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Endocytic trafficking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437275/intersection-of-endocytic-and-exocytic-systems-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#1
Olivia L McGovern, Yolanda Rivera-Cuevas, Geetha Kannan, Andrew Narwold, Vern B Carruthers
Host cytosolic proteins are endocytosed by Toxoplasma gondii and degraded in its lysosome-like compartment, the VAC, but the dynamics and route of endocytic trafficking remain undefined. Conserved endocytic components and plant-like features suggest T. gondii endocytic trafficking involves transit through early and late endosome-like compartments (ELCs) and potentially the trans-Golgi network (TGN) as in plants. However, exocytic trafficking to regulated secretory organelles, micronemes and rhoptries, also proceeds through ELCs and requires classical endocytic components including a dynamin-related protein, DrpB...
February 13, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423895/molecular-insights-into-the-roles-of-rab-proteins-in-intracellular-dynamics-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Shobi Veleri, Pradeep Punnakkal, Gary L Dunbar, Panchanan Maiti
In eukaryotes, the cellular functions are segregated to membrane-bound organelles. This inherently requires sorting of metabolites to membrane-limited locations. Sorting the metabolites from ribosomes to various organelles along the intracellular trafficking pathways involves several integral cellular processes, including an energy-dependent step, in which the sorting of metabolites between organelles is catalyzed by membrane-anchoring protein Rab-GTPases (Rab). They contribute to relaying the switching of the secretory proteins between hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments...
February 8, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420171/ap2-mutations-impair-calcium-sensing-receptor-trafficking-and-signaling-and-show-an-endosomal-pathway-to-spatially-direct-g-protein-selectivity
#3
Caroline M Gorvin, Angela Rogers, Benoit Hastoy, Andrei I Tarasov, Morten Frost, Silvia Sposini, Asuka Inoue, Michael P Whyte, Patrik Rorsman, Aylin C Hanyaloglu, Gerda E Breitwieser, Rajesh V Thakker
Spatial control of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, which is used by cells to translate complex information into distinct downstream responses, is achieved by using plasma membrane (PM) and endocytic-derived signaling pathways. The roles of the endomembrane in regulating such pleiotropic signaling via multiple G-protein pathways remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of disease-causing mutations of the adaptor protein-2 ? subunit (AP2?) on signaling by the class C GPCR calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR)...
January 23, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417046/subversion-of-the-endocytic-and-secretory-pathways-by-bacterial-effector-proteins
#4
REVIEW
Mary M Weber, Robert Faris
Intracellular bacteria have developed numerous strategies to hijack host vesicular trafficking pathways to form their unique replicative niches. To promote intracellular replication, the bacteria must interact with host organelles and modulate host signaling pathways to acquire nutrients and membrane for the growing parasitophorous vacuole all while suppressing activation of the immune response. To facilitate host cell subversion, bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial virulence factors, termed effectors, into the host cell that mimic, agonize, and/or antagonize the function of host proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411478/a-subunit-of-the-hops-endocytic-tethering-complex-fgvps41-is-important-for-fungal-development-and-plant-infection-in-fusarium-graminearum
#5
Bing Li, Xin Dong, Xinrui Li, Huaigu Chen, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
The signals by which eukaryotic cells communicate with the environment are usually mediated by vesicle trafficking to be attenuated or terminated. However, vesicle trafficking-mediated signal transmission during interactions between pathogens and host plants is poorly understood. Here, we identified and characterized the vacuole sorting protein FgVps41, which is the yeast HOPS tethering complex subunit Vps41 homolog in Fusarium graminearum. Targeted gene deletion demonstrated that FgVps41 is important for vegetative growth, asexual/sexual development, conidial morphology, plant infection, and deoxynivalenol production...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410531/mechanisms-of-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#6
REVIEW
Marko Kaksonen, Aurélien Roux
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a key process in vesicular trafficking that transports a wide range of cargo molecules from the cell surface to the interior. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was first described over 5 decades ago. Since its discovery, over 50 proteins have been shown to be part of the molecular machinery that generates the clathrin-coated endocytic vesicles. These proteins and the different steps of the endocytic process that they mediate have been studied in detail. However, we still lack a good understanding of how all these different components work together in a highly coordinated manner to drive vesicle formation...
February 7, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409147/uncovering-the-rab5-independent-autophagic-trafficking-of-influenza-a-virus-by-quantum-dot-based-single-virus-tracking
#7
Qiu-Mei Wu, Shu-Lin Liu, Gang Chen, Wei Zhang, En-Ze Sun, Geng-Fu Xiao, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Dai-Wen Pang
Autophagy is closely related to virus-induced disease and a comprehensive understanding of the autophagy-associated infection process of virus will be significant for developing more effective antiviral strategies. However, many critical issues and the underlying mechanism of autophagy in virus entry still need further investigation. Here, this study unveils the involvement of autophagy in influenza A virus entry. The quantum-dot-based single-virus tracking technique assists in real-time, prolonged, and multicolor visualization of the transport process of individual viruses and provides unambiguous dissection of the autophagic trafficking of viruses...
February 6, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386384/dj-1-deficiency-impairs-synaptic-vesicle-endocytosis-and-reavailability-at-nerve-terminals
#8
Jae Won Kyung, Jin-Mo Kim, Wongyoung Lee, Tae-Young Ha, Seon-Heui Cha, Kyung-Hwun Chung, Dong-Joo Choi, Ilo Jou, Woo Keun Song, Eun-Hye Joe, Sung Hyun Kim, Sang Myun Park
Mutations in DJ-1 (PARK7) are a known cause of early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Accumulating evidence indicates that abnormalities of synaptic vesicle trafficking underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of PD. In the present study, we explored whether DJ-1 is involved in CNS synaptic function. DJ-1 deficiency impaired synaptic vesicle endocytosis and reavailability without inducing structural alterations in synapses. Familial mutants of DJ-1 (M26I, E64D, and L166P) were unable to rescue defective endocytosis of synaptic vesicles, whereas WT DJ-1 expression completely restored endocytic function in DJ-1 KO neurons...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382723/dimerization-of-sortilin-regulates-its-trafficking-to-extracellular-vesicles
#9
Shinsuke Itoh, Ken Mizuno, Masanori Aikawa, Elena Aikawa
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a critical role in intercellular communication by transferring microRNAs, lipids and proteins to neighboring cells. Sortilin, a sorting receptor that directs target proteins to the secretary or endocytic compartments of cells, is found in both EVs and cells. In many human diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disorders, sortilin expression levels are atypically high. To elucidate the relationship between cardiovascular disease, particularly vascular calcification, and sortilin expression levels, we explored the trafficking of sortilin in both intracellular and extracellular milieu...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376493/placental-exosomes-during-gestation-liquid-biopsies-carrying-signals-for-the-regulation-of-human-parturition
#10
Carlos Salomon, Zarin Nuzhat, Christopher L Dixon, Ramkumar Menon
Parturition is defined as the action or process of giving birth to offspring. Normal term human parturition ensues following the maturation of fetal organ systems typically between 37 and 40 weeks of gestation. Our conventional understanding of how parturition initiation is signaled revolves around feto-maternal immune and endocrine changes occurring in the intrauterine cavity. These changes in turn correlate with the sequence of fetal growth and development. These important physiological changes also result in homeostatic imbalances which result in heightened inflammatory signaling...
January 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353455/the-interplay-between-apolipoprotein-e4-and-the-autophagic-endocytic-lysosomal-axis
#11
REVIEW
E Schmukler, D M Michaelson, R Pinkas-Kramarski
Since its discovery as a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, the APOE4 allele has been linked to the majority of the pathological findings associated with the disease progression. These include abnormalities of the endocytic, autophagic, and lysosomal machineries, which begin at the most early stages of Alzheimer's disease development. Considering that these three vesicular systems share common features and, in fact, comprise an interconnected cargo-trafficking and degradation network, some of the effects of APOE4 are interrelated, while others are system-specific...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352299/bunyavirus-requirement-for-endosomal-k-reveals-new-roles-of-cellular-ion-channels-during-infection
#12
Samantha Hover, Becky Foster, Juan Fontana, Alain Kohl, Steve A N Goldstein, John N Barr, Jamel Mankouri
In order to multiply and cause disease a virus must transport its genome from outside the cell into the cytosol, most commonly achieved through the endocytic network. Endosomes transport virus particles to specific cellular destinations and viruses exploit the changing environment of maturing endocytic vesicles as triggers to mediate genome release. Previously we demonstrated that several bunyaviruses, which comprise the largest family of negative sense RNA viruses, require the activity of cellular potassium (K+) channels to cause productive infection...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342457/the-von-hippel-lindau-gene-is-required-to-maintain-renal-proximal-tubule-and-glomerulus-integrity-in-zebrafish-larvae
#13
Ellen van Rooijen, Glenn van de Hoek, Ive Logister, Henry Ajzenberg, Nine V A M Knoers, Freek van Eeden, Emile E Voest, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Rachel H Giles
BACKGROUND: von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is characterized by the development of benign and malignant tumours in many organ systems, including renal cysts and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. It is not completely understood what underlies the development of renal pathology, and the use of murine Vhl models has been challenging due to limitations in disease conservation. We previously described a zebrafish model bearing inactivating mutations in the orthologue of the human VHL gene. METHODS: We used histopathological and functional assays to investigate the pronephric and glomerular developmental defects in vhl mutant zebrafish, supported by human cell culture assays...
January 17, 2018: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331069/cellular-membrane-trafficking-machineries-utilized-by-the-hepatitis-viruses
#14
REVIEW
Jun Inoue, Masashi Ninomiya, Tooru Shimosegawa, Mark A McNiven
While the life cycles of hepatitis viruses (hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E viruses) have been modestly characterized, recent intensive studies have provided new insights. Because these viruses 'hijack' the membrane trafficking of the host cell machinery during replicative propagation, it is essential to determine and understand these specific cellular pathways. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are well known as a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While substantial inroads toward treating HCV patients have recently been made, patients with HBV continue to require life-long treatment, which makes a thorough understanding of the HBV life cycle essential...
January 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324305/caveolin-mediated-endocytosis-of-the-chlamydia-m278-outer-membrane-peptide-encapsulated-in-poly-lactic-acid-poly-ethylene-glycol-nanoparticles-by-mouse-primary-dendritic-cells-enhances-specific-immune-effectors-mediated-by-mhc-class-ii-and-cd4-t-cells
#15
Saurabh Dixit, Rajnish Sahu, Richa Verma, Skyla Duncan, Guillermo H Giambartolomei, Shree R Singh, Vida A Dennis
We previously developed a Chlamydia trachomatis nanovaccine (PPM) by encapsulating a chlamydial M278 peptide within poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) biodegradable nanoparticles that immunopotentiated Chlamydia-specific immune effector responses in mice. Herein, we investigated the mechanistic interactions of PPM with mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) for its uptake, trafficking, and T cell activation. Our results reveal that PPM triggered enhanced expression of effector cytokines and chemokines, surface activation markers (Cd1d2, Fcgr1), pathogen-sensing receptors (TLR2, Nod1), co-stimulatory (CD40, CD80, CD86) and MHC class I and II molecules...
December 26, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322087/the-endosomal-protein-endotubin-is-required-for-enterocyte%C3%A2-differentiation
#16
Christopher M Cox, Ruifeng Lu, Kaan Salcin, Jean M Wilson
Background & Aims: During late embryonic development and through weaning, enterocytes of the ileum are highly endocytic. Defects in endocytosis and trafficking are implicated in neonatal disease, however, the mechanisms regulating trafficking during the developmental period are incompletely understood. The apical endosomal protein endotubin (EDTB) is highly expressed in the late embryonic and neonatal ileum. In epithelial cells in vitro, EDTB regulates both trafficking of tight junction proteins and proliferation through modulation of YAP activity...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321327/human-papillomavirus-16-infection-induces-vap-dependent-endosomal-tubulation
#17
Abida Siddiqa, Paola Massimi, David Pim, Justyna Broniarczyk, Lawrence Banks
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves complex interactions with the endocytic transport machinery, which ultimately facilitates the entry of the incoming viral genomes into the trans-Golgi network and their subsequent nuclear entry during mitosis. The endosomal pathway is a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which consists of vesicular compartments and tubular extensions, although it is currently unclear whether incoming viruses specifically alter the endocytic machinery. In this study, using MICAL-L1 as a marker for tubulating endosomes, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a profound alteration in global levels of endocytic tubulation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311259/the-endosomal-trafficking-factors-corvet-and-escrt-suppress-plasma-membrane-residence-of-the-renal-outer-medullary-potassium-channel-romk
#18
Timothy D Mackie, Bo-Young Kim, Arohan R Subramanya, Daniel J Bain, Allyson F O'Donnell, Paul A Welling, Jeffrey L Brodsky
Protein trafficking can act as the primary regulatory mechanism for ion channels with high open probabilities, such as the renal outer medullary (ROMK) channel. ROMK, also known as Kir1.1 (KCNJ1), is the major route for potassium secretion into the pro-urine and plays an indispensable role in regulating serum potassium and urinary concentrations. However, the cellular machinery that regulates ROMK trafficking has not been fully defined. To identify regulators of the cell-surface population of ROMK, we expressed a pH-insensitive version of the channel in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306078/effect-of-fish-oil-on-agonist-induced-receptor-internalization-of-the-pg-f2%C3%AE-receptor-and-cell-signaling-in-bovine-luteal-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#19
M R Plewes, P D Burns
Many receptors span the plasma membrane allowing for signal transduction, converting extracellular signals into intracellular signals. Following ligand-induced activation, membrane-bound receptors are taken into endocytic vesicles, where they are targeted for degradation or recycled back to the plasma membrane. The objectives of the present study were to determine the influence of fish oil on (1) PGF2α-induced receptor internalization and trafficking of the PGF2α (FP) receptor, (2) cytoskeletal structural integrity, and (3) PGF2α-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in bovine luteal cells...
December 12, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286431/pulling-membrane-nanotubes-from-giant-unilamellar-vesicles
#20
Coline Prévost, Feng-Ching Tsai, Patricia Bassereau, Mijo Simunovic
The reshaping of the cell membrane is an integral part of many cellular phenomena, such as endocytosis, trafficking, the formation of filopodia, etc. Many different proteins associate with curved membranes because of their ability to sense or induce membrane curvature. Typically, these processes involve a multitude of proteins making them too complex to study quantitatively in the cell. We describe a protocol to reconstitute a curved membrane in vitro, mimicking a curved cellular structure, such as the endocytic neck...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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