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Endocytic trafficking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106386/macromolecularly-caged-carbon-nanoparticles-for-intracel-lular-trafficking-via-switchable-photo-luminescence
#1
Santosh K Misra, Indrajit Srivastava, Indu Tripathi, Enrique A Daza, Fatemeh Ostadhossein, Dipanjan Pan
Reversible switching of photoluminescence (PL) of carbon nanoparticles (CNP) can be achieved with counter-ionic macromolecular caging and de-caging at the nanoscale. A negatively charged uncoated, 'bare' CNP with high luminescence loses its PL when positively charged macromolecules are wrapped around its surface. Prepared caged carbons could regain their emission only through interaction with anionic surfactant mole-cules, representing anionic amphiphiles of endocytic membranes. This process could be verified by gel electrophoresis, spectroscopically and in vitro confocal imaging studies...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093351/in-vitro-uptake-and-transport-studies-of-peg-plga-polymeric-micelles-in-respiratory-epithelial-cells
#2
Xiao Hu, Fei-Fei Yang, Chun-Yu Liu, Carsten Ehrhardt, Yong-Hong Liao
Polymeric micelles are considered promising carriers for pulmonary drug delivery. Their interaction with the respiratory epithelium, however, is mostly unknown. In the present study, methoxypoly (ethylene glycol) (mPEG)-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) micelles containing curcumin acetate (CA) or a mixture of CA and Nile Red (NR) were prepared using the solvent evaporation method. Calu-3 and NCI-H441 human respiratory epithelial cell monolayers were used as in vitro models of upper and lower respiratory tract epithelium barrier, respectively, to study the cellular uptake and transport of the vesicles...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064438/integration-of-cellular-ubiquitin-and-membrane-traffic-systems-focus-on-deubiquitylases
#3
REVIEW
Michael J Clague, Sylvie Urbé
The cell is comprised of integrated multi-level protein networks or systems. The ubiquitin, protein homeostasis and membrane trafficking systems are highly integrated. Here we look at the influence of reversible ubiquitylation on membrane trafficking and organelle dynamics. We review the regulation of endocytic sorting, selective autophagy and the secretory pathway by ubiquitin signals, with a particular focus on detailing the contribution of deubiquitylating enzymes. This article is protected by copyright...
January 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060904/past1-modulates-drosophila-eye-development
#4
Orly Dorot, Hermann Steller, Daniel Segal, Mia Horowitz
Endocytosis is a multi-step process involving a large number of proteins, both general factors, such as clathrin and adaptor protein complexes, and unique proteins, which modulate specialized endocytic processes, like the EHD proteins. EHDs are a family of Eps15 Homology Domain containing proteins that consists of four mammalian homologs, one C. elegans, one Drosophila melanogaster and two plants orthologs. These membrane-associated proteins are involved in different steps of endocytic trafficking pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060560/harnessing-membrane-trafficking-to-promote-cancer-spreading-and-invasion-the-case-of-rab2a
#5
Hiroaki Kajiho, Yuko Kajiho, Giorgio Scita
How cancer disseminates and metastasizes remains an outstanding open question. Emerging evidence indicates that membrane trafficking is frequently harnessed by tumours of epithelial origin to acquire a mesenchymal program of invasiveness. However, the critical molecular hubs utilized by cancer cells this context have only began to be elucidated. Here, we discussed the results of a recent phenotypic screening that led to the identification of the small GTPase RAB2A, not previously involved in cancer dissemination, as pivotal for the acquisition of pericellular proteolysis, cell dissemination and distant metastatic spreading of human breast cancer...
January 6, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051846/selective-intracellular-delivery-of-ganglioside-gm3-binding-peptide-through-caveolae-raft-mediated-endocytosis
#6
Teruhiko Matsubara, Ryohei Otani, Miki Yamashita, Haruka Maeno, Hanae Nodono, Toshinori Sato
Glycosphingolipids are major components of the membrane raft, and several kinds of viruses and bacterial toxins are known to bind to glycosphingolipids in the membrane raft. Since the viral genes and pathogenic proteins that are taken into cells are directly delivered to their target organelles, caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis represents a promising pathway for specific delivery. In the present study, we demonstrated the ability of an artificial pentadecapeptide, which binds to ganglioside GM3, to deliver protein into cells by caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis...
January 4, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049841/trail-death-receptor-endocytosis-and-apoptosis-are-selectively-regulated-by-dynamin-1-activation
#7
Carlos R Reis, Ping-Hung Chen, Nawal Bendris, Sandra L Schmid
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) constitutes the major pathway for uptake of signaling receptors into eukaryotic cells. As such, CME regulates signaling from cell-surface receptors, but whether and how specific signaling receptors reciprocally regulate the CME machinery remains an open question. Although best studied for its role in membrane fission, the GTPase dynamin also regulates early stages of CME. We recently reported that dynamin-1 (Dyn1), previously assumed to be neuron-specific, can be selectively activated in cancer cells to alter endocytic trafficking...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049734/sphingosine-and-sphingosine-kinase-1-involvement-in-endocytic-membrane-trafficking
#8
Santiago Lima, Sheldon Milstien, Sarah Spiegel
The balance between cholesterol and sphingolipids within the plasma membrane has long been implicated in endocytic membrane trafficking. However, in contrast to cholesterol functions, little is still known about the roles of sphingolipids and their metabolites. Perturbing the cholesterol/sphingomyelin balance was shown to induce narrow tubular plasma membrane invaginations enriched with sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), the enzyme that converts the bioactive sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and suggested a role for sphingosine phosphorylation in endocytic membrane trafficking...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043862/rapid-and-facile-quantitation-of-polyplex-endocytic-trafficking
#9
Mihael Lazebnik, Daniel W Pack
Design of safe and effective synthetic nucleic acid delivery vectors such as polycation/DNA or polycation/siRNA complexes (polyplexes) will be facilitated by quantitative understanding of the mechanisms by which such materials escort cargo from the cell surface to the nucleus. In particular, the mechanisms of cellular internalization by various endocytosis pathways and subsequent endocytic vesicle trafficking have been shown to strongly affect nucleic acid delivery efficiency. Fluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation methods are commonly employed to follow intracellular trafficking of biomolecules and nanoparticulate delivery systems such as polyplexes...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026081/distinct-complexes-of-yeast-snx4-family-snx-bars-mediate-retrograde-trafficking-of-snc1-and-atg27
#10
Mengxiao Ma, Christopher G Burd, Richard J Chi
The yeast SNX4 sub-family of sorting nexin containing a Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs domain (SNX-BAR) proteins, Snx4/Atg24, Snx41 and Atg20/Snx42, are required for endocytic recycling and selective autophagy. Here, we show that Snx4 forms 2 functionally distinct heterodimers: Snx4-Atg20 and Snx4-Snx41. Each heterodimer coats an endosome-derived tubule that mediates retrograde sorting of distinct cargo; the v-SNARE, Snc1, is a cargo of the Snx4-Atg20 pathway, and Snx4-Snx41 mediates retrograde sorting of Atg27, an integral membrane protein implicated in selective autophagy...
December 27, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008422/pathogenic-mycobacteria-achieve-cellular-persistence-by-inhibiting-the-niemann-pick-type-c-disease-cellular-pathway
#11
Paul Fineran, Emyr Lloyd-Evans, Nathan A Lack, Nick Platt, Lianne C Davis, Anthony J Morgan, Doris Höglinger, Raju Venkata V Tatituri, Simon Clark, Ian M Williams, Patricia Tynan, Nada Al Eisa, Evgeniya Nazarova, Ann Williams, Antony Galione, Daniel S Ory, Gurdyal S Besra, David G Russell, Michael B Brenner, Edith Sim, Frances M Platt
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major global health concern. The ability to prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion is a key mechanism by which intracellular mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieve long-term persistence within host cells. The mechanisms underpinning this key intracellular pro-survival strategy remain incompletely understood. Host macrophages infected with persistent mycobacteria share phenotypic similarities with cells taken from patients suffering from Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NPC), a rare lysosomal storage disease in which endocytic trafficking defects and lipid accumulation within the lysosome lead to cell dysfunction and cell death...
November 18, 2016: Wellcome Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003861/rei-1-a-novel-rab11-gef-with-a-sh3bp5-domain
#12
Aisa Sakaguchi, Miyuki Sato, Ken Sato
The small GTPase Rab proteins are key regulators of membrane trafficking. Rab11 is one of the best-characterized molecules among the Rab family proteins and it plays multiple roles in endocytic recycling, exocytosis, and cytokinesis. However, it remains unclear how Rab11 is activated at a precise timing and location and regulates its diverse functions. Specifically, our knowledge of the upstream regulatory factors that activate Rab11 is limited. In this regard, we have identified the RAB-11-interacting protein-1 (REI-1) as a novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RAB-11 in Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002452/the-effector-cig57-hijacks-fcho-mediated-vesicular-trafficking-to-facilitate-intracellular-replication-of-coxiella-burnetii
#13
Eleanor A Latomanski, Patrice Newton, Chen Ai Khoo, Hayley J Newton
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects alveolar macrophages and replicates within a unique lysosome-derived vacuole. When Coxiella is trafficked to a host cell lysosome the essential Dot/Icm type IV secretion system is activated allowing over 130 bacterial effector proteins to be translocated into the host cytosol. This cohort of effectors is believed to manipulate host cell functions to facilitate Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV) biogenesis and bacterial replication. Transposon mutagenesis has demonstrated that the Dot/Icm effector Cig57 is required for CCV development and intracellular replication of Coxiella...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994678/the-role-of-bca2-in-the-endocytic-trafficking-of-egfr-and-significance-as-a-prognostic-biomarker-in-cancer
#14
Jennifer M Wymant, Stephen Hiscox, Andrew D Westwell, Sylvie Urbé, Michael J Clague, Arwyn T Jones
Breast Cancer Associated gene 2 (BCA2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is over-expressed in >50% of primary breast cancers, and has been shown to increase in vitro cell proliferation and invasion. The protein has been linked to alterations in EGFR degradation; however there is some dispute as to its role and influence on the biology of this receptor. Our work aimed to ascertain the role of BCA2 in EGFR endocytosis and down-regulation and to examine its links with breast cancer outcome. Data generated with the online expression analysis tool KM-Plotter showed that high BCA2 levels are associated with poor prognosis in ovarian, gastric and breast cancer, particularly HER2 over-expressing breast cancers...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991862/fluorescent-aminoglycosides-reveal-intracellular-trafficking-routes-in-mechanosensory-hair-cells
#15
Dale W Hailey, Robert Esterberg, Tor H Linbo, Edwin W Rubel, David W Raible
Aminoglycosides (AGs) are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are associated with kidney damage, balance disorders, and permanent hearing loss. This damage occurs primarily by killing of proximal tubule kidney cells and mechanosensory hair cells, though the mechanisms underlying cell death are not clear. Imaging molecules of interest in living cells can elucidate how molecules enter cells, traverse intracellular compartments, and interact with sites of activity. Here, we have imaged fluorescently labeled AGs in live zebrafish mechanosensory hair cells...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989654/endocytosis-metastasis-and-beyond-multiple-facets-of-snx9
#16
REVIEW
Nawal Bendris, Sandra L Schmid
Sorting nexin (SNX)9 was first discovered as an endocytic accessory protein involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, recent data suggest that SNX9 is a multifunctional scaffold that coordinates membrane trafficking and remodeling with changes in actin dynamics to affect diverse cellular processes. Here, we review the accumulated knowledge on SNX9 with an emphasis on its recently identified roles in clathrin-independent endocytic pathways, cell invasion, and cell division, which have implications for SNX9 function in human disease, including cancer...
December 15, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987184/look-who-s-talking-the-crosstalk-between-oxidative-stress-and-autophagy-supports-exosomal-dependent-release-of-hcv-particles
#17
REVIEW
Regina Medvedev, Eberhard Hildt, Daniela Ploen
Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated intracellular lysosomal degradation pathway that is essential for cell survival. Dysregulation has been linked to the development of various human diseases, including neurodegeneration and tumorigenesis, infection, and aging. Besides, many viruses hijack the autophagosomal pathway to support their life cycle. The hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, has been described to induce autophagy. The autophagosomal pathway can be further activated in response to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 16, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986571/the-journey-of-the-autophagosome-through-mammalian-cell-organelles-and-membranes
#18
REVIEW
Diana Molino, Naïma Zemirli, Patrice Codogno, Etienne Morel
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process carried out by a double-membrane organelle, termed the autophagosome, which sequesters cytoplasmic material destined for lysosomal degradation and recycling. Autophagy and autophagosome biogenesis are highly conserved processes in eukaryotes and are essential for cell survival, stress responses, and homeostasis. Autophagosomes are dynamic and complex organelles that can originate from several different membrane compartments. Autophagosomes traffic through the cell to fuse with lysosomes or other compartments...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984093/annexin-a6-in-the-liver-from-the-endocytic-compartment-to-cellular-physiology
#19
REVIEW
Carlos Enrich, Carles Rentero, Thomas Grewal
Annexin A6 (AnxA6) belongs to the conserved annexin family - a group of Ca(2+)-dependent membrane binding proteins. AnxA6 is the largest of all annexins and highly expressed in smooth muscle, hepatocytes, endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Upon activation, AnxA6 binds to negatively charged phospholipids in a wide range of intracellular localizations, in particular the plasma membrane, late endosomes/pre-lysosomes, but also synaptic vesicles and sarcolemma. In these cellular sites, AnxA6 is believed to contribute to the organization of membrane microdomains, such as cholesterol-rich lipid rafts and confer multiple regulatory functions, ranging from vesicle fusion, endocytosis and exocytosis to programmed cell death and muscle contraction...
October 27, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980069/multiple-routes-of-endocytic-internalization-of-pdgfr%C3%AE-contribute-to-pdgf-induced-stat3-signaling
#20
Kamil Jastrzębski, Daria Zdżalik-Bielecka, Agnieszka Mamińska, Yannis Kalaidzidis, Carina Hellberg, Marta Miaczynska
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) is a receptor tyrosine kinase which upon activation by PDGF-BB stimulates cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. Ligand binding induces intracellular signaling cascades but also internalization of the receptor, eventually resulting in its lysosomal degradation. However, endocytic trafficking of receptors often modulates their downstream signaling. We previously reported that internalization of PDGFRβ occurs via dynamin-dependent and -independent pathways but their further molecular determinants remained unknown...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
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