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J Chee, B W S R Robinson, R A Holt, J Creaney
Harnessing the immune system to fight cancer is an exciting advancement in lung cancer therapy. Anti-tumor immunity can be augmented by checkpoint blockade therapy, which removes the inhibition/brakes imposed on the immune system by the tumor. Checkpoint blockade therapy with anti-PD1/anti-PDL1 antibodies causes tumor regression in around 25% of lung cancer patients. In another approach, the immune system is forced or accelerated to attack the tumour, via augmentation of the anti-tumour response against mutations carried by each lung tumour...
October 18, 2016: Chest
Yi Zheng, Yicheng Yang, Shu Wu, Yongqiang Zhu, Xiaolong Tang, Xiaopeng Liu
As the second most common gynecologic malignant tumors with a high mortality rate, cervical cancer jeopardizes women's life worldwide. The low cure rate in cervical cancer patients is mainly attributed to the lack of effective therapies. One feasible novel strategy is to develop immune-based approaches such as adoptive cell immunotherapy of DCCIKs which represents a promising nontoxic antineoplastic immunotherapy preferred in clinic practice. However, the therapeutic effect is not as efficient as anticipated...
October 18, 2016: Bioengineered
Solène-Florence Kammerer-Jacquet, Laurence Crouzet, Angélique Brunot, Julien Dagher, Adélaïde Pladys, Julien Edeline, Brigitte Laguerre, Benoit Peyronnet, Romain Mathieu, Grégory Verhoest, Jean-Jacques Patard, Alexandra Lespagnol, Jean Mosser, Marc Denis, Yosra Messai, Sophie Gad-Lapiteau, Salem Chouaib, Marc-Antoine Belaud-Rotureau, Karim Bensalah, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is an aggressive tumor that is characterized in most cases by inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene VHL. The VHL/HIF/VEGF pathway thus plays a major role in angiogenesis and is currently targeted by anti-angiogenic therapy. The emergence of resistance is leading to the use of targeted immunotherapy against immune checkpoint PD1/PDL1 that restores antitumor immune response. The correlation between VHL status and PD-L1 expression has been little investigated. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed 98 consecutive cases of ccRCC and correlated PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with clinical data (up to 10-year follow-up), pathological criteria, VEGF, PAR-3, CAIX and PD-1 expressions by IHC and complete VHL status (deletion, mutation and promoter hypermethylation)...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Smriti Sharma, Richard E Davis, Shweta Srivastva, Susanne Nylén, Shyam Sundar, Mary E Wilson
BACKGROUND:  Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease associated with fever, cachexia and impaired protective T-cell responses against the parasite. METHODS:  Peripheral blood leukocytes from 105 subjects with VL and healthy control subjects from the endemic region of Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India, were compared using flow cytometry and reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Findings were correlated with clinical data...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
David J Birnbaum, Pascal Finetti, Alexia Lopresti, Marine Gilabert, Flora Poizat, Olivier Turrini, Jean-Luc Raoul, Jean-Robert Delpero, Vincent Moutardier, Daniel Birnbaum, Emilie Mamessier, François Bertucci
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human cancers. PD1/PDL1-inhibitors recently showed promising results in different cancers with correlation between PDL1 tumor expression and responses. Expression of programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PDL1) has been scarcely studied in pancreatic cancer. In this retrospective study, we analyzed PDL1 mRNA expression in 453 clinical pancreatic cancer samples profiled using DNA microarrays and RNASeq. Compared to normal pancreatic samples, PDL1 expression was upregulated in 19% of cancer samples...
August 29, 2016: Oncotarget
George Yaghmour, Philippe Prouet, Eric Wiedower, Omer Hassan Jamy, Rebecca Feldman, Jason C Chandler, Manjari Pandey, Mike G Martin
BACKGROUND: As we have previously reported, small cell carcinoma of the ovary (SCCO) is a rare, aggressive form of ovarian cancer associated with poor outcomes. In an effort to identify new treatment options, we utilized comprehensive genomic profiling to assess the potential for novel therapies in SCCO. METHODS: Patients with SCCO, SCCO-HT (hypercalcemic type), neuroendocrine tumors of the ovary (NET-O), and small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC) profiled by Caris Life Sciences between 2007-2015 were identified...
2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
Yanyan Bao, Xin Pan, Yahong Jin, Yingjie Gao, Xiaolan Cui
Chinese medicines (CMs) have been shown to have some advantages in preventing and controlling tumors. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of ZFSC by establishing a mouse model of HT-1080, A-549, and HCT-8 tumors. The result showed that tumor volumes of HT-1080 tumor-bearing nude mice in ZFSC low, medium, and high dose groups were lower significantly compared to the model group, and the high dose ZFSC showed the best antitumor effect. Tumor volumes of A-549 tumor-bearing nude mice in ZFSC low, medium, and high dose groups were lower significantly compared to the model group and showed a good dose-response relationship...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Haoting Hsu, Sarah Boudova, Godfrey Mvula, Titus H Divala, Randy G Mungwira, Christopher Harman, Miriam K Laufer, C David Pauza, Cristiana Cairo
A successful pregnancy depends on the maintenance of tolerance at the fetal-maternal interface; strong inflammation in the placental bed is generally associated with adverse fetal outcomes. Among the mechanisms that foster tolerance and limit inflammation, the fetal immune system favors Th2 or regulatory responses over Th1 responses. The unintended consequence of this functional program is high susceptibility to infections. Human Vδ2 T cells mount innate-like responses to a broad range of microorganisms and are poised for Th1 responses before birth...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Ioannis Karydis, Pui Ying Chan, Matthew Wheater, Edurne Arriola, Peter W Szlosarek, Christian H Ottensmeier
BACKGROUND: Untreated metastatic uveal melanoma (UM) carries a grave prognosis. Unlike cutaneous melanoma (CM), there are no established treatments known to significantly improve outcomes for a meaningful proportion of patients. Inhibition of the PD1-PDL1 axis has shown promise in the management of CM and we here report a two center experience of UM patients receiving pembrolizumab. METHODS: To assess the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab, we retrospectively analyzed outcome data of 25 consecutive UM patients participating in the MK3475 expanded access program (EAP) who received pembrolizumab at 2 mg/kg 3 weekly...
May 2016: Oncoimmunology
Emmanouil Papasavvas, Lea F Surrey, Deborah K Glencross, Livio Azzoni, Jocelin Joseph, Tanvier Omar, Michael D Feldman, Anna-Lise Williamson, Maureen Siminya, Avril Swarts, Xiangfan Yin, Qin Liu, Cynthia Firnhaber, Luis J Montaner
Persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical disease in the context of HIV co-infection can be influenced by introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and sustained immune activation despite ART. We conducted a cross-sectional study in order to evaluate immune activation/exhaustion in ART-suppressed HIV(+) women with or without high-risk (HR) HPV-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). 55 South African women were recruited in three groups: HR (-) (n = 16) and HR (+) (n = 15) HPV with negative cervical histopathology, and HR (+) HPV with CIN grade 1/2/3 (n = 24)...
May 2016: Oncoimmunology
George Yaghmour, Manjari Pandey, Catherine Ireland, Kruti Patel, Sara Nunnery, Daniel Powell, Scott Baum, Eric Wiedower, Lee S Schwartzberg, Michael G Martin
AIM: We evaluated whether tumor genome sequencing to detect the number and type of alterations could be used as a valuable biomarker for judging the potential utility of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with advanced cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients with solid tumors who were treated with checkpoint inibitors and had received commercially available next generation sequencing (NGS). Tumors profiled by Caris Life Sciences, Foundation Medicine and Guardant360 between 2013 and 2015...
August 2016: Anticancer Research
Gerry Kwok, Thomas C C Yau, Joanne W Chiu, Eric Tse, Yok-Lam Kwong
The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) is one of the checkpoints that regulates the immune response. Ligation of PD1 with its ligands PDL1 and PDL2 results in transduction of negative signals to T-cells. PD1 expression is an important mechanism contributing to the exhausted effector T-cell phenotype. The expression of PD1 on effector T-cells and PDL1 on neoplastic cells enables tumor cells to evade anti-tumor immunity. Blockade of PD1 is an important immunotherapeutic strategy for cancers. Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) is a humanized monoclonal anti-PD1 antibody that has been extensively investigated in numerous malignancies...
July 11, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Brennan McCullar, Manjari Pandey, George Yaghmour, Felicia Hare, Kruti Patel, Matthew Stein, Rebecca Feldman, Jason C Chandler, Michael G Martin
Small cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer that is associated with extremely poor outcomes [1]. In an effort to identify possible targets for treatment, we utilized comprehensive genomic profiling in small cell carcinoma of the breast. Under an IRB approved protocol, we identified patients with small cell carcinoma of the breast and small cell carcinoma of the lung profiled by Caris Life Sciences between 2007 and 2015. Tumors were assessed with up to 25 immunohistochemical stains, in situ hybridization of cMET, EGFR, HER2, PIK3CA, and TOP2A, and next generation sequencing as well as Sanger sequencing of 47 genes...
July 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Raphael Serre, Sebastien Benzekry, Laetitia Padovani, Christophe Meille, Nicolas André, Joseph Ciccolini, Fabrice Barlesi, Xavier Muracciole, Dominique Barbolosi
Combining radiotherapy with immune checkpoint blockade may offer considerable therapeutic impact if the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment (TME) can be relieved. In this study, we used mathematical models, which can illustrate the potential synergism between immune checkpoint inhibitors and radiotherapy. A discrete-time pharmacodynamic model of the combination of radiotherapy with inhibitors of the PD1-PDL1 axis and/or the CTLA4 pathway is described. This mathematical framework describes how a growing tumor first elicits and then inhibits an antitumor immune response...
September 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Paul E Hughes, Sean Caenepeel, Lawren C Wu
Many advances in the treatment of cancer have been driven by the development of targeted therapies that inhibit oncogenic signaling pathways and tumor-associated angiogenesis, as well as by the recent development of therapies that activate a patient's immune system to unleash antitumor immunity. Some targeted therapies can have effects on host immune responses, in addition to their effects on tumor biology. These immune-modulating effects, such as increasing tumor antigenicity or promoting intratumoral T cell infiltration, provide a rationale for combining these targeted therapies with immunotherapies...
July 2016: Trends in Immunology
Tomohide Tsukahara, Makoto Emori, Kenji Murata, Emi Mizushima, Yuji Shibayama, Terufumi Kubo, Takayuki Kanaseki, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Toshihiko Yamashita, Noriyuki Sato, Toshihiko Torigoe
INTRODUCTION: The use of immunotherapeutic challenges for sarcoma has a long history. Despite the existence of objective responses, immunotherapy has been overshadowed by the results of chemotherapy, especially for osteosarcoma. However, the prognosis for non-responders to chemotherapy is still poor and immunotherapy is now focused on again. AREAS COVERED: We reviewed the following types of clinical trials of immunotherapy for sarcoma: (i) vaccination with autologous tumor cells, (ii) vaccination with peptides derived from tumor-associated antigens, (iii) adoptive cell transfer using engineered T cells expressing T cell receptor directed at NY-ESO-1 and (iv) immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting CTLA-4 and PD1/PDL1...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Shin Foong Ngiow, Katrina M Meeth, Kimberley Stannard, Deborah S Barkauskas, Gideon Bollag, Marcus Bosenberg, Mark J Smyth
The presence of colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF1)/CSF1 receptor (CSF1R)-driven tumor-infiltrating macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is shown to promote targeted therapy resistance. In this study, we demonstrate the superior effect of a combination of CSF1R inhibitor, PLX3397 and BRAF inhibitor, PLX4720, in suppressing primary and metastatic mouse BRAF(V600E) melanoma. Using flow cytometry to assess SM1WT1 melanoma-infiltrating leukocytes immediately post therapy, we found that PLX3397 reduced the recruitment of CD11b(+) Gr1(lo) and CD11b(+) Gr1(int) M2-like macrophages, but this was accompanied by an accumulation of CD11b(+) Gr1(hi) cells...
March 2016: Oncoimmunology
François Bertucci, Pascal Finetti, Daniel Birnbaum, Emilie Mamessier
Analysis of PDL1 mRNA expression in ∼5,500 breast cancers showed PDL1 upregulation in 38% of basal tumors and 38% of inflammatory breast cancers (IBC). Upregulation, associated with signs of strong cytotoxic local immune response, was associated with a better survival in the basal or triple-negative subtypes, and with a better pathological response to chemotherapy in these subtypes and IBC. Reactivation of dormant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) by PD1/PDL1-inhibitors represents a promising strategy in these aggressive tumors...
March 2016: Oncoimmunology
Saar Gill
Hematologic oncologists now have at their disposal (or a referral away) a myriad of new options to get from point A (a patient with relapsed or poor-risk disease) to point B (potential tumor eradication and long-term disease-free survival). In this perspective piece, we discuss the putative mechanisms of action and the relative strengths and weaknesses of currently available cellular therapy approaches. Notably, while many of these approaches have been published in high impact journals, with the exception of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and of checkpoint inhibitors (PD1/PDL1 or CTLA4 blockade), the published clinical trials have mostly been early phase, uncontrolled studies...
August 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Suzanne L Topalian, Janis M Taube, Robert A Anders, Drew M Pardoll
With recent approvals for multiple therapeutic antibodies that block cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) in melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer and kidney cancer, and additional immune checkpoints being targeted clinically, many questions still remain regarding the optimal use of drugs that block these checkpoint pathways. Defining biomarkers that predict therapeutic effects and adverse events is a crucial mandate, highlighted by recent approvals for two PDL1 diagnostic tests...
May 2016: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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