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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610039/damgo-modulates-two-pore-domain-k-channels-in-the-substantia-gelatinosa-neurons-of-rat-spinal-cord
#1
Pyung Sun Cho, Han Kyu Lee, Sang Hoon Lee, Jay Zoon Im, Sung Jun Jung
The analgesic mechanism of opioids is known to decrease the excitability of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons receiving the synaptic inputs from primary nociceptive afferent fiber by increasing inwardly rectifying K(+) current. In this study, we examined whether a µ-opioid agonist, [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), affects the two-pore domain K(+) channel (K2P) current in rat SG neurons using a slice whole-cell patch clamp technique. Also we confirmed which subtypes of K2P channels were associated with DAMGO-induced currents, measuring the expression of K2P channel in whole spinal cord and SG region...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566292/dysregulation-of-a-potassium-channel-thik-1-targeted-by-caspase-8-accelerates-cell-shrinkage
#2
Kazuhiro Sakamaki, Takahiro M Ishii, Toshiya Sakata, Kiwamu Takemoto, Chiyo Takagi, Ayako Takeuchi, Ryo Morishita, Hirotaka Takahashi, Akira Nozawa, Hajime Shinoda, Kumiko Chiba, Haruyo Sugimoto, Akiko Saito, Shuhei Tamate, Yutaka Satou, Sang-Kee Jung, Satoshi Matsuoka, Koji Koyamada, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Takeharu Nagai, Naoto Ueno
Activation of caspases is crucial for the execution of apoptosis. Although the caspase cascade associated with activation of the initiator caspase-8 (CASP8) has been investigated in molecular and biochemical detail, the physiological role of CASP8 is not fully understood. Here, we identified a two-pore domain potassium channel, tandem-pore domain halothane-inhibited K(+) channel 1 (THIK-1), as a novel CASP8 substrate. The intracellular region of THIK-1 was cleaved by CASP8 in apoptotic cells. Overexpression of THIK-1, but not its mutant lacking the CASP8-target sequence in the intracellular portion, accelerated cell shrinkage in response to apoptotic stimuli...
November 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558839/hyaluronan-synthase-control-of-synthesis-rate-and-hyaluronan-product-size-are-independent-functions-differentially-affected-by-mutations-in-a-conserved-tandem-b-x7-b-motif
#3
Bruce A Baggenstoss, Edward N Harris, Jennifer L Washburn, Andria P Medina, Long Nguyen, Paul H Weigel
Hyaluronan synthases (HAS) normally make large (>MDa) hyaluronan (HA) products. Smaller HA fragments (e.g. 100-400 kDa) produced in vivo are associated with inflammation and cell signaling by HA receptors that bind small, but not large, HA. Although HA fragments can arise from breakdown by hyaluronidases, HAS might also be regulated directly to synthesize small HA. Here we examined the Streptococcus equisimilis HAS (SeHAS) C-terminus, which contains a tandem B-X7-B motif (K(398)-X7-R(406)-X7-K(414)), by testing the effects of 27 site-specific scanning mutations and 7 C-terminal truncations on HA synthesis activity and weight-average mass...
August 24, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412322/application-of-a-hybrid-ordered-mesoporous-silica-as-sorbent-for-solid-phase-multi-residue-extraction-of-veterinary-drugs-in-meat-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-ion-trap-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Natalia Casado, Sonia Morante-Zarcero, Damián Pérez-Quintanilla, Isabel Sierra
A quick, sensitive and selective analytical reversed-phase multi-residue method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ion-trap mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-IT-MS/MS) operating in both positive and negative ion mode was developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 veterinary drug residues (β-blockers, β-agonists and Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)) in meat samples. The sample treatment involved a liquid-solid extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411857/phylogenetic-evidence-for-a-fusion-of-archaeal-and-bacterial-semisweets-to-form-eukaryotic-sweets-and-identification-of-sweet-hexose-transporters-in-the-amphibian-chytrid-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#5
Yi-Bing Hu, Davide Sosso, Xiao-Qing Qu, Li-Qing Chen, Lai Ma, Diane Chermak, De-Chun Zhang, Wolf B Frommer
SWEETs represent a new class of sugar transporters first described in plants and animals/humans and later in prokaryotes. Plant SWEETs play key roles in phloem loading, seed filling, and nectar secretion, whereas the role of archaeal, bacterial, and animal transporters remains elusive. Structural analyses show that eukaryotic SWEETs are composed of 2 triple-helix bundles (THBs) fused via an inversion linker helix, whereas prokaryotic SemiSWEETs contain only a single THB and require homodimerization to form transport pores...
July 13, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346625/seven-post-synthetic-covalent-reactions-in-tandem-leading-to-enzyme-like-complexity-within-metal-organic-framework-crystals
#6
Alejandro M Fracaroli, Peter Siman, David A Nagib, Mitsuharu Suzuki, Hiroyasu Furukawa, F Dean Toste, Omar M Yaghi
The design of enzyme-like complexity within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) requires multiple reactions to be performed on a MOF crystal without losing access to its interior. Here, we show that seven post-synthetic reactions can be successfully achieved within the pores of a multivariate MOF, MTV-IRMOF-74-III, to covalently incorporate tripeptides that resemble the active sites of enzymes in their spatial arrangement and compositional heterogeneity. These reactions build up H2N-Pro-Gly-Ala-CONHL and H2N-Cys-His-Asp-CONHL (where L = organic struts) amino acid sequences by covalently attaching them to the organic struts in the MOFs, without losing porosity or crystallinity...
July 13, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307105/the-rickettsia-type-iv-secretion-system-unrealized-complexity-mired-by-gene-family-expansion
#7
Joseph J Gillespie, Isabelle Q H Phan, Timothy P Driscoll, Mark L Guillotte, Stephanie S Lehman, Kristen E Rennoll-Bankert, Sandhya Subramanian, Magda Beier-Sexton, Peter J Myler, M Sayeedur Rahman, Abdu F Azad
Many prokaryotes utilize type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to translocate substrates (e.g. nucleoprotein, DNA, protein) across the cell envelope, and/or to elaborate surface structures (i.e. pili or adhesins). Among eight distinct T4SS classes, P-T4SSs are typified by the Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir T4SS, which is comprised of 12 scaffold components (VirB1-VirB11, VirD4). While most P-T4SSs include all 12 Vir proteins, some differ from the vir archetype by either containing additional scaffold components not analogous to Vir proteins or lacking one or more of the Vir proteins...
August 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303791/impact-of-the-crystallization-condition-on-importin-%C3%AE-conformation
#8
Marcel J Tauchert, Clément Hémonnot, Piotr Neumann, Sarah Köster, Ralf Ficner, Achim Dickmanns
In eukaryotic cells, the exchange of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm is highly selective and requires specialized soluble transport factors. Many of them belong to the importin-β superfamily, the members of which share an overall superhelical structure owing to the tandem arrangement of a specific motif, the HEAT repeat. This structural organization leads to great intrinsic flexibility, which in turn is a prerequisite for the interaction with a variety of proteins and for its transport function...
June 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268784/gating-regulation-and-structure-in-k2p-k-channels-in-varietate-concordia
#9
María Isabel Niemeyer, L Pablo Cid, Wendy González, Francisco V Sepúlveda
K2P K(+) channels with two pore domains in tandem associate as dimers to produce so-called background conductances that are regulated by a variety of stimuli. Whereas gating in K2P channels has been poorly understood, recent developments have provided important clues regarding the gating mechanism for this family of proteins. Two modes of gating present in other K(+) channels have been considered. The first is the so-called activation gating that occurs by bundle crossing and the splaying apart of pore-lining helices commanding ion passage...
September 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234848/polydopamine-reinforced-magnetization-of-zeolitic-imidazolate-framework-zif-7-for-magnetic-solid-phase-extraction-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-from-the-air-water-environment
#10
Suling Zhang, Weixuan Yao, Jianbo Ying, Hongting Zhao
Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) consist of metal nodes connected to imidazolate linkers, having both the properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and inorganic zeolites, such as controllable pore sizes, high porosity and surface areas, as well as exceptional thermal and chemical stability, thereby making them a class of attractive materials for diverse analytical applications. In this study, we reported a facile magnetization process of ZIF-7 (zinc benzimidazolate) for simultaneous magnetic extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by simply mixing ZIF-7 and polydopamine (PDA)-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (PDA@Fe3O4) in solutions...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129242/formation-of-functional-heterodimers-by-trek-1-and-trek-2-two-pore-domain-potassium-channel-subunits
#11
Miklós Lengyel, Gábor Czirják, Péter Enyedi
Two-pore domain (K2P) potassium channels are the major molecular correlates of the background (leak) K(+) current in a wide variety of cell types. They generally play a key role in setting the resting membrane potential and regulate the response of excitable cells to various stimuli. K2P channels usually function as homodimers, and only a few examples of heteromerization have been previously reported. Expression of the TREK (TWIK-related K(+) channel) subfamily members of K2P channels often overlaps in neurons and in other excitable cells...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100905/influence-of-acid-chain-length-on-the-properties-of-tio2-prepared-by-sol-gel-method-and-lc-ms-studies-of-methylene-blue-photodegradation
#12
Pratibha V Bakre, Prajesh S Volvoikar, Amit A Vernekar, S G Tilve
Nano-sized titanium dioxide photocatalysts were synthesized by hybrid hydrolytic nonhydrolytic sol-gel method using aliphatic organic acid templates to study the effect of chain length on their properties. X-ray diffraction pattern indicated crystalline anatase phase. The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda surface area measurement gave surface area ranging from 98.4 to 205.5m(2)/g and was found to be dependent on the chain length of the aliphatic acid. The longer chain acids rendered the material with high surface area...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27077920/quantification-of-hydrogen-concentrations-in-surface-and-interface-layers-and-bulk-materials-through-depth-profiling-with-nuclear-reaction-analysis
#13
Markus Wilde, Satoshi Ohno, Shohei Ogura, Katsuyuki Fukutani, Hiroyuki Matsuzaki
Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) via the resonant (1)H((15)N,αγ)(12)C reaction is a highly effective method of depth profiling that quantitatively and non-destructively reveals the hydrogen density distribution at surfaces, at interfaces, and in the volume of solid materials with high depth resolution. The technique applies a (15)N ion beam of 6.385 MeV provided by an electrostatic accelerator and specifically detects the (1)H isotope in depths up to about 2 μm from the target surface. Surface H coverages are measured with a sensitivity in the order of ~10(13) cm(-2) (~1% of a typical atomic monolayer density) and H volume concentrations with a detection limit of ~10(18) cm(-3) (~100 at...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038521/reversal-of-morphine-induced-respiratory-depression-by-doxapram-in-anesthetized-rats
#14
Akira Haji, Satoko Kimura, Yoshiaki Ohi
The present study was undertaken to investigate whether doxapram, a blocker of tandem pore K(+) (TASK-1/-3) channels, is a useful tool for recovery from morphine-induced ventilatory disturbances. Spontaneous ventilation and the hind leg withdrawal response against noxious thermal stimulation were recorded simultaneously in anesthetized rats. Morphine (1.0mg/kg, i.v.) decreased the minute volume resulting from depression of the ventilatory rate and tracheal airflow. Concomitantly, it prolonged the latency of withdrawal response against the thermal stimulation...
June 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27035965/mixing-and-matching-trek-traak-subunits-generate-heterodimeric-k2p-channels-with-unique-properties
#15
Sandy Blin, Ismail Ben Soussia, Eun-Jin Kim, Frédéric Brau, Dawon Kang, Florian Lesage, Delphine Bichet
The tandem of pore domain in a weak inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (Twik)-related acid-arachidonic activated K(+) channel (TRAAK) and Twik-related K(+) channels (TREK) 1 and TREK2 are active as homodimers gated by stretch, fatty acids, pH, and G protein-coupled receptors. These two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels are broadly expressed in the nervous system where they control excitability. TREK/TRAAK KO mice display altered phenotypes related to nociception, neuroprotection afforded by polyunsaturated fatty acids, learning and memory, mood control, and sensitivity to general anesthetics...
April 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993052/therapeutic-targeting-of-two-pore-domain-potassium-k-2p-channels-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#16
REVIEW
Felix Wiedmann, Constanze Schmidt, Patrick Lugenbiel, Ingo Staudacher, Ann-Kathrin Rahm, Claudia Seyler, Patrick A Schweizer, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
The improvement of treatment strategies in cardiovascular medicine is an ongoing process that requires constant optimization. The ability of a therapeutic intervention to prevent cardiovascular pathology largely depends on its capacity to suppress the underlying mechanisms. Attenuation or reversal of disease-specific pathways has emerged as a promising paradigm, providing a mechanistic rationale for patient-tailored therapy. Two-pore-domain K(+) (K(2P)) channels conduct outward K(+) currents that stabilize the resting membrane potential and facilitate action potential repolarization...
May 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26967810/x-ray-crystallographic-structures-of-a-trimer-dodecamer-and-annular-pore-formed-by-an-a%C3%AE-17-36-%C3%AE-hairpin
#17
Adam G Kreutzer, Imane L Hamza, Ryan K Spencer, James S Nowick
High-resolution structures of oligomers formed by the β-amyloid peptide Aβ are needed to understand the molecular basis of Alzheimer's disease and develop therapies. This paper presents the X-ray crystallographic structures of oligomers formed by a 20-residue peptide segment derived from Aβ. The development of a peptide in which Aβ17-36 is stabilized as a β-hairpin is described, and the X-ray crystallographic structures of oligomers it forms are reported. Two covalent constraints act in tandem to stabilize the Aβ17-36 peptide in a hairpin conformation: a δ-linked ornithine turn connecting positions 17 and 36 to create a macrocycle and an intramolecular disulfide linkage between positions 24 and 29...
April 6, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26961658/structure-inhibition-and-regulation-of-two-pore-channel-tpc1-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Alexander F Kintzer, Robert M Stroud
Two-pore channels (TPCs) comprise a subfamily (TPC1-3) of eukaryotic voltage- and ligand-gated cation channels with two non-equivalent tandem pore-forming subunits that dimerize to form quasi-tetramers. Found in vacuolar or endolysosomal membranes, they regulate the conductance of sodium and calcium ions, intravesicular pH, trafficking and excitability. TPCs are activated by a decrease in transmembrane potential and an increase in cytosolic calcium concentrations, are inhibited by low luminal pH and calcium, and are regulated by phosphorylation...
March 10, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26905924/active-sampling-device-for-determining-pollutants-in-surface-and-pore-water-the-in-situ-sampler-for-biphasic-water-monitoring
#19
Samuel D Supowit, Isaac B Roll, Viet D Dang, Kevin J Kroll, Nancy D Denslow, Rolf U Halden
We designed and evaluated an active sampling device, using as analytical targets a family of pesticides purported to contribute to honeybee colony collapse disorder. Simultaneous sampling of bulk water and pore water was accomplished using a low-flow, multi-channel pump to deliver water to an array of solid-phase extraction cartridges. Analytes were separated using either liquid or gas chromatography, and analysis was performed using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Achieved recoveries of fipronil and degradates in water spiked to nominal concentrations of 0...
February 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26860427/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-a-bacteriocin-pyocin-s6-with-ribonuclease-activity-from-a-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-cystic-fibrosis-clinical-isolate
#20
Jozef Dingemans, Maarten G K Ghequire, Michael Craggs, René De Mot, Pierre Cornelis
S-type pyocins are bacteriocins produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates to antagonize or kill other strains of the same species. They have a modular organization comprising a receptor-binding domain recognizing a surface constituent of the target bacterium, a domain for translocation through the periplasm, and a killing or toxic domain with DNase, tRNase, or pore-forming activity. Pyocins S2, S3, S4, and S5 recognize TonB-dependent ferri-siderophore receptors in the outer membrane. We here describe a new nuclease bacteriocin, pyocin S6, encoded in the genome of a P...
June 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
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