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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921356/resting-state-brain-activity-during-long-term-dry-immersion
#1
Ivan E Lazarev, Elena S Tomilovskaya, Inesa B Kozlovskaya
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work was to investigate the brain's rhythmic activity during a simulated microgravity condition (namely dry immersion). METHODS: During dry immersion, which lasted for 5 d, nine subjects (healthy men, 20 to 29 yr of age) were individually placed in a tub (2.2 × 1.1 × 0.85 m) filled with water (temperature was kept constant at about 33°C). Subject floated in the tub without bodily support in the supine horizontal position, but isolated from the water by waterproof material...
July 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850002/effect-of-constraint-loading-on-the-lower-limb-muscle-forces-in-weightless-treadmill-exercise
#2
Ning Guo, Xingyu Fan, Yuting Wu, Zhili Li, Shujuan Liu, Linjie Wang, Jie Yao, Yinghui Li
Long exposure to the microgravity will lead to muscle atrophy and bone loss. Treadmill exercise could mitigate the musculoskeletal decline. But muscle atrophy remains inevitable. The constraint loading applied on astronauts could affect the muscle force and its atrophy severity. However, the quantitative correlation between constraint loading mode and muscle forces remains unclear. This study aimed to characterize the influence of constraint loading mode on the lower limb muscle forces in weightless treadmill exercise...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794004/role-of-the-light-source-position-in-freely-falling-hoverflies-stabilization-performances
#3
Roman Goulard, Anna Verbe, Jean-Louis Vercher, Stéphane Viollet
The stabilization of plummeting hoverflies was filmed and analysed in terms of their wingbeat initiation times as well as the crash and stabilization rates. The flies experienced near-weightlessness for a period of time that depended on their ability to counteract the free fall by triggering their wingbeats. In this paradigm, hoverflies' flight stabilization strategies were investigated here for the first time under two different positions of the light source (overhead and bottom lighting). The crash rates were higher in bottom lighting conditions than with top lighting...
May 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761979/-remodeling-simulation-of-human-femur-under-bed-rest-and-spaceflight-circumstances-based-on-three-dimensional-finite-element-analysis
#4
Wenting Yang, Dongmei Wang, Zhoujixin Lei, Chunhui Wang, Shanguang Chen
Astronauts who are exposed to weightless environment in long-term spaceflight might encounter bone density and mass loss for the mechanical stimulus is smaller than normal value. This study built a three dimensional model of human femur to simulate the remodeling process of human femur during bed rest experiment based on finite element analysis (FEA). The remodeling parameters of this finite element model was validated after comparing experimental and numerical results. Then, the remodeling process of human femur in weightless environment was simulated, and the remodeling function of time was derived...
December 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740095/biofabrication-of-in-situ-self-assembled-3d-cell-cultures-in-a-weightlessness-environment-generated-using-magnetic-levitation
#5
Muge Anil-Inevi, Sena Yaman, Ahu Arslan Yildiz, Gulistan Mese, Ozden Yalcin-Ozuysal, H Cumhur Tekin, Engin Ozcivici
Magnetic levitation though negative magnetophoresis is a novel technology to simulate weightlessness and has recently found applications in material and biological sciences. Yet little is known about the ability of the magnetic levitation system to facilitate biofabrication of in situ three dimensional (3D) cellular structures. Here, we optimized a magnetic levitation though negative magnetophoresis protocol appropriate for long term levitated cell culture and developed an in situ 3D cellular assembly model with controlled cluster size and cellular pattern under simulated weightlessness...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710687/analysis-of-human-microcirculation-in-weightlessness-study-protocol-and-pre-study-experiments
#6
Nana-Yaw Bimpong-Buta, Peter Jirak, Bernhard Wernly, Michael Lichtenauer, Maryna Masyuk, Johanna Maria Muessig, Kristina Braun, Sema Kaya, Malte Kelm, Christian Jung
BACKGROUND: In weightlessness, alterations in organ systems have been reported. The microcirculation consists of a network of blood vessels with diameters of a few μm. It is considered the largest part of the circulatory system of the human body and essential for exchange of gas, nutrients and waste products. An investigation of the microcirculation in weightlessness seems warranted but has not yet been performed. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we outline a study in which we will investigate the possible interrelations between weightlessness and microcirculation...
April 14, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693211/physiological-effects-of-weightlessness-countermeasure-system-development-for-a-long-term-chinese-manned-spaceflight
#7
REVIEW
Linjie Wang, Zhili Li, Cheng Tan, Shujuan Liu, Jianfeng Zhang, Siyang He, Peng Zou, Weibo Liu, Yinghui Li
The Chinese space station will be built around 2020. As a national space laboratory, it will offer unique opportunities for studying the physiological effects of weightlessness and the efficacy of the countermeasures against such effects. In this paper, we described the development of countermeasure systems in the Chinese space program. To emphasize the need of the Chinese space program to implement its own program for developing countermeasures, we reviewed the literature on the negative physiological effects of weightlessness, the challenges of completing missions, the development of countermeasure devices, the establishment of countermeasure programs, and the efficacy of the countermeasure techniques in American and Russian manned spaceflights...
April 25, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663938/cohousing-male-mice-with-and-without-segmental-bone-defects
#8
Jeffrey D Rytlewski, Paul J Childress, David C Scofield, Faisal Khan, Marta B Alvarez, Aamir T Tucker, Jonathan S Harris, Jessica L Peveler, Debra L Hickman, Tien-Min G Chu, Melissa A Kacena
Spaceflight results in bone loss like that associated with osteoporosis or decreased weight-bearing (for example, high-energy trauma such as explosive injuries and automobile accidents). Thus, the unique spaceflight laboratory on the International Space Station presents the opportunity to test bone healing agents during weightlessness. We are collaborating with NASA and the US Army to study bone healing in spaceflight. Given the unique constraints of spaceflight, study design optimization was required. Male mice were selected primarily because their femur is larger than females', allowing for more reproducible surgical outcomes...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581965/involvement-of-cholinergic-dysfunction-and-oxidative-damage-in-the-effects-of-simulated-weightlessness-on-learning-and-memory-in-rats
#9
Yongliang Zhang, Qiong Wang, Hailong Chen, Xinmin Liu, Ke Lv, Tingmei Wang, Yanli Wang, Guohua Ji, Hongqing Cao, Guanghan Kan, Yinghui Li, Lina Qu
The present study aimed to determine how the learning and memory gradually change with the prolonged hindlimb unloading (HU) treatment in rats. Different HU durations (7 d, 14 d, 21 d, and 28 d) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were implemented. Cognitive function was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) and the shuttle box test. Additionally, parameters about cholinergic activity and oxidative stress were tested. Results showed that longer-than-14 d HU led to the inferior performances in the behavioral tasks...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555246/functional-outcomes-18-months-after-total-and-midarm-transplantation-a-case-report
#10
M Iglesias, M Ramírez-Berumen, P Butrón, J Alberú-Gómez, F Salazar-Hernández, J Macias-Gallardo, R P Leal-Villalpando, J Zamudio-Bautista, V Acosta, L Jauregui, A Hernández-Campos, V Espinosa-Cruz, J Vázquez-Lamadrid, J González-Sánchez, J Cuellar-Rodriguez, J G Sierra-Madero, R Gaytan-Cervantes, S Contreras-Barbosa, A Navarro-Lara, J Guzman-Gonzalez, J Domínguez-Cherit, M Vilatoba, S Toussaint-Caire, F Vega-Boada, F J Gómez-Pérez, M Mayorquin-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: The function reported after arm transplantation is deemed beneficial relative to the marked disability that upper arm amputation causes. OBJECTIVE: We report a 51-year-old man with a Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score of 75.83 who underwent bilateral arm transplantation in October 2015. PROCEDURE: The right arm was transplanted at the glenohumeral joint level, including transplantation of the humeral head, joint capsule, and rotator cuff ligaments and tendons...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523302/sleep-and-gravity
#11
Alain A Gonfalone
What is known about sleep results from years of observation at the surface of the Earth. Since a few decade man has been able to reach space, escape from the earth attraction and spend days and nights in a weightless condition. Some major physiological changes have been observed during long stays and in particular the sleep duration in space is shorter than on ground. This paper reviews a novel hypothesis proposing that sleep is partly due to gravity. Gravity is a fundamental part of our environment, but is elusive and difficult to apprehend...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506759/modulation-of-shoulder-muscle-and-joint-function-using-a-powered-upper-limb-exoskeleton
#12
Wen Wu, Justin Fong, Vincent Crocher, Peter V S Lee, Denny Oetomo, Ying Tan, David C Ackland
Robotic-assistive exoskeletons can enable frequent repetitive movements without the presence of a full-time therapist; however, human-machine interaction and the capacity of powered exoskeletons to attenuate shoulder muscle and joint loading is poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify shoulder muscle and joint force during assisted activities of daily living using a powered robotic upper limb exoskeleton (ArmeoPower, Hocoma). Six healthy male subjects performed abduction, flexion, horizontal flexion, reaching and nose touching activities...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482297/water-immersion-model-in-nephrology-from-hydrotherapy-to-weightlessness
#13
Jan Dulawa, Michal Kokot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393447/simulated-microgravity-hampers-notch-signaling-in-the-fight-against-myocardial-ischemia%C3%A2-reperfusion-injury
#14
Shuai Jiang, Xing-Cheng Zhao, Bo Jiao, Zhi-Jie Yue, Zhi-Bin Yu
The gravitational field is an important determinant of cardiovascular function. Exposure to microgravity during spaceflight may lead to a series of maladaptive alterations in the cardiovascular system. The authors have previously demonstrated that microgravity can increase the susceptibility to myocardial ischemia‑reperfusion (IR) injury under simulated microgravity. Although Notch1 signaling protects against myocardial IR injury, whether Notch1 protects against myocardial IR injury under simulated weightlessness remains unknown...
April 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170507/increased-core-body-temperature-in-astronauts-during-long-duration-space-missions
#15
Alexander C Stahn, Andreas Werner, Oliver Opatz, Martina A Maggioni, Mathias Steinach, Victoria Weller von Ahlefeld, Alan Moore, Brian E Crucian, Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart, Thomas Schlabs, Stefan Mendt, Tobias Trippel, Eberhard Koralewski, Jochim Koch, Alexander Choukèr, Günther Reitz, Peng Shang, Lothar Röcker, Karl A Kirsch, Hanns-Christian Gunga
Humans' core body temperature (CBT) is strictly controlled within a narrow range. Various studies dealt with the impact of physical activity, clothing, and environmental factors on CBT regulation under terrestrial conditions. However, the effects of weightlessness on human thermoregulation are not well understood. Specifically, studies, investigating the effects of long-duration spaceflight on CBT at rest and during exercise are clearly lacking. We here show that during exercise CBT rises higher and faster in space than on Earth...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163225/human-locomotion-in-hypogravity-from-basic-research-to-clinical-applications
#16
REVIEW
Francesco Lacquaniti, Yury P Ivanenko, Francesca Sylos-Labini, Valentina La Scaleia, Barbara La Scaleia, Patrick A Willems, Myrka Zago
We have considerable knowledge about the mechanisms underlying compensation of Earth gravity during locomotion, a knowledge obtained from physiological, biomechanical, modeling, developmental, comparative, and paleoanthropological studies. By contrast, we know much less about locomotion and movement in general under sustained hypogravity. This lack of information poses a serious problem for human space exploration. In a near future humans will walk again on the Moon and for the first time on Mars. It would be important to predict how they will move around, since we know that locomotion and mobility in general may be jeopardized in hypogravity, especially when landing after a prolonged weightlessness of the space flight...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163058/adaptive-changes-in-the-vestibular-system-of-land-snail-to-a-30-day-spaceflight-and-readaptation-on-return-to-earth
#17
Nikolay Aseyev, Alia Kh Vinarskaya, Matvey Roshchin, Tatiana A Korshunova, Aleksey Yu Malyshev, Alena B Zuzina, Victor N Ierusalimsky, Maria S Lemak, Igor S Zakharov, Ivan A Novikov, Peter Kolosov, Ekaterina Chesnokova, Svetlana Volkova, Artem Kasianov, Leonid Uroshlev, Yekaterina Popova, Richard D Boyle, Pavel M Balaban
The vestibular system receives a permanent influence from gravity and reflexively controls equilibrium. If we assume gravity has remained constant during the species' evolution, will its sensory system adapt to abrupt loss of that force? We address this question in the land snail Helix lucorum exposed to 30 days of near weightlessness aboard the Bion-M1 satellite, and studied geotactic behavior of postflight snails, differential gene expressions in statocyst transcriptome, and electrophysiological responses of mechanoreceptors to applied tilts...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157342/molecular-biological-effects-of-weightlessness-and-hypergravity-on-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#18
Di Wu, Chao Zheng, Ji Wu, Rongrong Huang, Xuanyu Chen, Tong Zhang, Lili Zhang
INTRODUCTION: The rate of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is influenced by environmental factors. Extracellular matrix (ECM) destruction and apoptosis of intervertebral disc cells are major characteristics of IVDD. ECM degradation is closely linked to up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP). This study aimed to elucidate the molecular biological changes during IVDD under conditions of weightlessness and hypergravity. METHODS: A total of 120 rabbits were divided randomly into four groups: control group, weightlessness group, hypergravity group, and mixed (hypergravity + weightlessness) group...
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153458/thigh-cuffs-as-a-countermeasure-for-ocular-changes-in-simulated-weightlessness
#19
Siva Balasubramanian, Tudor Tepelus, Michael B Stenger, Stuart M C Lee, Steven S Laurie, John H K Liu, Alan H Feiveson, SriniVas R Sadda, Alex S Huang, Brandon R Macias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104544/sensorimotor-reorganizations-of-arm-kinematics-and-postural-strategy-for-functional-whole-body-reaching-movements-in-microgravity
#20
Thomas Macaluso, Christophe Bourdin, Frank Buloup, Marie-Laure Mille, Patrick Sainton, Fabrice R Sarlegna, Jean-Louis Vercher, Lionel Bringoux
Understanding the impact of weightlessness on human behavior during the forthcoming long-term space missions is of critical importance, especially when considering the efficiency of goal-directed movements in these unusual environments. Several studies provided a large set of evidence that gravity is taken into account during the planning stage of arm reaching movements to optimally anticipate its consequence upon the moving limbs. However, less is known about sensorimotor changes required to face weightless environments when individuals have to perform fast and accurate goal-directed actions with whole-body displacement...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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