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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628601/the-damage-control-surgery-in-austere-environments-research-group-dcsaerg-a-dynamic-program-to-facilitate-real-time-telementoring-telediagnosis-to-address-exsanguination-in-extreme-and-austere-environments
#1
Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Jessica L McKee, Paul B McBeth, Chad G Ball, Anthony LaPorta, Timothy Broderick, Tim Leslie, David King, Heather E Wright Beatty, Jocelyn Keillor, Homer Tien
Hemorrhage is the most preventable cause of posttraumatic death. Many cases are potentially anatomically salvageable, yet remain lethal without logistics or trained personnel to deliver diagnosis or resuscitative surgery in austere environments. Revolutions in technology for remote mentoring of ultrasound and surgery may enhance capabilities to utilize the skill sets of non-physicians. Thus, our research collaborative explored remote mentoring to empower non-physicians to address junctional and torso hemorrhage control in austere environments...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628154/-morphological-changes-on-cochlear-hair-cells-of-rats-in-simulated-weightlessness-and-inboard-noise
#2
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To observe the morphological changes on cochlear hair cells of rats in simulated weightlessness and inboard noise and to investigate the different changes in three turns of hair cells. METHODS: Thirty-two healthy SD rats, all males, were randomly divided into four groups: control group, weightlessness group, noise group and weightlessness+noise groups (n=8). Then rats were exposed to -30° head down tilt as simulated weightlessness and inboard noise including steady-state noise which was (72±2) dB SPL and impulse noise up to 160 dB SPL in spaceship environment...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611153/effects-of-short-term-mild-hypercapnia-during-head-down-tilt-on-intracranial-pressure-and-ocular-structures-in-healthy-human-subjects
#3
Steven S Laurie, Gianmarco Vizzeri, Giovanni Taibbi, Connor R Ferguson, Xiao Hu, Stuart M C Lee, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart, Michael B Stenger
Many astronauts experience ocular structural and functional changes during long-duration spaceflight, including choroidal folds, optic disc edema, globe flattening, optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) distension, retinal nerve fiber layer thickening, and decreased visual acuity. The leading hypothesis suggests that weightlessness-induced cephalad fluid shifts increase intracranial pressure (ICP), which contributes to the ocular structural changes, but elevated ambient CO2 levels on the International Space Station may also be a factor...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598367/pattern-evolution-during-double-liquid-vapor-phase-transitions-under-weightlessness
#4
Ana Oprisan, Yves Garrabos, Carole Lecoutre, Daniel Beysens
Phase transition in fluids is ubiquitous in nature and has important applications in areas such as the food industry for volatile oils' extraction or in nuclear plants for heat transfer. Fundamentals are hampered by gravity effects on Earth. We used direct imaging to record snapshots of phase separation that takes place in sulfur hexafluoride, SF₆, under weightlessness conditions on the International Space Station (ISS). The system was already at liquid-vapor equilibrium slightly below the critical temperature and further cooled down by a 0...
June 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574653/cortical-and-trabecular-bone-microstructure-did-not-recover-at-weight-bearing-skeletal-sites-and-progressively-deteriorated-at-non-weight-bearing-sites-during-the-year-following-international-space-station-missions
#5
Laurence Vico, Bert Van Rietbergen, Nicolas Vilayphiou, Marie-Thérèse Linossier, Hervé Locrelle, Myriam Normand, Mohamed Zouch, Maude Gerbaix, Nicolas Bonnet, Valery Novikov, Thierry ThomC, Galina Vassilieva
Risk for premature osteoporosis is a major health concern in astronauts and cosmonauts and the reversibility of the bone lost at the weight-bearing bone sites is not established although it is suspected to take longer than the mission length. The bone three-dimensional structure and strength which could be uniquely affected by weightlessness, is currently unknown. Our objective is to evaluate bone mass, microarchitecture and strength of weight- and non-weight-bearing bone in 13 cosmonauts before and for 12 months after 4-6-month sojourn in the International Space Station (ISS)...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572612/one-month-spaceflight-compromises-the-bone-microstructure-tissue-level-mechanical-properties-osteocyte-survival-and-lacunae-volume-in-mature-mice-skeletons
#6
Gerbaix Maude, Gnyubkin Vasily, Farlay Delphine, Olivier Cécile, Ammann Patrick, Courbon Guillaume, Laroche Norbert, Gential Rachel, Follet Hélène, Peyrin Françoise, Shenkman Boris, Gauquelin-Koch Guillemette, Vico Laurence
The weightless environment during spaceflight induces site-specific bone loss. The 30-day Bion-M1 mission offered a unique opportunity to characterize the skeletal changes after spaceflight and an 8-day recovery period in mature male C57/BL6 mice. In the femur metaphysis, spaceflight decreased the trabecular bone volume (-64% vs. Habitat Control), dramatically increased the bone resorption (+140% vs. Habitat Control) and induced marrow adiposity invasion. At the diaphysis, cortical thinning associated with periosteal resorption was observed...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554506/bion-m-1-first-continuous-blood-pressure-monitoring-in-mice-during-a-30-day-spaceflight
#7
Alexander Andreev-Andrievskiy, Anfisa Popova, Jean-Christophe Lloret, Patrick Aubry, Anatoliy Borovik, Daria Tsvirkun, Olga Vinogradova, Eugeniy Ilyin, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Claude Gharib, Marc-Antoine Custaud
Animals are an essential component of space exploration and have been used to demonstrate that weightlessness does not disrupt essential physiological functions. They can also contribute to space research as models of weightlessness-induced changes in humans. Animal research was an integral component of the 30-day automated Russian biosatellite Bion-M 1 space mission. The aim of the hemodynamic experiment was to estimate cardiovascular function in mice, a species roughly 3000 times smaller than humans, during prolonged spaceflight and post-flight recovery, particularly, to investigate if mice display signs of cardiovascular deconditioning...
May 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500895/a-universal-multilingual-weightless-neural-network-tagger-via-quantitative-linguistics
#8
Hugo C C Carneiro, Carlos E Pedreira, Felipe M G França, Priscila M V Lima
In the last decade, given the availability of corpora in several distinct languages, research on multilingual part-of-speech tagging started to grow. Amongst the novelties there is mWANN-Tagger (multilingual weightless artificial neural network tagger), a weightless neural part-of-speech tagger capable of being used for mostly-suffix-oriented languages. The tagger was subjected to corpora in eight languages of quite distinct natures and had a remarkable accuracy with very low sample deviation in every one of them, indicating the robustness of weightless neural systems for part-of-speech tagging tasks...
April 26, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464000/sidelobe-reduction-and-capacity-improvement-of-open-loop-collaborative-beamforming-in-wireless-sensor-networks
#9
Suhanya Jayaprakasam, Sharul Kamal Abdul Rahim, Chee Yen Leow, Tiew On Ting
Collaborative beamforming (CBF) with a finite number of collaborating nodes (CNs) produces sidelobes that are highly dependent on the collaborating nodes' locations. The sidelobes cause interference and affect the communication rate of unintended receivers located within the transmission range. Nulling is not possible in an open-loop CBF since the collaborating nodes are unable to receive feedback from the receivers. Hence, the overall sidelobe reduction is required to avoid interference in the directions of the unintended receivers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430607/simulated-weightlessness-affects-the-expression-and-activity-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-rat-brain
#10
Nara Yoon, Kiyong Na, Hyun-Soo Kim
Spaceflight induces pathophysiological alterations in various organs. To study pathophysiological adaptations to weightlessness on the ground, the tail suspension (TS) rat model has been used to simulate the effects of weightlessness. There is currently little information on the effect of TS on the expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the brain. In this study, we examined time-dependent alterations in the expression and activity of neuronal NOS (nNOS) in the brains of TS rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were tail-suspended for 1 (TS1), 7 (TS7), and 14 (TS14) days or rested on the ground for 3 days after 14 days of TS...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#11
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390649/abbreviated-closure-for-remote-damage-control-laparotomy-in-extreme-environments-a-randomized-trial-of-sutures-versus-wound-clamps-comparing-terrestrial-and-weightless-conditions
#12
Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Jessica Lynn McKee, Colonel Homer Tien, Anthony J LaPorta, Kit Lavell, Tim Leslie, Paul B McBeth, Derek J Roberts, Chad G Ball
INTRODUCTION: Far-Forward Damage Control Laparotomies (DCLs) might provide direct-compression of visceral hemorrhage, however, suturing is a limiting factor, especially for non-physicians. We thus compared abbreviated skin closures comparing skin-suture (SS) versus wound-clamp (WC), on-board a research aircraft in weightlessness (0g) and normal gravity (1g). METHODS: Surgeons conducted DCLs on a surgical-simulator; onboard the hangered-aircraft (1g), or during parabolic flight (0g), randomized to either WC or SS...
May 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383477/the-damage-control-surgery-in-austere-environments-research-group-dcsaerg-a-dynamic-program-to-facilitate-real-time-tele-mentoring-tele-diagnosis-to-address-exsanguination-in-extreme-and-austere-environments
#13
Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Jessica McKee, Paul B McBeth, Chad G Ball, Anthony LaPorta, Timothy Broderick, Tim Leslie, David King, Heather Wright-Beatty, Jocelyn Keillor, Homer Tien
Hemorrhage is the most preventable cause of post-traumatic death. Many cases are potentially anatomically salvageable, yet remain lethal without logistics or trained personnel to deliver diagnosis or Resuscitative-surgery in austere-environments. Revolutions in technology for remote-mentoring of ultrasound and surgery may enhance capabilities to utilize the skill-sets of non-physicians. Thus, our Research-Collaborative explored remote-mentoring to empower non-physicians to address junctional and torso hemorrhage-control in Austere-environments...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373722/simulated-microgravity-triggers-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-keratinocytes
#14
Danilo Ranieri, Sara Proietti, Simona Dinicola, Maria Grazia Masiello, Benedetta Rosato, Giulia Ricci, Alessandra Cucina, Angela Catizone, Mariano Bizzarri, Maria Rosaria Torrisi
The microgravitational environment is known to affect the cellular behaviour inducing modulation of gene expression and enzymatic activities, epigenetic modifications and alterations of the structural organization. Simulated microgravity, obtained in the laboratory setting through the use of a Random Positioning Machine (RPM), represents a well recognized and useful tool for the experimental studies of the cellular adaptations and molecular changes in response to weightlessness. Short exposure of cultured human keratinocytes to the RPM microgravity influences the cellular circadian clock oscillation...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357491/acid-sphingomyelinase-ceramide-regulates-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-simulated-weightless-rats
#15
Yao-Ping Cheng, Hai-Jun Zhang, Yu-Ting Su, Xing-Xing Meng, Xiao-Ping Xie, Yao-Ming Chang, Jun-Xiang Bao
Structural adaptation of arteries to weightlessness might lower the working ability or even threaten the physical health of astronauts, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) catalyzes ceramide (Cer) generation controlling arterial remodeling through multiple signaling pathways. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the contribution of ASM/Cer to the changes of common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) induced by simulated weightlessness. Hindlimb-unloaded tail-suspended (HU) rats were used to simulate the effect of weightlessness...
March 29, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208391/band-instability-in-near-critical-fluids-subjected-to-vibration-under-weightlessness
#16
T Lyubimova, A Ivantsov, Y Garrabos, C Lecoutre, G Gandikota, D Beysens
Periodical patterns (bands) developing at the interface of two immiscible fluids under vibration parallel to interface are observed under zero-gravity conditions. Fluids are slightly below their liquid-vapor critical point where they behave in a scaled, universal manner. In addition, liquid and vapor densities are close and surface tension is very low. Linear stability analyses and direct numerical simulation show that this instability, although comparable to the frozen wave instability observed in a gravity field, is nonetheless noticeably different when gravity becomes zero...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098275/the-initial-stages-of-melting-of-graphene-between-4000-k-and-6000-k
#17
Eric Ganz, Ariel B Ganz, Li-Ming Yang, Matthew Dornfeld
Graphene and its analogues have some of the highest predicted melting points of any materials. Previous work estimated the melting temperature for freestanding graphene to be a remarkable 4510 K. However, this work relied on theoretical methods that do not accurately account for the role of bond breaking or complex bonding configurations in the melting process. Furthermore, experiments to verify these high melting points have been challenging. Practical applications of graphene and carbon nanotubes at high temperatures will require a detailed understanding of the behavior of these materials under these conditions...
February 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081223/high-intensity-jump-training-is-tolerated-during-60-days-of-bed-rest-and-is-very-effective-in-preserving-leg-power-and-lean-body-mass-an-overview-of-the-cologne-rsl-study
#18
Andreas Kramer, Jakob Kümmel, Edwin Mulder, Albert Gollhofer, Petra Frings-Meuthen, Markus Gruber
PURPOSE: Space agencies are looking for effective and efficient countermeasures for the degrading effects of weightlessness on the human body. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a novel jump exercise countermeasure during bed rest on vitals, body mass, body composition, and jump performance. METHODS: 23 male participants (29±6 years, 181±6 cm, 77±7 kg) were confined to a bed rest facility for 90 days: a 15-day ambulatory measurement phase, a 60-day six-degree head-down-tilt bed rest phase (HDT), and a 15-day ambulatory recovery phase...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061915/prevalence-predictors-and-prevention-of-motion-sickness-in-zero-g-parabolic-flights
#19
John F Golding, Aurore C Paillard, Hervé Normand, Stéphane Besnard, Pierre Denise
INTRODUCTION: Zero-G parabolic flight reproduces the weightlessness of space for short periods. However, motion sickness may affect some fliers. The aim was to assess the extent of this problem and to find possible predictors and modifying factors. METHODS: Airbus zero-G flights consist of 31 parabolas performed in blocks. Each parabola consisted of 20 s of 0 g sandwiched by 20 s of hypergravity of 1.5-1.8 g. The survey covered N = 246 person-flights (193 men, 53 women), ages (M ± SD) 36...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039409/internal-jugular-pressure-increases-during-parabolic-flight
#20
David S Martin, Stuart M C Lee, Timothy P Matz, Christian M Westby, Jessica M Scott, Michael B Stenger, Steven H Platts
One hypothesized contributor to vision changes experienced by >75% of International Space Station astronauts is elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). While no definitive data yet exist, elevated ICP might be secondary to the microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift, resulting in venous congestion (overfilling and distension) and inhibition of cerebrospinal and lymphatic fluid drainage from the skull. The objective of this study was to measure internal jugular venous pressure (IJVP) during normo- and hypo-gravity as an index of venous congestion...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
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