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Threat appraisal

Andrea L Gold, Tomer Shechner, Madeline J Farber, Carolyn N Spiro, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Jennifer C Britton
BACKGROUND: Amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) functional connectivity may be influenced by anxiety and development. A prior study on anxiety found age-specific dysfunction in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), but not amygdala, associated with threat-safety discrimination during extinction recall (Britton et al.). However, translational research suggests that amygdala-PFC circuitry mediates responses following learned extinction. Anxiety-related perturbations may emerge in functional connectivity within this circuit during extinction recall tasks...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
S Manimaran, S Jeyakumar, K Bhagya Lakshmi
Education Management Information System (EMIS) is a widely acceptable and developing technology within the Information Technology field. The advancement in technology in this century is being collaborated with scientific invention or explorer and information strengthening or development. This paper presents the results and experiences gained from applying students oriented EMIS for monitoring and managing mental health. The Mental Health of students depends on the acquiring adequate knowledge on basic concepts within a time period or academic schedule...
September 23, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Katrina R Ellis, Mary R Janevic, Trace Kershaw, Cleopatra H Caldwell, Nancy K Janz, Laurel Northouse
PURPOSE: Physical and psychological symptoms experienced by patients with advanced cancer influence their well-being; how patient and family caregiver symptom distress influence each other's well-being is less understood. This study examined the influence of patient and caregiver symptom distress on their threat appraisals and self-efficacy to cope with cancer. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of baseline data from an RCT that enrolled patients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers (N = 484 dyads)...
September 8, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
É Cappe, N Poirier, É Boujut, N Nader-Grosbois, C Dionne, A Boulard
INTRODUCTION: Autism and related disorders are grouped into the category of « Autism Spectrum Disorder » (ASD) in the DSM-5. This appellation reflects the idea of a dimensional representation of autism that combines symptoms and characteristics that vary in severity and intensity. Despite common characteristics, there are varying degrees in intensity and in the onset of symptoms, ranging from a disability that can be very heavy with a total lack of communication and major disorders associated with the existence of a relative autonomy associated, sometimes, with extraordinary intellectual abilities...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Rachel L Cathcart, A Ian Glendon
PURPOSE: Using a young driver sample, this experimental study sought to identify which combinations of threat-appraisal (TA) and coping-appraisal (CA) messages derived from protection motivation theory (PMT) participants would judge as most effective for themselves, and for other drivers. METHOD: The criterion variable was reported intention to drive within a signed speed limit. All possible TA/CA combinations of 18 previously highly-rated anti-speeding messages were presented both simultaneously and sequentially...
November 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Michael Hock, Jan H Peters, Heinz Walter Krohne
Using a paradigm that allows a quasi-continuous tracking of memory performance over time, two experiments were designed to test the hypotheses that (a) persons with a cognitively avoidant style of coping with threat manifest a dissociation between (intact) short-term and (reduced) long-term retrieval of aversive information and (b) persons with a vigilant coping style recall aversive information particularly well after long retention intervals, provided they are free to think about aversive events. Study 1 (N = 75) showed that avoiders manifest a poor memory for aversive pictures after long retention intervals only...
August 17, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Dana M Prince, Marina Epstein, Paula S Nurius, Kevin King, Deborah Gorman-Smith, David B Henry
Future expectations, a subset of overall orientation, represent youths' most realistic appraisals of future outcomes, and has been demonstrated to be associated with a range of health risk behaviors and wellbeing. The current study extends previous measurement efforts to operationalize and measure future expectations by estimating a multidimensional model of future expectations encompassing both positive and survival-based expectations, and using longitudinal data to test the consistency of these constructs over time...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Family Studies
James N Donald, Paul W B Atkins, Philip D Parker, Alison Christie, Jiesi Guo
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that the way in which individuals relate to their aversive thoughts predicts behavioural effectiveness more than the content of such thoughts. This paper is among the first to explore whether this is true for coping with stressful events. METHOD: Three studies with emerging adults (Study 1, N = 202) and adults (Study 2, N = 201 and Study 3, N = 141) tested whether changes in how individuals relate to their stress-related thoughts, measured using the individual-difference construct of cognitive defusion, predicted more approach and less avoidance coping behaviour, controlling for stress-related appraisals...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Personality
Sheldon Cohen, Peter J Gianaros, Stephen B Manuck
In this article, we argued that the term stress has served as a valuable heuristic, helping researchers to integrate traditions that illuminate different stages of the process linking stressful life events to disease. We provided a short history of three traditions in the study of stress: the epidemiological, psychological, and biological. The epidemiological tradition focuses on defining which circumstances and experiences are deemed stressful on the basis of consensual agreement that they constitute threats to social or physical well-being...
July 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Chelsea P Renna, Bret A Boyer, Maurice F Prout, Gary Scheiner
Prevalence of hyperglycemia-related posttraumatic stress (PTS) was assessed in 239 adults with type 1 diabetes using the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale (PDS; Foa, Posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale manual, National Computer Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, 1995) by an anonymous online survey. Additionally, this study aimed to identify variables related to hyperglycemia-related PTS. Over 30 % of participants reported symptoms consistent with PTSD related to hyperglycemia with standard PDS scoring, and 10 % with more conservative scoring...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Euson Yeung, Kulamakan Kulasagarem, Nicole Woods, Adam Dubrowski, Brian Hodges, Heather Carnahan
BACKGROUND: The validity of high-stakes decisions derived from assessment results is of primary concern to candidates and certifying institutions in the health professions. In the field of orthopaedic manual physical therapy (OMPT), there is a dearth of documented validity evidence to support the certification process particularly for short-answer tests. To address this need, we examined the internal structure of the Case History Assessment Tool (CHAT); this is a new assessment rubric developed to appraise written responses to a short-answer test of clinical reasoning in post-graduate OMPT certification in Canada...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Karin Labek, Roberto Viviani, Elke R Gizewski, Michael Verius, Anna Buchheim
The human attachment system is activated in situations of danger such as potential separation, threats of loss of a significant other and potential insecurity on the availability of the attachment figure. To date, however, a precise characterization of the neural correlates of the attachment system in healthy individuals is lacking. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aims at characterizing the distinctive neural substrates activated by the exposure to attachment vs. non-attachment scenes...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Damien Tedoldi, Ghassan Chebbo, Daniel Pierlot, Yves Kovacs, Marie-Christine Gromaire
The increasing use of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) for stormwater management raises some concerns about the fate of ubiquitous runoff micropollutants in soils and their potential threat to groundwater. This question may be addressed either experimentally, by sampling and analyzing SUDS soil after a given operating time, or with a modeling approach to simulate the fate and transport of contaminants. After briefly reminding the processes responsible for the retention, degradation, or leaching of several urban-sourced contaminants in soils, this paper presents the state of the art about both experimental and modeling assessments...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Diana R Withrow, C Sarai Racey, Sehar Jamal
PURPOSE: An increasing cancer burden among indigenous populations has led to a growing literature about survival disparities between indigenous and nonindigenous persons. We aim to describe and appraise methods used to measure cancer survival in indigenous persons in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. METHODS: We searched Medline, Web of Science, and EMBASE for articles published between 1990 and 2015 that estimated survival in populations indigenous to one of these four countries...
August 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Valentina Busin, Beth Wells, Maïwenn Kersaudy-Kerhoas, Wenmaio Shu, Stewart T G Burgess
There is a growing need for low-cost, rapid and reliable diagnostic results in veterinary medicine. Point-of-care (POC) tests have tremendous advantages over existing laboratory-based tests, due to their intrinsic low-cost and rapidity. A considerable number of POC tests are presently available, mostly in dipstick or lateral flow formats, allowing cost-effective and decentralised diagnosis of a wide range of infectious diseases and public health related threats. Although, extremely useful, these tests come with some limitations...
July 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Anita Padmanabhanunni, Jerome Campbell, Tyrone B Pretorius
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated gender differences in the role of appraisals of safety in the relationship between exposure to violence and trauma-related symptoms among South African adolescents living in low socioeconomic settings. Limited research exists in developing contexts on the role of cognitive appraisals in mitigating outcome following exposure to violence. Given the prevalence of violence in South Africa and the vulnerability of youth, this type of research is valuable in identifying adolescents at risk of negative psychological outcome following exposure, and in informing intervention efforts...
July 11, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Carlijn Kerdijk, John van der Kamp, Remco Polman
Lazarus (1999) model of stress and coping is based on the reciprocal interaction between the person and the environment. The aim of this study therefore was to examine whether the social environment (significant others) are of influence on the stress and coping of team athletes. The study consisted of two separate studies in which a total of 12 team athletes participated. First, six field hockey players (two males, four females) aged 18-29 years (M = 23.0 years) participated in a diary study. Second, six team athletes of different sports (two males, four females) aged 24-29 years (M = 25...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Amanda L Stone, Lynn S Walker, Kelsey T Laird, Kezia C Shirkey, Craig A Smith
UNLABELLED: Cognitive appraisals inform and shape individuals' pain experiences. As researchers examine mechanisms of cognitive-behavioral interventions for chronic pain, psychometrically sound measures based in cognitive theory are needed to directly assess pain beliefs. The Pain Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ), a 32-item self-report measure informed by coping and appraisal theory, was designed to assess children's pain threat appraisals, problem-focused pain coping efficacy, and emotion-focused pain coping efficacy...
September 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Ann O Amuta, Katie Crosslin, Jessica Goodman, Adam E Barry
OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of threat appraisal (TA) on Type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related protective behaviors among high-risk college students. METHODS: Using a Web-based survey, we collected data from 319 overweight or obese undergraduate students attending one of 4 Texas colleges/universities. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses determined the association between the outcome variable, fruits and vegetables (F&V) consumption and physical activity (PA), and TA...
July 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
J Doron, G Martinent
Understanding more about the stress process is important for the performance of athletes during stressful situations. Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) CMRT of emotion, this study tracked longitudinally the relationships between cognitive appraisal, coping, emotions, and performance in nine elite fencers across 14 international matches (representing 619 momentary assessments) using a naturalistic, video-assisted methodology. A series of hierarchical linear modeling analyses were conducted to: (a) explore the relationships between cognitive appraisals (challenge and threat), coping strategies (task- and disengagement oriented coping), emotions (positive and negative) and objective performance; (b) ascertain whether the relationship between appraisal and emotion was mediated by coping; and (c) examine whether the relationship between appraisal and objective performance was mediated by emotion and coping...
June 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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