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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170507/increased-core-body-temperature-in-astronauts-during-long-duration-space-missions
#1
Alexander C Stahn, Andreas Werner, Oliver Opatz, Martina A Maggioni, Mathias Steinach, Victoria Weller von Ahlefeld, Alan Moore, Brian E Crucian, Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart, Thomas Schlabs, Stefan Mendt, Tobias Trippel, Eberhard Koralewski, Jochim Koch, Alexander Choukèr, Günther Reitz, Peng Shang, Lothar Röcker, Karl A Kirsch, Hanns-Christian Gunga
Humans' core body temperature (CBT) is strictly controlled within a narrow range. Various studies dealt with the impact of physical activity, clothing, and environmental factors on CBT regulation under terrestrial conditions. However, the effects of weightlessness on human thermoregulation are not well understood. Specifically, studies, investigating the effects of long-duration spaceflight on CBT at rest and during exercise are clearly lacking. We here show that during exercise CBT rises higher and faster in space than on Earth...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163225/human-locomotion-in-hypogravity-from-basic-research-to-clinical-applications
#2
REVIEW
Francesco Lacquaniti, Yury P Ivanenko, Francesca Sylos-Labini, Valentina La Scaleia, Barbara La Scaleia, Patrick A Willems, Myrka Zago
We have considerable knowledge about the mechanisms underlying compensation of Earth gravity during locomotion, a knowledge obtained from physiological, biomechanical, modeling, developmental, comparative, and paleoanthropological studies. By contrast, we know much less about locomotion and movement in general under sustained hypogravity. This lack of information poses a serious problem for human space exploration. In a near future humans will walk again on the Moon and for the first time on Mars. It would be important to predict how they will move around, since we know that locomotion and mobility in general may be jeopardized in hypogravity, especially when landing after a prolonged weightlessness of the space flight...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163058/adaptive-changes-in-the-vestibular-system-of-land-snail-to-a-30-day-spaceflight-and-readaptation-on-return-to-earth
#3
Nikolay Aseyev, Alia Kh Vinarskaya, Matvey Roshchin, Tatiana A Korshunova, Aleksey Yu Malyshev, Alena B Zuzina, Victor N Ierusalimsky, Maria S Lemak, Igor S Zakharov, Ivan A Novikov, Peter Kolosov, Ekaterina Chesnokova, Svetlana Volkova, Artem Kasianov, Leonid Uroshlev, Yekaterina Popova, Richard D Boyle, Pavel M Balaban
The vestibular system receives a permanent influence from gravity and reflexively controls equilibrium. If we assume gravity has remained constant during the species' evolution, will its sensory system adapt to abrupt loss of that force? We address this question in the land snail Helix lucorum exposed to 30 days of near weightlessness aboard the Bion-M1 satellite, and studied geotactic behavior of postflight snails, differential gene expressions in statocyst transcriptome, and electrophysiological responses of mechanoreceptors to applied tilts...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157342/molecular-biological-effects-of-weightlessness-and-hypergravity-on-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#4
Di Wu, Chao Zheng, Ji Wu, Rongrong Huang, Xuanyu Chen, Tong Zhang, Lili Zhang
INTRODUCTION: The rate of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is influenced by environmental factors. Extracellular matrix (ECM) destruction and apoptosis of intervertebral disc cells are major characteristics of IVDD. ECM degradation is closely linked to up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP). This study aimed to elucidate the molecular biological changes during IVDD under conditions of weightlessness and hypergravity. METHODS: A total of 120 rabbits were divided randomly into four groups: control group, weightlessness group, hypergravity group, and mixed (hypergravity + weightlessness) group...
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153458/thigh-cuffs-as-a-countermeasure-for-ocular-changes-in-simulated-weightlessness
#5
Siva Balasubramanian, Tudor Tepelus, Michael B Stenger, Stuart M C Lee, Steven S Laurie, John H K Liu, Alan H Feiveson, SriniVas R Sadda, Alex S Huang, Brandon R Macias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104544/sensorimotor-reorganizations-of-arm-kinematics-and-postural-strategy-for-functional-whole-body-reaching-movements-in-microgravity
#6
Thomas Macaluso, Christophe Bourdin, Frank Buloup, Marie-Laure Mille, Patrick Sainton, Fabrice R Sarlegna, Jean-Louis Vercher, Lionel Bringoux
Understanding the impact of weightlessness on human behavior during the forthcoming long-term space missions is of critical importance, especially when considering the efficiency of goal-directed movements in these unusual environments. Several studies provided a large set of evidence that gravity is taken into account during the planning stage of arm reaching movements to optimally anticipate its consequence upon the moving limbs. However, less is known about sensorimotor changes required to face weightless environments when individuals have to perform fast and accurate goal-directed actions with whole-body displacement...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081752/multi-system-deconditioning-in-3-day-dry-immersion-without-daily-raise
#7
Steven De Abreu, Liubov Amirova, Ronan Murphy, Robert Wallace, Laura Twomey, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Veronique Raverot, Françoise Larcher, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Nastassia Navasiolava
Dry immersion (DI) is a Russian-developed, ground-based model to study the physiological effects of microgravity. It accurately reproduces environmental conditions of weightlessness, such as enhanced physical inactivity, suppression of hydrostatic pressure and supportlessness. We aimed to study the integrative physiological responses to a 3-day strict DI protocol in 12 healthy men, and to assess the extent of multi-system deconditioning. We recorded general clinical data, biological data and evaluated body fluid changes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081428/motor-imagery-of-body-movements-that-can-t-be-executed-on-earth
#8
Michael Kalicinski, Otmar Bock, Nadja Schott
BACKGROUND: Before participating in a space mission, astronauts undergo parabolic-flight and underwater training to facilitate their subsequent adaptation to weightlessness. A quick, simple and inexpensive alternative could be training by motor imagery (MI). OBJECTIVE: An important prerequisite for this training approach is that humans are able to imagine movements which are unfamiliar, since they can't be performed in the presence of gravity. Our study addresses this prerequisite...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079684/spaceflight-induced-changes-in-white-matter-hyperintensity-burden-in-astronauts
#9
Noam Alperin, Ahmet M Bagci, Sang H Lee
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of weightlessness and the respective roles of CSF and vascular fluid on changes in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden in astronauts. METHODS: We analyzed prespaceflight and postspaceflight brain MRI scans from 17 astronauts, 10 who flew a long-duration mission on the International Space Station (ISS) and 7 who flew a short-duration mission on the Space Shuttle. Automated analysis methods were used to determine preflight to postflight changes in periventricular and deep WMH, CSF, and brain tissue volumes in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging...
October 27, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075198/impacts-of-simulated-weightlessness-by-dry-immersion-on-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-and-cerebral-autoregulation
#10
Marc Kermorgant, Florian Leca, Nathalie Nasr, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Thomas Geeraerts, Marek Czosnyka, Dina N Arvanitis, Jean-Michel Senard, Anne Pavy-Le Traon
Dry immersion (DI) is used to simulate weightlessness. We investigated in healthy volunteers if DI induces changes in ONSD, as a surrogate marker of intracranial pressure (ICP) and how these changes could affect cerebral autoregulation (CA). Changes in ICP were indirectly measured by changes in optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD). 12 healthy male volunteers underwent 3 days of DI. ONSD was indirectly assessed by ocular ultrasonography. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) of the middle cerebral artery was gauged using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053152/heart-in-space-effect-of-the-extraterrestrial-environment-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#11
REVIEW
Richard L Hughson, Alexander Helm, Marco Durante
National space agencies and private corporations aim at an extended presence of humans in space in the medium to long term. Together with currently suboptimal technology, microgravity and cosmic rays raise health concerns about deep-space exploration missions. Both of these physical factors affect the cardiovascular system, whose gravity-dependence is pronounced. Heart and vascular function are, therefore, susceptible to substantial changes in weightlessness. The altered cardiovascular function in space causes physiological problems in the postflight period...
October 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046415/skeletal-stiffening-in-an-amphibious-fish-out-of-water-is-a-response-to-increased-body-weight
#12
Andy J Turko, Dietmar Kültz, Douglas Fudge, Roger P Croll, Frank M Smith, Matthew R Stoyek, Patricia A Wright
Terrestrial animals must support their bodies against gravity, while aquatic animals are effectively weightless because of buoyant support from water. Given this evolutionary history of minimal gravitational loading of fishes in water, it has been hypothesized that weight-responsive musculoskeletal systems evolved during the tetrapod invasion of land and are thus absent in fishes. Amphibious fishes, however, experience increased effective weight when out of water - are these fishes responsive to gravitational loading? Contrary to the tetrapod-origin hypothesis, we found that terrestrial acclimation reversibly increased gill arch stiffness (∼60% increase) in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus when loaded normally by gravity, but not under simulated microgravity...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933017/present-uses-future-applications-and-technical-underpinnings-of-electrical-impedance-myography
#13
REVIEW
Benjamin Sanchez, Seward B Rutkove
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we provide an overview of electrical impedance myography (EIM), including its technical and theoretical basis, a summary of its varied applications, and ongoing developments. RECENT FINDINGS: EIM has been used as a disease severity biomarker in a variety of disorders affecting the muscle, ranging from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to muscular dystrophies to disuse atrophy due to the weightlessness of space. In ALS, studies have demonstrated that major reductions in sample size in clinical trials can be achieved...
September 20, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923138/orientation-preferences-and-motion-sickness-induced-in-a-virtual-reality-environment
#14
Wei Chen, Jian-Gang Chao, Yan Zhang, Jin-Kun Wang, Xue-Wen Chen, Cheng Tan
BACKGROUND: Astronauts' orientation preferences tend to correlate with their susceptibility to space motion sickness (SMS). Orientation preferences appear universally, since variable sensory cue priorities are used between individuals. However, SMS susceptibility changes after proper training, while orientation preferences seem to be intrinsic proclivities. The present study was conducted to investigate whether orientation preferences change if susceptibility is reduced after repeated exposure to a virtual reality (VR) stimulus environment that induces SMS...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868148/automatic-disease-diagnosis-using-optimised-weightless-neural-networks-for-low-power-wearable-devices
#15
Ramalingaswamy Cheruku, Damodar Reddy Edla, Venkatanareshbabu Kuppili, Ramesh Dharavath, Nareshkumar Reddy Beechu
Low-power wearable devices for disease diagnosis are used at anytime and anywhere. These are non-invasive and pain-free for the better quality of life. However, these devices are resource constrained in terms of memory and processing capability. Memory constraint allows these devices to store a limited number of patterns and processing constraint provides delayed response. It is a challenging task to design a robust classification system under above constraints with high accuracy. In this Letter, to resolve this problem, a novel architecture for weightless neural networks (WNNs) has been proposed...
August 2017: Healthcare Technology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809066/participation-in-water-exercising-long-term-after-breast-cancer-surgery-experiences-of-significant-factors-for-continuing-exercising-as-a-part-of-cancer-rehabilitation
#16
A Enblom, H Lindquist, K Bergmark
Although physical exercising has great benefits, little is known regarding factors of significance for cancer survivors to continue exercising within their rehabilitation. The objective was to describe factors experienced to be of significance for cancer survivors to continue with water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery. Women (n = 29) who had undergone breast cancer surgery (mastectomy 79%, axillary surgery 86%, and radiotherapy 86%) for median (md) 13 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) was followed up regarding their rehabilitation, arm function Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (md 14, IQR 7-32), EQ-5D score (md 0...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773124/investigation-of-molecular-structure-and-thermal-properties-of-thermo-oxidative-aged-sbs-in-blends-and-their-relations
#17
Xiong Xu, Jianying Yu, Lihui Xue, Canlin Zhang, Yagang Zha, Yi Gu
Tri-block copolymer styrene-butadiene (SBS) is extensively applied in bituminous highway construction due to its high elasticity and excellent weather resistance. With the extension of time, tri-block structural SBS automatically degrades into bi-block structural SB- with some terminal oxygen-containing groups under the comprehensive effects of light, heat, oxygen, etc. In this paper, the effects of aging temperature, aging time and oxygen concentration on the molecular structure of thermo-oxidative aged SBS were mainly investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the correlation between oxygen-containing groups and thermal properties (TG-DTG) was further discussed...
July 7, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744943/internal-carotid-external-carotid-and-vertebral-artery-blood-flow-responses-to-3-days-of-head-out-dry-immersion
#18
Shigehiko Ogoh, Ai Hirasawa, Steven de Abreu, Pierre Denise, Hervé Normand
What is the central question of this study? The extent to which weightlessness associated with a fluid shift from the peripheral to the central circulation influences the blood flow in each cerebral artery remains unknown. The present study was designed to explore the effect of short-term weightlessness conditions on both anterior and posterior cerebral blood flow. What is the main finding and its importance? Short-term weightlessness affects both anterior and posterior cerebral vasculature. However, a heterogeneous cerebral blood flow response in each cerebral artery did not occur during 3 days of dry immersion...
July 26, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684705/measuring-the-transition-rates-of-coalescence-events-during-double-phase-separation-in-microgravity
#19
Ana Oprisan, Yves Garrabos, Carole Lecoutre, Daniel Beysens
Phase transition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, science and technology. In general, the phase separation from a homogeneous phase depends on the depth of the temperature quench into the two-phase region. Earth's gravity masks the details of phase separation phenomena, which is why experiments were performed under weightlessness. Under such conditions, the pure fluid sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) near its critical point also benefits from the universality of phase separation behavior and critical slowing down of dynamics...
July 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671635/osteoprotective-effect-of-radix-scutellariae-in-female-hindlimb-suspended-sprague-dawley-rats-and-the-osteogenic-differentiation-effect-of-its-major-constituent
#20
Guangwei Zhang, Chenrui Li, Yinbo Niu, Qi Yu, Yulong Chen, Enqi Liu
A number of medicinal herbs have demonstrated therapeutic effects for the prevention and treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis. As a common ingredient in proprietary traditional Chinese medicines, the anti-osteoporosis effects of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE, 50 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in a hindlimb suspended rat model. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the micro-architecture observed by MicroCT assay with bone biomechanical properties evaluated by a three-point bending test...
July 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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