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Xiaoqun Zhang, Ioannis Mantas, Alexandra Alvarsson, Takashi Yoshitake, Mohammadreza Shariatgorji, Marcela Pereira, Anna Nilsson, Jan Kehr, Per E Andrén, Mark J Millan, Karima Chergui, Per Svenningsson
The trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is expressed by dopaminergic neurons, but the precise influence of trace amines upon their functional activity remains to be fully characterized. Here, we examined the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (β-PEA) compared to 3-iodothyronamine (T1 AM). Immunoblotting and amperometry were performed in dorsal striatal slices from wild-type (WT) and TAAR1 knockout (KO) mice. T1 AM increased TH phosphorylation at both Ser19 and Ser40 , actions that should promote functional activity of TH...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Panos Zanos, Scott M Thompson, Ronald S Duman, Carlos A Zarate, Todd D Gould
Traditional pharmacological treatments for depression have a delayed therapeutic onset, ranging from several weeks to months, and there is a high percentage of individuals who never respond to treatment. In contrast, ketamine produces rapid-onset antidepressant, anti-suicidal, and anti-anhedonic actions following a single administration to patients with depression. Proposed mechanisms of the antidepressant action of ketamine include N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) modulation, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneuron disinhibition, and direct actions of its hydroxynorketamine (HNK) metabolites...
March 7, 2018: CNS Drugs
Gabrielle T Parkinson, Sophie E L Chamberlain, Nadia Jaafari, Matthew Turvey, Jack R Mellor, Jonathan G Hanley
AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking is a key determinant of synaptic strength and synaptic plasticity. Under basal conditions, constitutive trafficking maintains surface AMPARs by internalization into the endosomal system, where the majority are sorted and targeted for recycling back to the plasma membrane. NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent Long-Term Depression (LTD) is characterised by a reduction in synaptic strength, and involves endosomal sorting of AMPARs away from recycling pathways to lysosomes. The mechanisms that determine whether AMPARs are trafficked to lysosomes or to recycling endosomes, especially in response to NMDAR stimulation, are unclear...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hideki Takago, Tomoko Oshima-Takago
The ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) concertedly mediate neurotransmission to convey, process, and integrate acoustic information along the auditory pathway. In order to ensure these challenging tasks, the iGluRs are variously expressed in auditory neurons in an age- and site-dependent manner. The subunit compositions of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are altered with development, underlying the acceleration in kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic responses...
February 28, 2018: Hearing Research
Lan-Xue Zhao, Yan-Hui Ge, Cai-Hong Xiong, Ling Tang, Ying-Hui Yan, Ping-Yee Law, Yu Qiu, Hong-Zhuan Chen
M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1 mAChRs) are the most abundant muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus and have been shown to have procognitive effects. AMPA receptors (AMPARs), an important subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors, are key components in neurocognitive networks. However, the role of AMPARs in procognitive effects of M1 mAChRs and how M1 mAChRs affect the function of AMPARs remain poorly understood. Here, we found that basal expression of GluA1, a subunit of AMPARs, and its phosphorylation at Ser845 were maintained by M1 mAChR activity...
March 6, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Louise Ritchie, Rothwell Tate, Luke H Chamberlain, Graham Robertson, Michele Zagnoni, Teresa Sposito, Selina Wray, John A Wright, Clare E Bryant, Nicholas J Gay, Trevor J Bushell
Toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) belongs to a family of pattern recognition receptors that recognise molecules found on pathogens referred to as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Its involvement in innate immunity is well known but despite its presence in the central nervous system (CNS), our knowledge of its function is limited. Here, we have investigated whether TLR3 activation modulates synaptic activity in primary hippocampal cultures and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons. Synaptically driven spontaneous action potential (AP) firing was significantly reduced by the TLR3 specific activator, poly I:C, in a concentration-dependent manner following both short (5 min) and long exposures (1h) in rat hippocampal cultures...
March 2, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Marta Maltese, Jennifer Stanic, Annalisa Tassone, Giuseppe Sciamanna, Giulia Ponterio, Valentina Vanni, Giuseppina Martella, Paola Imbriani, Paola Bonsi, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Fabrizio Gardoni, Antonio Pisani
The onset of abnormal movements in DYT1 dystonia is between childhood and adolescence, though it is unclear why clinical manifestations appear during this developmental period. Plasticity at corticostriatal synapses is critically involved in motor memory. In the Tor1a +/Δgag DYT1 dystonia mouse model, long-term potentiation (LTP) appeared prematurely in a critical developmental window in striatal spiny neurons (SPNs), while long-term depression (LTD) was never recorded. Analysis of dendritic spines showed an increase of both spine width and mature mushroom spines in Tor1a +/Δgag neurons, paralleled by an enhanced AMPA receptor (AMPAR) accumulation...
March 5, 2018: ELife
Irini Papazian, Vasiliki Kyrargyri, Maria Evangelidou, Anda Voulgari-Kokota, Lesley Probert
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) provide therapeutic effects in experimental CNS disease models and show promise as cell-based therapies for humans, but their modes of action are not well understood. We previously show that MSC protect rodent neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity in vitro, and in vivo in an epilepsy model. Neuroprotection is associated with reduced NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) subunit expression and neuronal glutamate-induced calcium (Ca2+ ) responses, and increased expression of stem cell-associated genes...
February 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lucas Matt, Lyndsey M Kirk, George Chenaux, David J Speca, Kyle R Puhger, Michael C Pride, Mohammad Qneibi, Tomer Haham, Kristopher E Plambeck, Yael Stern-Bach, Jill L Silverman, Jacqueline N Crawley, Johannes W Hell, Elva Díaz
Altering AMPA receptor (AMPAR) content at synapses is a key mechanism underlying the regulation of synaptic strength during learning and memory. Previous work demonstrated that SynDIG1 (synapse differentiation-induced gene 1) encodes a transmembrane AMPAR-associated protein that regulates excitatory synapse strength and number. Here we show that the related protein SynDIG4 (also known as Prrt1) modifies AMPAR gating properties in a subunit-dependent manner. Young SynDIG4 knockout (KO) mice have weaker excitatory synapses, as evaluated by immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Jinghui Zhang, Nana Qiao, Xiufang Ding, Jiwen Wang
Excitotoxicity and neuronal death following epilepsy involve α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs). It forms a protein complex with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and co-internalizes upon activation of AMPA receptors after epilepsy. Disruption of the GluA2/GAPDH complex with an interfering peptide, TAT-GluA2NT1-3-2, protects cells against AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity, which have been identified in in-vitro and in-vivo models of brain ischemia. We postulated that disruption of the GluA2/GAPDH interaction with the TAT-GluA2NT1-3-2 peptide would also protect against AMPAR-induced neuronal injury in an in-vivo model of status epilepticus (SE)...
March 21, 2018: Neuroreport
Xinyuan Yu, Tao Xu, Shu Ou, Jinxian Yuan, Jing Deng, Rong Li, Juan Yang, Xi Liu, Qi Li, Yangmei Chen
Endophilin A1 is a member of the endophilin A family and is primarily expressed in the central nervous system. Endophilin A1 can mediate neuronal excitability by regulating neuronal synaptic plasticity, which indicates that the protein may be involved in epilepsy. However, to date, its role in epilepsy remains unclear. To explore the role of endophilin A1 in epilepsy, we aimed to investigate the expression patterns of endophilin A1 in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled epileptic mouse model and to conduct behavioral and electrophysiological analyses after lentivirus-mediated knockdown of endophilin A1 in the hippocampus of epileptic mice...
February 23, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Tim Benke, Stephen F Traynelis
Twenty years ago, we reported from the Collingridge Lab that a single-channel conductance increase through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs) could mediate one form of plasticity associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus (Benke et al., Nature 395:793-797, 1998). Revealed through peak-scaled non-stationary fluctuation analysis (PS-NSFA, also known as noise analysis), this component of LTP could be exclusively mediated by direct increases in channel conductance or by increases in the number of high conductance synaptic AMPARs...
February 23, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Emma V Jones, Yann Bernardinelli, Juan G Zarruk, Sabrina Chierzi, Keith K Murai
The proper formation and maintenance of functional synapses in the central nervous system (CNS) requires communication between neurons and astrocytes and the ability of astrocytes to release neuromodulatory molecules. Previously, we described a novel role for the astrocyte-secreted matricellular protein SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine) in regulating α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) and plasticity at developing synapses. SPARC is highly expressed by astrocytes and microglia during CNS development but its level is reduced in adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Rahul Gupta
AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and their associations with auxiliary transmembrane proteins are bulky structures with large steric-exclusion volumes. Hence, self-crowding of AMPARs, depending on the local density, may affect their lateral diffusion in the postsynaptic membrane as well as in the highly crowded postsynaptic density (PSD) at excitatory synapses. Earlier theoretical studies considered only the roles of transmembrane obstacles and the AMPAR-binding submembranous scaffold proteins in shaping receptor diffusion within PSD...
February 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Shigeki Kiyonaka, Seiji Sakamoto, Sho Wakayama, Yuma Morikawa, Muneo Tsujikawa, Itaru Hamachi
AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Disregulation of AMPAR function is associated with many kinds of neurological, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. As a result, molecules capable of controlling AMPAR functions are potential therapeutic agents. Fluorescent semisynthetic biosensors have attracted considerable interest for the discovery of ligands selectively acting on target proteins. Given the large protein complex formation of AMPARs in live cells, biosensors using full-length AMPARs retaining original functionality are ideal for drug screening...
February 13, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Aifen Liu, Xiaopeng Wang, Hui Wang, Guoyi Lv, Yize Li, Hongmei Li
The interaction of remifentanil with glutamate systems has an important role in remifentanil-induced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. A previous study by our group suggested that the trafficking and function of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) subunits contributes to remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia by regulating the phosphorylation of GluR1 in dorsal horn neurons. The present study demonstrated that δ opioid receptor (DOR) inhibition prevented thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, which was induced by remifentanil infusion via attenuating GluR1 subunit trafficking and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) function in dorsal horn neurons...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lucas Matt, Karam Kim, Anne E Hergarden, Tommaso Patriarchi, Zulfiqar A Malik, Deborah K Park, Dhrubajyoti Chowdhury, Olivia R Buonarati, Peter B Henderson, Çiğdem Gökçek Saraç, Yonghong Zhang, Durga Mohapatra, Mary C Horne, James B Ames, Johannes W Hell
Despite the central role PSD-95 plays in anchoring postsynaptic AMPARs, how PSD-95 itself is tethered to postsynaptic sites is not well understood. Here we show that the F-actin binding protein α-actinin binds to the very N terminus of PSD-95. Knockdown (KD) of α-actinin phenocopies KD of PSD-95. Mutating lysine at position 10 or lysine at position 11 of PSD-95 to glutamate, or glutamate at position 53 or glutamate and aspartate at positions 213 and 217 of α-actinin, respectively, to lysine impairs, in parallel, PSD-95 binding to α-actinin and postsynaptic localization of PSD-95 and AMPARs...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
Arun Singh, Meagan A Jenkins, Kenneth J Burke, Goichi Beck, Andrew Jenkins, Annalisa Scimemi, Stephen F Traynelis, Stella M Papa
Dopamine (DA) loss in Parkinson's disease (PD) alters the function of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) and causes motor deficits, but DA replacement can induce further abnormalities. A key pathological change in animal models and patients is SPN hyperactivity; however, the role of glutamate in altered DA responses remains elusive. We tested the effect of locally applied AMPAR or NMDAR antagonists on glutamatergic signaling in SPNs of parkinsonian primates. Following a reduction in basal hyperactivity by antagonists at either receptor, DA inputs induced SPN firing changes that were stable during the entire motor response, in clear contrast with the typically unstable effects...
January 23, 2018: Cell Reports
Azadeh Kia, Kevin McAvoy, Karthik Krishnamurthy, Davide Trotti, Piera Pasinelli
Mutations in fused in sarcoma (FUS) are linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. While it is established that astrocytes contribute to the death of motor neurons in ALS, the specific contribution of mutant FUS (mutFUS) through astrocytes has not yet been studied. Here, we used primary astrocytes expressing a N-terminally GFP tagged R521G mutant or wild-type FUS (WTFUS) and show that mutFUS-expressing astrocytes undergo astrogliosis, damage co-cultured motor neurons via activation of an inflammatory response and produce conditioned medium (ACM) that is toxic to motor neurons in isolation...
January 30, 2018: Glia
Yanzhi Yu, Zhilin Huang, Chunfang Dai, Yehong Du, Huili Han, Yu Tian Wang, Zhifang Dong
Maternal sleep deprivation (MSD) has been suggested to be associated with increased frequency of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring in both humans and animal models. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism is still unclear. We have recently reported that MSD at different stages of pregnancy impairs the emotional and cognitive functions, and suppresses hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) in the offspring rats. Here, we report that the MSD induced LTP impairment at the CA1 hippocampus of the offspring rats is associated with increased long-term depression (LTD) and reduced expression of postsynaptic GluA2-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs)...
January 26, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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