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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642709/thromboembolism-and-mortality-in-the-tasmanian-atrial-fibrillation-study
#1
Endalkachew Admassie, Leanne Chalmers, Luke R Bereznicki
BACKGROUND: Although utilization of anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has increased in recent years, contemporary data regarding thromboembolism and mortality incidence rates are limited outside of clinical trials. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) on the clinical outcomes of patients with AF included in the Tasmanian Atrial Fibrillation Study. METHODS: The medical records of all patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of AF who presented to public hospitals in Tasmania, Australia, between 2011 and 2015, were retrospectively reviewed...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614682/non-genetic-risk-factors-for-degenerative-and-vascular-young-onset-dementia-results-from-the-inspired-and-kgow-studies
#2
Monica Cations, Brian Draper, Lee-Fay Low, Kylie Radford, Julian Trollor, Henry Brodaty, Perminder Sachdev, Peter Gonski, Gerald Anthony Broe, Adrienne Withall
BACKGROUND: Several brain reserve, vascular risk, and other modifiable factors have been associated with late-onset dementia, but their association with young onset dementia (YOD) has not been adequately explored. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of cognitive reserve enhancing factors, cardiovascular risk factors (including smoking), depression, alcohol use, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) with non-autosomal dominant degenerative and/or vascular YOD. METHODS: Data for this matched case-control study were taken from two larger studies conducted in NSW, Australia...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554187/association-of-hypercapnia-and-hypercapnic-acidosis-with-clinical-outcomes-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-with-cerebral-injury
#3
Ravindranath Tiruvoipati, David Pilcher, John Botha, Hergen Buscher, Robert Simister, Michael Bailey
Importance: Clinical studies investigating the effects of hypercapnia and hypercapnic acidosis in acute cerebral injury are limited. The studies performed so far have mainly focused on the outcomes in relation to the changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide and pH in isolation and have not evaluated the effects of partial pressure of carbon dioxide and pH in conjunction. Objective: To review the association of compensated hypercapnia and hypercapnic acidosis during the first 24 hours of intensive care unit admission on hospital mortality in adult mechanically ventilated patients with cerebral injury...
March 19, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552550/economic-evaluation-of-a-pre-hospital-protocol-for-patients-with-suspected-acute-stroke
#4
Suman Lahiry, Christopher Levi, Joosup Kim, Dominique A Cadilhac, Andrew Searles
Background: In regional and rural Australia, patients experiencing ischemic stroke do not have equitable access to an intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Although thrombolysis with tPA is a clinically proven and cost-effective treatment for eligible stroke patients, there are few economic evaluations on pre-hospital triage interventions to improve access to tPA. Aim: To describe the potential cost-effectiveness of the pre-hospital acute stroke triage (PAST) protocol implemented to provide priority transfer of appropriate patients from smaller hospitals to a primary stroke center (PSC) in regional New South Wales, Australia...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540325/lower-cardiovascular-risk-associated-with-sglt-2i-in-400-000-patients-the-cvd-real-2-study
#5
Mikhail Kosiborod, Carolyn S P Lam, Shun Kohsaka, Dae Jung Kim, Avraham Karasik, Jonathan Shaw, Navdeep Tangri, Su-Yen Goh, Marcus Thuresson, Hungta Chen, Filip Surmont, Niklas Hammar, Peter Fenici
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials demonstrated lower risk of cardiovascular (CV) events with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at high CV risk. Prior real-world data suggested similar SGLT-2i effects in T2D patients with broader risk profile, but focused on heart failure and death, and were limited to US and Europe. OBJECTIVES: To examine a broad range of CV outcomes in patients initiated on SGLT-2i vs. other glucose lowering drugs (oGLD) across six countries in Asia Pacific, Middle East and North America (NCT02993614)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534066/progression-of-diabetes-heart-disease-and-stroke-multimorbidity-in-middle-aged-women-a-20-year-cohort-study
#6
Xiaolin Xu, Gita D Mishra, Annette J Dobson, Mark Jones
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke multimorbidity (co-occurrence of two or three of these conditions) has increased rapidly. Little is known about how the three conditions progress from one to another sequentially through the life course. We aimed to delineate this progression in middle-aged women and to determine the roles of common risk factors in the accumulation of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke multimorbidity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data from 13,714 women aged 45-50 years without a history of any of the three conditions...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520998/does-respiratory-variation-of-inferior-vena-cava-diameter-predict-fluid-responsiveness-in-spontaneously-ventilating-children-with-sepsis
#7
Elliot Long, Trevor Duke, Ed Oakley, Adam O'Brien, Bennett Sheridan, Franz E Babl
OBJECTIVE: The intent of fluid bolus therapy (FBT) is to increase cardiac output and tissue perfusion, yet only 50% of septic children are fluid responsive. We evaluated respiratory variation of inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter as a predictor of fluid responsiveness. METHODS: A prospective observational study in the ED of The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Patients were spontaneously ventilating children treated with FBT for sepsis-induced acute circulatory failure...
March 8, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495533/predicting-circulatory-diseases-from-psychosocial-safety-climate-a-prospective-cohort-study-from-australia
#8
Harry Becher, Maureen F Dollard, Peter Smith, Jian Li
Circulatory diseases (CDs) (including myocardial infarction, angina, stroke or hypertension) are among the leading causes of death in the world. In this paper, we explore for the first time the impact of a specific aspect of organizational climate, Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC), on CDs. We used two waves of interview data from Australia, with an average lag of 5 years (excluding baseline CDs, final n = 1223). Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the prospective associations between PSC at baseline on incident CDs at follow-up...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493854/epidemiology-of-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Hanis Zulkifly, Gregory Y H Lip, Deirdre A Lane
BACKGROUND: The most common type of arrhythmia in the USA and in European countries is atrial fibrillation (AF). The prevalence of AF is increasing worldwide with advances in technology, better prediction methods and increased awareness among healthcare professionals and patients. METHODS: This article summarises the literature on the epidemiology of AF worldwide according to continents, age and ethnicity/race, and also includes the prevalence of AF in stroke patients...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477215/influence-of-ethnic-background-on-left-atrial-markers-of-inflammation-endothelial-function-and-tissue-remodelling
#10
Carlee D Ruediger, Bobby John, Sathesh Kumar, Han S Lim, Geetanjali Rangnekar, Kurt C Roberts-Thomson, Glenn D Young, David Chase, Prashanthan Sanders, Scott R Willoughby
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that ethnicity can make a significant difference to the likelihood of thromboembolic stroke related to atrial fibrillation. Ethnic differences have been shown to alter inflammatory and haemostatic factors; however, this may all be confounded by differences in cardiovascular risk factors between different ethnicity. The impact of different ethnicities on the thrombogenic profile is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in markers of inflammation, endothelial function and tissue remodelling between Caucasian and Indian populations with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)...
January 2018: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473300/review-article-managing-medical-emergencies-in-rural-australia-a-systematic-review-of-the-training-needs
#11
REVIEW
Tarsh Pandit, Robin Ray, Sabe Sabesan
The aim of the study was to determine the training needs of doctors managing emergencies in rural and remote Australia. A systematic review of Australian articles was performed using MEDLINE (OVID) and INFORMIT online databases from 1990 to 2016. The search terms included 'Rural Health', 'Emergency Medicine', 'Emergency Medical Services', 'Education, Medical, Continuing' and 'Family Practice'. Only peer-reviewed articles, available in full-text that focussed on the training needs of rural doctors were reviewed...
February 22, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460789/percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-peg-versus-radiologically-inserted-gastrostomy-rig-a-comparison-of-outcomes-at-an-australian-teaching-hospital
#12
Chandran Vidhya, Dunsmuir Phoebe, Chandran Dhina, Sandford Jayne, Fraser Robert
OBJECTIVE: Gastrostomy tubes for enteral nutrition are most commonly inserted via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) techniques. The current study aimed to compare clinical outcomes and complication rates in patients who underwent PEG and RIG procedures at a tertiary teaching hospital in Australia. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on patients who underwent PEG or RIG tube insertion between February 2013 and February 2015 at Flinders Medical Centre, Australia...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456049/six-month-outcomes-after-high-risk-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-and-preoperative-intra-aortic-balloon-counterpulsation-use-an-inception-cohort-study
#13
Edward Litton, Frances Bass, Anthony Delaney, Graham Hillis, Silvana Marasco, Shay McGuinness, Paul S Myles, Christopher M Reid, Julian A Smith
OBJECTIVE: To inform the design of a pivotal randomized controlled trial of prophylactic intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABC) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) at high risk of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS). DESIGN: Inception cohort study. SETTING: A total of 13 established cardiac centers in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients were eligible for inclusion if they were listed for CABG surgery and had 2 or more LCOS risk factors (low ejection fraction, severe left main coronary artery disease, redo sternotomy, unstable angina)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444998/treatment-of-aortic-stenosis-with-a-self-expanding-resheathable-transcatheter-valve-one-year-results-of-the-international-multicenter-portico-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-system-study
#14
Axel Linke, David Holzhey, Helge Möllmann, Ganesh Manoharan, Ulrich Schäfer, Christian Frerker, Stephen G Worthley, A J van Boven, Simon Redwood, Jan Kovac, Christian Butter, Lars Søndergaard, Alexander Lauten, Gerhard Schymik, Thomas Walther
BACKGROUND: The aim of the Portico TAVI (transcatheter aortic valve implantation) system study was to evaluate outcomes ≤1 year after implantation of a novel resheathable, self-expanding TAVI system in a multicenter patient population with severe aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS AND RESULTS: High-risk patients (n=222) with symptomatic severe AS (mean age, 83.0±4.6 years; 74.3% women) were enrolled across 12 centers in Europe and Australia. The study's primary end point was all-cause mortality at 30 days...
February 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439194/quality-of-life-is-poorer-for-patients-with-stroke-who-require-an-interpreter-an-observational-australian-registry-study
#15
Monique F Kilkenny, Natasha A Lannin, Craig S Anderson, Helen M Dewey, Joosup Kim, Karen Barclay-Moss, Chris Levi, Steven Faux, Kelvin Hill, Brenda Grabsch, Sandy Middleton, Amanda G Thrift, Rohan Grimley, Geoffrey Donnan, Dominique A Cadilhac
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In multicultural Australia, some patients with stroke cannot fully understand, or speak, English. Language barriers may reduce quality of care and consequent outcomes after stroke, yet little has been reported empirically. METHODS: An observational study of patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (2010-2015) captured from 45 hospitals participating in the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry. The use of interpreters in hospitals, which is routinely documented, was used as a proxy for severe language barriers...
February 9, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387336/influence-of-stroke-and-bleeding-risk-on-prescribing-of-oral-anticoagulants-in-older-inpatients-has-the-availability-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-changed-prescribing
#16
Nicholas Farinola, Gillian E Caughey, J Simon Bell, Sally Johns, Milka Hauta-Aho, Sepehr Shakib
Background: Little is known about changes in prescribing practices in Australia since the introduction of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Our objective was to examine if the availability of DOACs has coincided with a change in prescribing of oral anticoagulants in older hospital inpatients with regard to risk factors for stroke and bleeding. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted between October 2012 and August 2015 of inpatients aged over 60 years initiated on an oral anticoagulant in a large metropolitan, tertiary referral, public teaching hospital in Australia...
February 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324835/subject-specific-pulse-wave-propagation-modeling-towards-enhancement-of-cardiovascular-assessment-methods
#17
Jan Poleszczuk, Malgorzata Debowska, Wojciech Dabrowski, Alicja Wojcik-Zaluska, Wojciech Zaluska, Jacek Waniewski
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) technique, which reconstructs and analyses aortic pressure waveform based on non-invasive peripheral pressure recording, became an important bioassay for cardiovascular assessment in a general population. The aim of our study was to establish a pulse wave propagation modeling framework capable of matching clinical PWA data from healthy individuals on a per-subject basis. Radial pressure profiles from 20 healthy individuals (10 males, 10 females), with mean age of 42 ± 10 years, were recorded using applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor, AtCor Medical, Australia) and used to estimate subject-specific parameters of mathematical model of blood flow in the system of fifty-five arteries...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320668/the-impact-of-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-noacs-on-anticoagulation-therapy-in-rural-australia
#18
Jamie W Bellinge, Jarrad J Paul, Liam S Walsh, Lokesh Garg, Gerald F Watts, Carl Schultz
OBJECTIVE: To determine the use of different anticoagulation therapies in rural Western Australia; to establish whether remoteness from health care services affects the choice of anticoagulation therapy; to gather preliminary data on anticoagulation therapy safety and efficacy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalised with a principal diagnosis of atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) or venous thromboembolism (VTE) during 2014-2015. SETTING: Four hospitals serving two-thirds of the rural population of Western Australia...
January 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316055/dedicated-warfarin-care-programme-results-in-superior-warfarin-control-in-queensland-australia
#19
Nijole Bernaitis, Tony Badrick, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie
BACKGROUND: Warfarin is used to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Ongoing monitoring of International normalised ratio (INR) and time in therapeutic range (TTR) commonly used to assess the quality of warfarin management are required. Anticoagulant clinics have demonstrated improved TTRs, particularly in countries with poorer control in primary care settings. Reported TTR in Australia has been relatively high; so, it is unknown if benefit would be seen from dedicated warfarin clinics in Australia...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314242/comorbidities-only-account-for-a-small-proportion-of-excess-mortality-after-fracture-a-record-linkage-study-of-individual-fracture-types
#20
Weiwen Chen, Judy M Simpson, Lyn M March, Fiona M Blyth, Dana Bliuc, Thach Tran, Tuan V Nguyen, John A Eisman, Jacqueline R Center
Nonhip, nonvertebral (NHNV) fractures constitute the majority of osteoporotic fractures, but few studies have examined the association between these fractures, comorbidity, and mortality. Our objective was to examine the relationship between individual nonhip, nonvertebral fractures, comorbidities, and mortality. The prospective population-based cohort of 267,043 subjects (45 and Up Study, Australia) had baseline questionnaires linked to hospital administrative and all-cause mortality data from 2006 to 2013...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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