shu Zhang
It has been shown that the minimum gravity exposure requirements vary greatly among different physiological systems. A preliminary comparison between two extremes, vessels vs. bones, shows that not only the mechanostat at the tissue level differs greatly, but also the bone loss during weightlessness may also involve calcium deposition-resorption changes. It seems that the surprising efficacy of intermittent artificial gravity (IAG) is due to the vascular tissues possessing a strong resilience or "memory" function toward restoring their original pre-stress and tensegrity state at the 1 G environment...
August 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Roman Goulard, Jean-Louis Vercher, Stéphane Viollet
Insects' aptitude to perform hovering, automatic landing and tracking tasks involves accurately controlling their head and body roll and pitch movements, but how this attitude control depends on an internal estimation of gravity orientation is still an open question. Gravity perception in flying insects has mainly been studied in terms of grounded animals' tactile orientation responses, but it has not yet been established whether hoverflies use gravity perception cues to detect a nearly weightless state at an early stage...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Clément N Gambelli, Daniel Theisen, Patrick A Willems, Bénédicte Schepens
Landing on the ground on one's feet implies that the energy gained during the fall be dissipated. The aim of this study is to assess human motor control of landing in different conditions of fall initiation, simulated gravity and sensory neural input. Six participants performed drop-landings using a trap-door system and landings from self-initiated counter-movement jumps in microgravity conditions, simulated in a weightlessness environment by different pull-down forces, of 1-, 0.6-, 0.4- and 0.2 g. External forces applied to the body, orientation of the lower limb segments and muscular activity of 6 lower limb muscles were recorded synchronously...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Michael D Delp, Jacqueline M Charvat, Charles L Limoli, Ruth K Globus, Payal Ghosh
As multiple spacefaring nations contemplate extended manned missions to Mars and the Moon, health risks could be elevated as travel goes beyond the Earth's protective magnetosphere into the more intense deep space radiation environment. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, accidents and all other causes of death differ in (1) astronauts who never flew orbital missions in space, (2) astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), and (3) Apollo lunar astronauts, the only humans to have traveled beyond Earth's magnetosphere...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hong-Wei Zhao, Jun Zhao, Lian-Na Hu, Jing-Nan Liang, Yuan-Yuan Shi, Chuang Nie, Chang-Yu Qiu, Xin-Shuai Nan, Yu-Xin Li, Fu-Lin Gao, Yi Liu, Yu Dong, Ling Luo
AIM: To evaluate the effect of long-term weightlessness on retina and optic nerve in tail-suspension (TS) rats. METHODS: A stimulated weightlessness model was established by suspending rats' tail. After 12wk, the ultrastructure and the number of optic nerve axons were observed by transmission electron microscope. The number of survival retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was calculated by fluorescent gold retrograde labeling. Retina cells apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner
Weight-dependent loading of the skeleton plays an important role in establishing and maintaining bone mass and strength. This review focuses on mechanical signaling induced by body weight as an essential mechanism for maintaining bone health. In addition, the skeletal effects of deviation from normal weight are discussed. The magnitude of mechanical strain experienced by bone during normal activities is remarkably similar among vertebrates, regardless of size, supporting the existence of a conserved regulatory mechanism, or mechanostat, that senses mechanical strain...
September 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
G Clément, W H Paloski, J Rittweger, D Linnarsson, M P Bareille, E Mulder, F L Wuyts, J Zange
OBJECTIVES: We review the studies that have evaluated intermittent short-radius centrifugation as a potential countermeasure for cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and sensorimotor deconditioning in simulated weightlessness. METHODS: The findings from 18 experimental protocols that have used bed rest and dry immersion for comparing the protective effects of centrifugation versus standing upright or walking, and the effects of continuous vs. periodic exposure to centrifugation are discussed...
2016: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
D V Lychakov
The review contains data on functional shifts in fishes, amphibians and birds caused by changes in the otolith system operation after stay under weightlessness conditions. These data are of theoretical and practical significance and are important to resolve some fundamental problems of vestibulogy. The analysis of the results of space experiments has shown that weightlessness conditions do not exert a substantial impact on formation and functional state of the otolith system in embryonic fishes, amphibians and birds developed during space flight...
January 2016: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
O A Zhuravlyova, A A Markin, D S Kuzichkin, V I Loginov, I V Zabolotskaya, L V Vostrikova
In blood serum of 9 volunteers aged 27 to 42, participated in the experiment with 370-day antiorthostatic hypokinesia (-5 degrees), the lipid peroxidation derivates concentration--diene conjugates (DC), malonic dialdehyde (MDA), Schiff bases (SB) as well as antioxidant defense system indices--tocopherol (TP) concentration and total antioxidative activity level (AOA) were measured. The volunteers were divided into two groups subjected to physical training regimes and used prophylactic measures. In both groups the lipoperoxidation processes initial stages depression (by 54-73%) was observed starting from 50th day, thus the lipid peroxidation final product--SB level was decreased (by 50-61%) only to the 230 day and remains approximately at the same level till the end of the experiment...
January 2016: Fiziologiia Cheloveka
Guo-Hui Zhong, Shu-Kuan Ling, Ying-Xian Li
Cardiac remodeling is the heart's response to external or internal stimuli. Weightlessness/simulated weightlessness leads to cardiac atrophy and heart function declining. Understanding the mechanism of cardiac atrophy under weightlessness is important to help astronaut recover from unloading-induced cardiovascular changes after spaceflight. Unloading-induced changes of hemodynamics, metabolic demands and neurohumoral regulation contribute to cardiac atrophy and function declining. During this process, Ca(2+)-related signaling, NF-κB signaling, ERK signaling, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy are involved in weightlessness-induced cardiac atrophy...
April 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Wang Qiong, Zhang Yong-Liang, Li Ying-Hui, Chen Shan-Guang, Gao Jiang-Hui, Chen Yi-Xi, Jiang Ning, Liu Xin-Min
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: It is vital for astronauts to develop effective countermeasures to prevent their decline of cognitive performance in microgravity to make space-flight missions successful. The traditional Chinese herbal formula Kai Xin San (KXS) has been used to treat amnesia for thousands years. It is a traditional complex prescription comprising of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer), hoelen (Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf), polygala (Polygala tenaifolia Willd), and acorus (Acorus tatarinowii Schott)...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Aurore Bourrelly, Joseph McIntyre, Cédric Morio, Pascal Despretz, Marion Luyat
We investigated the role of the visual eye-height (VEH) in the perception of affordance during short-term exposure to weightlessness. Sixteen participants were tested during parabolic flight (0g) and on the ground (1g). Participants looked at a laptop showing a room in which a doorway-like aperture was presented. They were asked to adjust the opening of the virtual doorway until it was perceived to be just wide enough to pass through (i.e., the critical aperture). We manipulated VEH by raising the level of the floor in the visual room by 25 cm...
2016: PloS One
T Macaluso, C Bourdin, F Buloup, M-L Mille, P Sainton, F R Sarlegna, V Taillebot, J-L Vercher, P Weiss, L Bringoux
Astronauts' training is conventionally performed in a pool to reproduce weightlessness by exploiting buoyancy which is supposed to reduce the impact of gravity on the body. However, this training method has not been scientifically validated yet, and requires first to study the effects of underwater exposure on motor behavior. We examined the influence of neutral buoyancy on kinematic features of whole-body reaching underwater and compared them with those produced on land. Eight professional divers were asked to perform arm reaching movements toward visual targets while standing...
July 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Daniela Grimm, Jirka Grosse, Markus Wehland, Vivek Mann, Janne Elin Reseland, Alamelu Sundaresan, Thomas Juhl Corydon
Experiencing real weightlessness in space is a dream for many of us who are interested in space research. Although space traveling fascinates us, it can cause both short-term and long-term health problems. Microgravity is the most important influence on the human organism in space. The human body undergoes dramatic changes during a long-term spaceflight. In this review, we will mainly focus on changes in calcium, sodium and bone metabolism of space travelers. Moreover, we report on the current knowledge on the mechanisms of bone loss in space, available models to simulate the effects of microgravity on bone on Earth as well as the combined effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on bone...
June 2016: Bone
D V Lychakov
The review contains data on functional changes in mammals caused by changes in the operation of vestibular system after space flight. These data show that the vestibular system of mammals responds to weightlessness challenge differently at various ontogenetic stages. Orbital space flight conditions have a weak effect on the developing vestibular system during embryonic period. The weightlessness conditions have rather beneficial effect on development of the fetuses. During the early postnatal period, when optimal sensory-motor tactics are created, the prolonged stay under conditions of space flight leads to development of novel, "extraterrestrial" sensory-motor programs that can be fixed in CNS, apparently, for the whole life...
November 2015: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
Hei Zhang, Guozhen Zhao, Desheng Wang, Baixiao Zhao, Bo Ji, Yan Song, Ping Zhang, Yali Liu, Yinghui Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the change pattern of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and related neurotransmitters under simulated weightlessness. METHODS: A total of 40 clean-grade male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a tail-suspension group, an electroacupuncture (EA) at Neiguan (PC 6) group, an EA at Sanyinjiao (SP 6) group, 10 rats in each group. Rats in the tail-suspension group, EA at "Neiguan" (PC 6) group and EA at "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) group were treated with tail suspension to simulate weightlessness effect...
December 2015: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Shen Zhang, Dahan Zheng, Yonggen Wu, Wei Lin, Zaichong Chen, Luhe Meng, Jun Liu, Ying Zhou
BACKGROUND: Growing cells in simulated weightlessness condition might be a highly promising new technique to maintain or generate tissue constructs in a scaffold-free manner. There is limited evidence that microgravity condition may affect development of ovarian follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simulated microgravity on the in vitro development of mouse preantral follicles. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ovarian tissue from 14-day-old mice, or preantral follicles mechanically isolated from 14-day-old mouse ovaries were cultured at a simulated microgravity condition generated using a rotating wall vessel apparatus...
2016: PloS One
Huiyun Xu, Ruofei Liu, Dandan Ning, Jian Zhang, Ruixin Yang, Manuel A Riquelme, Jingbao Li, Jean X Jiang, Peng Shang
Connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels and gap junctions in osteocytes are responsive to mechanical loading, which is important for bone formation and remodeling. However, the mechanism of these Cx43-forming channels in the process of mechanical unloading is still not very clear. In this study, unloading caused by weightlessness was simulated by using a random position machine (RPM). Osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells were subjected to 2 hrs of RPM treatment, and levels of Cx43 mRNA and total and cell surface expressed protein were determined by quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and biotinylation analysis...
March 4, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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