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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046415/skeletal-stiffening-in-an-amphibious-fish-out-of-water-is-a-response-to-increased-body-weight
#1
Andy J Turko, Dietmar Kültz, Douglas Fudge, Roger P Croll, Frank M Smith, Matthew R Stoyek, Patricia A Wright
Terrestrial animals must support their bodies against gravity, while aquatic animals are effectively weightless because of buoyant support from water. Given this evolutionary history of minimal gravitational loading of fishes in water, it has been hypothesized that weight-responsive musculoskeletal systems evolved during the tetrapod invasion of land and are thus absent in fishes. Amphibious fishes, however, experience increased effective weight when out of water - are these fishes responsive to gravitational loading? Contrary to the tetrapod-origin hypothesis, we found that terrestrial acclimation reversibly increased gill arch stiffness (∼60% increase) in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus when loaded normally by gravity, but not under simulated microgravity...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933017/present-uses-future-applications-and-technical-underpinnings-of-electrical-impedance-myography
#2
REVIEW
Benjamin Sanchez, Seward B Rutkove
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we provide an overview of electrical impedance myography (EIM), including its technical and theoretical basis, a summary of its varied applications, and ongoing developments. RECENT FINDINGS: EIM has been used as a disease severity biomarker in a variety of disorders affecting the muscle, ranging from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to muscular dystrophies to disuse atrophy due to the weightlessness of space. In ALS, studies have demonstrated that major reductions in sample size in clinical trials can be achieved...
September 20, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923138/orientation-preferences-and-motion-sickness-induced-in-a-virtual-reality-environment
#3
Wei Chen, Jian-Gang Chao, Yan Zhang, Jin-Kun Wang, Xue-Wen Chen, Cheng Tan
BACKGROUND: Astronauts' orientation preferences tend to correlate with their susceptibility to space motion sickness (SMS). Orientation preferences appear universally, since variable sensory cue priorities are used between individuals. However, SMS susceptibility changes after proper training, while orientation preferences seem to be intrinsic proclivities. The present study was conducted to investigate whether orientation preferences change if susceptibility is reduced after repeated exposure to a virtual reality (VR) stimulus environment that induces SMS...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868148/automatic-disease-diagnosis-using-optimised-weightless-neural-networks-for-low-power-wearable-devices
#4
Ramalingaswamy Cheruku, Damodar Reddy Edla, Venkatanareshbabu Kuppili, Ramesh Dharavath, Nareshkumar Reddy Beechu
Low-power wearable devices for disease diagnosis are used at anytime and anywhere. These are non-invasive and pain-free for the better quality of life. However, these devices are resource constrained in terms of memory and processing capability. Memory constraint allows these devices to store a limited number of patterns and processing constraint provides delayed response. It is a challenging task to design a robust classification system under above constraints with high accuracy. In this Letter, to resolve this problem, a novel architecture for weightless neural networks (WNNs) has been proposed...
August 2017: Healthcare Technology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809066/participation-in-water-exercising-long-term-after-breast-cancer-surgery-experiences-of-significant-factors-for-continuing-exercising-as-a-part-of-cancer-rehabilitation
#5
A Enblom, H Lindquist, K Bergmark
Although physical exercising has great benefits, little is known regarding factors of significance for cancer survivors to continue exercising within their rehabilitation. The objective was to describe factors experienced to be of significance for cancer survivors to continue with water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery. Women (n = 29) who had undergone breast cancer surgery (mastectomy 79%, axillary surgery 86%, and radiotherapy 86%) for median (md) 13 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) was followed up regarding their rehabilitation, arm function Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (md 14, IQR 7-32), EQ-5D score (md 0...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773124/investigation-of-molecular-structure-and-thermal-properties-of-thermo-oxidative-aged-sbs-in-blends-and-their-relations
#6
Xiong Xu, Jianying Yu, Lihui Xue, Canlin Zhang, Yagang Zha, Yi Gu
Tri-block copolymer styrene-butadiene (SBS) is extensively applied in bituminous highway construction due to its high elasticity and excellent weather resistance. With the extension of time, tri-block structural SBS automatically degrades into bi-block structural SB- with some terminal oxygen-containing groups under the comprehensive effects of light, heat, oxygen, etc. In this paper, the effects of aging temperature, aging time and oxygen concentration on the molecular structure of thermo-oxidative aged SBS were mainly investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the correlation between oxygen-containing groups and thermal properties (TG-DTG) was further discussed...
July 7, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744943/internal-carotid-external-carotid-and-vertebral-artery-blood-flow-responses-to-3-days-of-head-out-dry-immersion
#7
Shigehiko Ogoh, Ai Hirasawa, Steven de Abreu, Pierre Denise, Hervé Normand
What is the central question of this study? The extent to which weightlessness associated with a fluid shift from the peripheral to the central circulation influences the blood flow in each cerebral artery remains unknown. The present study was designed to explore the effect of short-term weightlessness conditions on both anterior and posterior cerebral blood flow. What is the main finding and its importance? Short-term weightlessness affects both anterior and posterior cerebral vasculature. However, a heterogeneous cerebral blood flow response in each cerebral artery did not occur during 3 days of dry immersion...
July 26, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684705/measuring-the-transition-rates-of-coalescence-events-during-double-phase-separation-in-microgravity
#8
Ana Oprisan, Yves Garrabos, Carole Lecoutre, Daniel Beysens
Phase transition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, science and technology. In general, the phase separation from a homogeneous phase depends on the depth of the temperature quench into the two-phase region. Earth's gravity masks the details of phase separation phenomena, which is why experiments were performed under weightlessness. Under such conditions, the pure fluid sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) near its critical point also benefits from the universality of phase separation behavior and critical slowing down of dynamics...
July 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671635/osteoprotective-effect-of-radix-scutellariae-in-female-hindlimb-suspended-sprague-dawley-rats-and-the-osteogenic-differentiation-effect-of-its-major-constituent
#9
Guangwei Zhang, Chenrui Li, Yinbo Niu, Qi Yu, Yulong Chen, Enqi Liu
A number of medicinal herbs have demonstrated therapeutic effects for the prevention and treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis. As a common ingredient in proprietary traditional Chinese medicines, the anti-osteoporosis effects of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE, 50 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in a hindlimb suspended rat model. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the micro-architecture observed by MicroCT assay with bone biomechanical properties evaluated by a three-point bending test...
July 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628601/the-damage-control-surgery-in-austere-environments-research-group-dcsaerg-a-dynamic-program-to-facilitate-real-time-telementoring-telediagnosis-to-address-exsanguination-in-extreme-and-austere-environments
#10
Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Jessica L McKee, Paul B McBeth, Chad G Ball, Anthony LaPorta, Timothy Broderick, Tim Leslie, David King, Heather E Wright Beatty, Jocelyn Keillor, Homer Tien
Hemorrhage is the most preventable cause of posttraumatic death. Many cases are potentially anatomically salvageable, yet remain lethal without logistics or trained personnel to deliver diagnosis or resuscitative surgery in austere environments. Revolutions in technology for remote mentoring of ultrasound and surgery may enhance capabilities to utilize the skill sets of non-physicians. Thus, our research collaborative explored remote mentoring to empower non-physicians to address junctional and torso hemorrhage control in austere environments...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628154/-morphological-changes-on-cochlear-hair-cells-of-rats-in-simulated-weightlessness-and-inboard-noise
#11
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To observe the morphological changes on cochlear hair cells of rats in simulated weightlessness and inboard noise and to investigate the different changes in three turns of hair cells. METHODS: Thirty-two healthy SD rats, all males, were randomly divided into four groups: control group, weightlessness group, noise group and weightlessness+noise groups (n=8). Then rats were exposed to -30° head down tilt as simulated weightlessness and inboard noise including steady-state noise which was (72±2) dB SPL and impulse noise up to 160 dB SPL in spaceship environment...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611153/effects-of-short-term-mild-hypercapnia-during-head-down-tilt-on-intracranial-pressure-and-ocular-structures-in-healthy-human-subjects
#12
Steven S Laurie, Gianmarco Vizzeri, Giovanni Taibbi, Connor R Ferguson, Xiao Hu, Stuart M C Lee, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart, Michael B Stenger
Many astronauts experience ocular structural and functional changes during long-duration spaceflight, including choroidal folds, optic disc edema, globe flattening, optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) distension, retinal nerve fiber layer thickening, and decreased visual acuity. The leading hypothesis suggests that weightlessness-induced cephalad fluid shifts increase intracranial pressure (ICP), which contributes to the ocular structural changes, but elevated ambient CO2 levels on the International Space Station may also be a factor...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598367/pattern-evolution-during-double-liquid-vapor-phase-transitions-under-weightlessness
#13
Ana Oprisan, Yves Garrabos, Carole Lecoutre, Daniel Beysens
Phase transition in fluids is ubiquitous in nature and has important applications in areas such as the food industry for volatile oils' extraction or in nuclear plants for heat transfer. Fundamentals are hampered by gravity effects on Earth. We used direct imaging to record snapshots of phase separation that takes place in sulfur hexafluoride, SF₆, under weightlessness conditions on the International Space Station (ISS). The system was already at liquid-vapor equilibrium slightly below the critical temperature and further cooled down by a 0...
June 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574653/cortical-and-trabecular-bone-microstructure-did-not-recover-at-weight-bearing-skeletal-sites-and-progressively-deteriorated-at-non-weight-bearing-sites-during-the-year-following-international-space-station-missions
#14
Laurence Vico, Bert van Rietbergen, Nicolas Vilayphiou, Marie-Thérèse Linossier, Hervé Locrelle, Myriam Normand, Mohamed Zouch, Maude Gerbaix, Nicolas Bonnet, Valery Novikov, Thierry Thomas, Galina Vassilieva
Risk for premature osteoporosis is a major health concern in astronauts and cosmonauts; the reversibility of the bone lost at the weight-bearing bone sites is not established, although it is suspected to take longer than the mission length. The bone three-dimensional structure and strength that could be uniquely affected by weightlessness is currently unknown. Our objective is to evaluate bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength of weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bone in 13 cosmonauts before and for 12 months after a 4-month to 6-month sojourn in the International Space Station (ISS)...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572612/one-month-spaceflight-compromises-the-bone-microstructure-tissue-level-mechanical-properties-osteocyte-survival-and-lacunae-volume-in-mature-mice-skeletons
#15
Maude Gerbaix, Vasily Gnyubkin, Delphine Farlay, Cécile Olivier, Patrick Ammann, Guillaume Courbon, Norbert Laroche, Rachel Genthial, Hélène Follet, Françoise Peyrin, Boris Shenkman, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Laurence Vico
The weightless environment during spaceflight induces site-specific bone loss. The 30-day Bion-M1 mission offered a unique opportunity to characterize the skeletal changes after spaceflight and an 8-day recovery period in mature male C57/BL6 mice. In the femur metaphysis, spaceflight decreased the trabecular bone volume (-64% vs. Habitat Control), dramatically increased the bone resorption (+140% vs. Habitat Control) and induced marrow adiposity invasion. At the diaphysis, cortical thinning associated with periosteal resorption was observed...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554506/bion-m-1-first-continuous-blood-pressure-monitoring-in-mice-during-a-30-day-spaceflight
#16
Alexander Andreev-Andrievskiy, Anfisa Popova, Jean-Christophe Lloret, Patrick Aubry, Anatoliy Borovik, Daria Tsvirkun, Olga Vinogradova, Eugeniy Ilyin, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Claude Gharib, Marc-Antoine Custaud
Animals are an essential component of space exploration and have been used to demonstrate that weightlessness does not disrupt essential physiological functions. They can also contribute to space research as models of weightlessness-induced changes in humans. Animal research was an integral component of the 30-day automated Russian biosatellite Bion-M 1 space mission. The aim of the hemodynamic experiment was to estimate cardiovascular function in mice, a species roughly 3000 times smaller than humans, during prolonged spaceflight and post-flight recovery, particularly, to investigate if mice display signs of cardiovascular deconditioning...
May 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500895/a-universal-multilingual-weightless-neural-network-tagger-via-quantitative-linguistics
#17
Hugo C C Carneiro, Carlos E Pedreira, Felipe M G França, Priscila M V Lima
In the last decade, given the availability of corpora in several distinct languages, research on multilingual part-of-speech tagging started to grow. Amongst the novelties there is mWANN-Tagger (multilingual weightless artificial neural network tagger), a weightless neural part-of-speech tagger capable of being used for mostly-suffix-oriented languages. The tagger was subjected to corpora in eight languages of quite distinct natures and had a remarkable accuracy with very low sample deviation in every one of them, indicating the robustness of weightless neural systems for part-of-speech tagging tasks...
April 26, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464000/sidelobe-reduction-and-capacity-improvement-of-open-loop-collaborative-beamforming-in-wireless-sensor-networks
#18
Suhanya Jayaprakasam, Sharul Kamal Abdul Rahim, Chee Yen Leow, Tiew On Ting
Collaborative beamforming (CBF) with a finite number of collaborating nodes (CNs) produces sidelobes that are highly dependent on the collaborating nodes' locations. The sidelobes cause interference and affect the communication rate of unintended receivers located within the transmission range. Nulling is not possible in an open-loop CBF since the collaborating nodes are unable to receive feedback from the receivers. Hence, the overall sidelobe reduction is required to avoid interference in the directions of the unintended receivers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430607/simulated-weightlessness-affects-the-expression-and-activity-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-rat-brain
#19
Nara Yoon, Kiyong Na, Hyun-Soo Kim
Spaceflight induces pathophysiological alterations in various organs. To study pathophysiological adaptations to weightlessness on the ground, the tail suspension (TS) rat model has been used to simulate the effects of weightlessness. There is currently little information on the effect of TS on the expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the brain. In this study, we examined time-dependent alterations in the expression and activity of neuronal NOS (nNOS) in the brains of TS rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were tail-suspended for 1 (TS1), 7 (TS7), and 14 (TS14) days or rested on the ground for 3 days after 14 days of TS...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#20
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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