Read by QxMD icon Read

Threat appraisal

Daniel L Riddle, Mark P Jensen, Dennis Ang, James Slover, Robert Perera, Levent Dumenci
BACKGROUND: Pain-coping strategies and appraisals are responses to the pain experience. They can influence patient-reported and physical performance outcome measures in a variety of disorders, but the associations between a comprehensive profile of pain-coping responses and preoperative pain/function and physical performance measures in patients scheduled for knee arthroplasty have not been examined. Patients with moderate to high pain catastrophizing (a pain appraisal approach associated with an exaggerated focus on the threat value of pain) may represent an excellent study population in which to address this knowledge gap...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Miquel A Fullana, Anton Albajes-Eizagirre, Carles Soriano-Mas, Bram Vervliet, Narcís Cardoner, Olívia Benet, Joaquim Radua, Ben J Harrison
The study of fear extinction represents an important example of translational neuroscience in psychiatry and promises to improve the understanding and treatment of anxiety and fear-related disorders. We present the results of a set of meta-analyses of human fear extinction studies in healthy participants, conducted with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reporting whole-brain results. Meta-analyses of fear extinction learning primarily implicate consistent activation of brain regions linked to threat appraisal and experience, including the dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Martina Zandara, Carolina Villada, Vanesa Hidalgo, Alicia Salvador
The feeling of stress is increasing in today's societies, particularly in young adults subjected to social evaluative situations in highly competitive academic and work contexts. Threat appraisal is a primary and fundamental reaction when people face a stressful situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dispositional optimism as an antecedent and displacement behavior as a consequence of threat appraisal of a social-evaluative situation of stress. A second objective was to verify the moderating role of physiological responses to stress (heart rate and cortisol reactivity) in the relationship between threat appraisal and displacement behavior...
March 13, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Hee Yeon Im, Reginald B Adams, Cody A Cushing, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Kestutis Kveraga
During face perception, we integrate facial expression and eye gaze to take advantage of their shared signals. For example, fear with averted gaze provides a congruent avoidance cue, signaling both threat presence and its location, whereas fear with direct gaze sends an incongruent cue, leaving threat location ambiguous. It has been proposed that the processing of different combinations of threat cues is mediated by dual processing routes: reflexive processing via magnocellular (M) pathway and reflective processing via parvocellular (P) pathway...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Stephanie Petty, Kevin Harvey, Amanda Griffiths, Donna Maria Coleston, Tom Dening
OBJECTIVE: More understanding is needed about the emotional experiences of dementia from the perspective of the individual. This understanding can then inform the provision of health care to meet individual needs. This systematic review aimed to present all available descriptions of emotional distress and explanations for emotional distress experienced by individuals with dementia, articulated personally and by others. METHODS: A systematic mixed-method review identified literature that was screened and quality appraised...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Gavin P Trotman, Sarah E Williams, Mary L Quinton, Jet J C S Veldhuijzen van Zanten
BACKGROUND: The theory of challenge and threat states in athletes (TCTSA) proposes psychological antecedents will predict psychological and cardiovascular responses to stress. The present study investigated this theory in two contextually different stress tasks. METHOD: 78 males completed a computerised competition and a public speaking task. Cardiovascular activity was measured with impedance cardiography and a blood pressure monitor. Challenge and threat antecedents, indicators of challenge and threat and emotions were assessed pre- and post-tasks...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Tokiko Hamasaki, René Pelletier, Daniel Bourbonnais, Patrick Harris, Manon Choinière
STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. INTRODUCTION: Pain is a subjective experience that results from the modulation of nociception conveyed to the brain via the nervous system. Perception of pain takes place when potential or actual noxious stimuli are appraised as threats of injury. This appraisal is influenced by one's cognitions and emotions based on her/his pain-related experiences, which are processed in the forebrain and limbic areas of the brain. Unarguably, patients' psychological factors such as cognitions (eg, pain catastrophizing), emotions (eg, depression), and pain-related behaviors (eg, avoidance) can influence perceived pain intensity, disability, and treatment outcomes...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Kendall L Umstead, Sarah S Kalia, Anne C Madeo, Lori H Erby, Thomas O Blank, Kala Visvanathan, Debra L Roter
PURPOSE: The objective was to explore the relationships among cognitive appraisals of prostate cancer (challenge, threat, and harm/loss), social comparisons, and quality of life in men previously diagnosed. Design, Sample, & Methods: Men who had participated in prostate cancer support groups completed a cross-sectional questionnaire (N = 189). Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate social comparisons as mediators of quality of life while controlling for uncertainty and optimism...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
T Kan, J Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the behaviour-related factors influencing influenza vaccination among elderly people using a framework derived from the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Five databases were searched using predetermined strategies in March 2016, and 1927 citations were identified. Articles were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Key information was extracted from selected studies using a predesigned sheet...
January 26, 2018: Public Health
Shuanghong Chen, Jiajia Pu, Xiaoxuan Ye, Yang Wang, Todd Jackson
We assessed the factor structure, correlates, and incremental validity of the Pain Appraisal Inventory in Chinese adult chronic pain samples. In an initial exploratory factor analysis sample ( N = 301), the original two-component (threat, challenge) 16-item Pain Appraisal Inventory and a 10-item short form (Pain Appraisal Inventory-Short Form) were supported. Within a confirmatory factor analysis sample ( N = 285), uniformly acceptable fits were observed only for the Pain Appraisal Inventory-Short Form...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Tom R Kupfer
According to pathogen-avoidance perspectives on disgust, injuries, gore, mutilation, or body-envelope violations elicit disgust because they have infectious potential. Here, an alternative explanation is proposed: People empathically simulate an observed injury, leading to unpleasant vicarious feelings, and for lack of a more accurate word, they describe the feelings as disgust. In Study 1, factor analysis of participants' disgust ratings showed that injury items emerged as a separate factor from pathogen items...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Jeffrey L Kibler
Beyond the construct of cardiovascular reactivity, the measurement of cardiovascular recovery from stress represents an important index of exaggerated physiological arousal and disease risk. Cardiovascular recovery in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not received adequate attention. The present study examined whether cardiovascular recovery following an oral speaking stressor was associated with the severity of PTSD symptoms, and whether cognitive stress appraisals of threat and challenge were significantly associated with PTSD severity and recovery...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Louise Eriksson, Christer Björkman, Maartje J Klapwijk
Global change calls for more active approaches to forest risk management. To avoid unforeseen backlashes, it is necessary to examine the general public's acceptance of the risk management strategies. By drawing on different theoretical approaches (threat and prevention, performance evaluations, and forest cognitions), the present study examines predictors of acceptability in the general public in three counties in Sweden (N = 1,026). As expected, appraisals of threat mediated the effect of threat awareness on belief in risk prevention, and when examining performance evaluations, trust in responsible actors influenced acceptability via procedural satisfaction...
February 2018: Environment and Behavior
Jill M G Bally, Nicole R Smith, Lorraine Holtslander, Vicky Duncan, Heather Hodgson-Viden, Christopher Mpofu, Marcelline Zimmer
PURPOSE: To conduct a metasynthesis of qualitative research exploring parents' psychosocial experiences during complex and traumatic life transitions related to caring for a child with a life-limiting (LLI) or life-threatening illness (LTI). BACKGROUND: Parents' experiences of caring for a child impacted by an LLI or LTI are not clearly understood, and holistic, comprehensive pediatric nursing care for parents who have children with LLI and LTIs continues to be developed as treatment improves and survival is extended...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Michelle G Craske, Dirk Hermans, Bram Vervliet
Through advances in both basic and clinical scientific research, Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction have become an exemplary translational model for understanding and treating anxiety disorders. Discoveries in associative and neurobiological mechanisms underlying extinction have informed techniques for optimizing exposure therapy that enhance the formation of inhibitory associations and their consolidation and retrieval over time and context. Strategies that enhance formation include maximizing prediction-error correction by violating expectancies, deepened extinction, occasional reinforced extinction, attentional control and removal of safety signals/behaviours...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Thomas Hoare, Andrew Vidgen, Neil Roberts
Quantitative research indicates that some forced migrants have mental health needs. Asylum seekers are a group of forced migrants applying for asylum status in a host country, and are often subject to rights restrictions and threat of deportation, though little is known about subjective experiences of the asylum journey and process of claiming asylum. The current paper therefore describes a systematic review of the qualitative literature, examining asylum seekers experiences of asylum journey, from country of origin, to arrival and adaptation to host countries...
December 2017: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, John A King, Daniel S Pine, Neil Burgess
Learning locations of danger within our environment is a vital adaptive ability whose neural bases are only partially understood. We examined fMRI brain activity while participants navigated a virtual environment in which flowers appeared and were "picked." Picking flowers in the danger zone (one-half of the environment) predicted an electric shock to the wrist (or "bee sting"); flowers in the safe zone never predicted shock; and household objects served as controls for neutral spatial memory. Participants demonstrated learning with shock expectancy ratings and skin conductance increases for flowers in the danger zone...
January 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Leila Sabzmakan, Mahmood Ghasemi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Tahereh Kamalikhah, Mosharafeh Chaleshgar Kordasiabi
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a significant predisposing factor to many diseases. Protection motivation theory is a well-suited theory, since fear can motivate individuals to change their unhealthy behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the associations between the constructs of this theory with intention and tobacco use behavior. METHOD: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Noshahr, Iran. The participants were 440 high school boys selected using a stratified random sampling in 2016...
January 9, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Robin L Nabi, Jessica Gall Myrick
Fear appeal research has focused, understandably, on fear as the primary emotion motivating attitude and behavior change. However, while the threat component of fear appeals associates with fear responses, a fear appeals' efficacy component likely associates with a different emotional experience: hope. Drawing from appraisal theories of emotion in particular, this article theorizes about the role of hope in fear appeals, testing hypotheses with two existing data sets collected within the context of sun safety messages...
January 9, 2018: Health Communication
Mihirika Sds Pincha Baduge, Julia Morphet, Cheryle Moss
INTRODUCTION: The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa triggered a public health emergency of international concern. Emergency departments worldwide responded with Ebola containment and preparation measures. This paper reports a literature inquiry into how emergency departments and emergency nurses prepared to manage the Ebola risk. METHOD: Narrative review was the method used. Guidelines (n = 5) for organisational and emergency department preparedness were retrieved from relevant websites...
January 3, 2018: International Emergency Nursing
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"