keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Threat appraisal

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915119/neural-correlates-of-pupil-dilation-during-human-fear-learning
#1
Laura Leuchs, Max Schneider, Michael Czisch, Victor I Spoormaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning and extinction are prevailing experimental and etiological models for normal and pathological anxiety. Pupil dilations in response to conditioned stimuli are increasingly used as a robust psychophysiological readout of fear learning, but their neural correlates remain unknown. We aimed at identifying the neural correlates of pupil responses to threat and safety cues during a fear learning task. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy subjects underwent a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm with simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and pupillometry...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898498/intention-to-drive-after-drinking-among-medical-students-contributions-of-the-protection-motivation-theory
#2
Ricardo Abrantes Amaral, André Malbergier, Danielle Ruiz Lima, Verena Castellani Vitor Santos, Clarice Gorenstein, Arthur Guerra de Andrade
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive variables proposed by the protection motivation theory (PMT) were predictive of occasional and frequent intention to drive after drinking in medical students. METHODS: One hundred fifty-five students attending preclinical years at a Medical School in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. They were asked about their last month substance use, history of drinking and driving, including driving after binge drinking, and risk perceptions based on a self-report questionnaire with statements about protection motivation, threat, and coping appraisals from the PMT model...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879168/situation-criticality-and-basketball-officials-stress-levels
#3
Jason Ritchie, Itay Basevitch, Ryan Rodenberg, Gershon Tenenbaum
Officials are expected to perform impeccably despite the wide range of stressors they experience. A stressor that officials frequently report is situation criticality. Situation criticality is comprised of score differential (i.e., more pressure in close games) and time remaining in a game (i.e., more pressure as time expires), which affects athletes' stress levels. The present study explored the effect of situation criticality on officials' stress levels. High school basketball officials (n = 108) with an average of 18...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872383/stress-appraisal-information-processing-strategies-and-somatic-symptoms-a-longitudinal-study-with-immigrants
#4
Agnes Szabo, Colleen Ward, Garth J O Fletcher
The study investigated threat versus challenge appraisals of acculturative stressors and their impact on the changes in psychological symptoms. It also examined information processing styles (informational, normative, and diffuse-avoidant) as moderators of these relationships. A 6-month longitudinal study with two measuring points was conducted with a sample of immigrants. Threat appraisal was associated with more psychological symptoms, and challenge appraisal interacted with information processing styles to predict the changes in somatic symptoms...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845530/romantic-relationship-dysfunction-in-borderline-personality-disorder-a-naturalistic-approach-to-trustworthiness-perception
#5
Annemarie Miano, Eric A Fertuck, Stefan Roepke, Isabel Dziobek
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) suffer greatly from their unstable interpersonal relationships. Studies on explanatory mechanisms driving social dysfunctions in patients' real-life relationships are, however, lacking. Here, we aimed to investigate one of the most central aspects of close relationships, interpersonal trust, in romantic relationships of persons with BPD. We tested the hypothesis that patients with BPD show unstable trustworthiness perception toward their partner, which we expected to be most pronounced after a relationship-threatening situation...
June 16, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831734/relations-between-traumatic-stress-dimensions-of-impulsivity-and-reactive-and-appetitive-aggression-in-individuals-with-refugee-status
#6
Mareike Augsburger, Katalin Dohrmann, Maggie Schauer, Thomas Elbert
Objective: Traumatic stressors and other forms of adversities, especially when experienced during childhood, shape aggressive behavior. Effects of differential dimensions of impulsivity on the relationship between psychological trauma, reactive aggression (defensive survival response to threat), and appetitive aggression (the pleasure of attacking and fighting) have not yet been assessed. Method: Using structural equation modeling, we sought to uncover precursors of reactive and appetitive aggression investigating a sample of 94 adult individuals with refugee status...
November 10, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825363/pre-hospital-management-of-mass-casualty-civilian-shootings-a-systematic-literature-review
#7
Conor D A Turner, David J Lockey, Marius Rehn
BACKGROUND: Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future practice...
November 8, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819469/stress-responsivity-and-the-structure-of-common-mental-disorders-transdiagnostic-internalizing-and-externalizing-dimensions-are-associated-with-contrasting-stress-appraisal-biases
#8
Christopher C Conway, Lisa R Starr, Emmanuel P Espejo, Patricia A Brennan, Constance Hammen
Biased stress appraisals critically relate to the origins and temporal course of many-perhaps most-forms of psychopathology. We hypothesized that aberrant stress appraisals are linked directly to latent internalizing and externalizing traits that, in turn, predispose to multiple disorders. A high-risk community sample of 815 adolescents underwent semistructured interviews to assess clinical disorders and naturalistic stressors at ages 15 and 20. Participants and blind rating teams separately evaluated the threat associated with acute stressors occurring in the past year, and an appraisal bias index (i...
November 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785806/toddler-parasympathetic-regulation-and-fear-links-to-maternal-appraisal-and-behavior
#9
Sunghye Cho, Kristin A Buss
There is a growing recognition that parental socialization influences interact with young children's emerging capacity for physiological regulation and shape children's developmental trajectories. Nevertheless, the transactional processes linking parental socialization and physiological regulatory processes remain not well understood, particularly for fear-prone toddlers. To address this gap in the literature, the present study investigated the biopsychosocial processes that underlie toddlers' fear regulation by examining the relations among toddler parasympathetic regulation, maternal appraisal, and parenting behaviors...
October 26, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766612/fear-appeals-engagement-and-examination-performance-the-role-of-challenge-and-threat-appraisals
#10
David W Putwain, Wendy Symes, Hannah M Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Fear appeals are persuasive messages that draw attention to the negative consequences (e.g., academic failure) that follow a particular course of action (e.g., not engaging in lessons) and how negative consequences can be avoided with an alternate course of action. Previous studies have shown that when fear appeals are appraised as threatening, they are related to lower examination performance. AIM: In this study, we examined how challenge, as well as threat, appraisals are indirectly related to performance on a mathematics examination through behavioural engagement...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761400/specifically-altered-brain-responses-to-threat-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-relative-to-social-anxiety-disorder-and-panic-disorder
#11
Christine Buff, Leonie Brinkmann, Paula Neumeister, Katharina Feldker, Carina Heitmann, Bettina Gathmann, Tanja Andor, Thomas Straube
BACKGROUND: Despite considerable effort, the neurobiological underpinnings of hyper-responsive threat processing specific to patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) remain poorly understood. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aims to delineate GAD-specific brain activity during immediate threat processing by comparing GAD patients to healthy controls (HC), to social anxiety disorder (SAD) and to panic disorder (PD) patients. METHOD: Brain activation and functional connectivity patterns to threat vs...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699940/amygdala-cortical-connectivity-associations-with-anxiety-development-and-threat
#12
Andrea L Gold, Tomer Shechner, Madeline J Farber, Carolyn N Spiro, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Jennifer C Britton
BACKGROUND: Amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) functional connectivity may be influenced by anxiety and development. A prior study on anxiety found age-specific dysfunction in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), but not amygdala, associated with threat-safety discrimination during extinction recall (Britton et al.). However, translational research suggests that amygdala-PFC circuitry mediates responses following learned extinction. Anxiety-related perturbations may emerge in functional connectivity within this circuit during extinction recall tasks...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689552/an-education-management-information-system-with-simultaneous-monitoring-of-stress-stimulators-for-students-mental-health-management
#13
S Manimaran, S Jeyakumar, K Bhagya Lakshmi
Education Management Information System (EMIS) is a widely acceptable and developing technology within the Information Technology field. The advancement in technology in this century is being collaborated with scientific invention or explorer and information strengthening or development. This paper presents the results and experiences gained from applying students oriented EMIS for monitoring and managing mental health. The Mental Health of students depends on the acquiring adequate knowledge on basic concepts within a time period or academic schedule...
September 23, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631435/the-influence-of-dyadic-symptom-distress-on-threat-appraisals-and-self-efficacy-in-advanced-cancer-and-caregiving
#14
Katrina R Ellis, Mary R Janevic, Trace Kershaw, Cleopatra H Caldwell, Nancy K Janz, Laurel Northouse
PURPOSE: Physical and psychological symptoms experienced by patients with advanced cancer influence their well-being; how patient and family caregiver symptom distress influence each other's well-being is less understood. This study examined the influence of patient and caregiver symptom distress on their threat appraisals and self-efficacy to cope with cancer. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of baseline data from an RCT that enrolled patients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers (N = 484 dyads)...
January 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623118/-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-evaluation-of-perceived-stress-parents-and-professionals-study-of-the-psychometric-properties-of-a-french-adaptation-of-the-appraisal-of-life-event-scale-ales-vf
#15
É Cappe, N Poirier, É Boujut, N Nader-Grosbois, C Dionne, A Boulard
INTRODUCTION: Autism and related disorders are grouped into the category of « Autism Spectrum Disorder » (ASD) in the DSM-5. This appellation reflects the idea of a dimensional representation of autism that combines symptoms and characteristics that vary in severity and intensity. Despite common characteristics, there are varying degrees in intensity and in the onset of symptoms, ranging from a disability that can be very heavy with a total lack of communication and major disorders associated with the existence of a relative autonomy associated, sometimes, with extraordinary intellectual abilities...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544888/judged-effectiveness-of-threat-and-coping-appraisal-anti-speeding-messages
#16
Rachel L Cathcart, A Ian Glendon
PURPOSE: Using a young driver sample, this experimental study sought to identify which combinations of threat-appraisal (TA) and coping-appraisal (CA) messages derived from protection motivation theory (PMT) participants would judge as most effective for themselves, and for other drivers. METHOD: The criterion variable was reported intention to drive within a signed speed limit. All possible TA/CA combinations of 18 previously highly-rated anti-speeding messages were presented both simultaneously and sequentially...
November 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533359/continuity-and-discontinuity-in-memory-for-threat
#17
Michael Hock, Jan H Peters, Heinz Walter Krohne
Using a paradigm that allows a quasi-continuous tracking of memory performance over time, two experiments were designed to test the hypotheses that (a) persons with a cognitively avoidant style of coping with threat manifest a dissociation between (intact) short-term and (reduced) long-term retrieval of aversive information and (b) persons with a vigilant coping style recall aversive information particularly well after long retention intervals, provided they are free to think about aversive events. Study 1 (N = 75) showed that avoiders manifest a poor memory for aversive pictures after long retention intervals only...
August 17, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524873/assessing-future-expectations-of-low-income-minority-young-men-survival-threats-and-positive-expectations
#18
Dana M Prince, Marina Epstein, Paula S Nurius, Kevin King, Deborah Gorman-Smith, David B Henry
Future expectations, a subset of overall orientation, represent youths' most realistic appraisals of future outcomes, and has been demonstrated to be associated with a range of health risk behaviors and wellbeing. The current study extends previous measurement efforts to operationalize and measure future expectations by estimating a multidimensional model of future expectations encompassing both positive and survival-based expectations, and using longitudinal data to test the consistency of these constructs over time...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517470/cognitive-defusion-predicts-more-approach-and-less-avoidance-coping-with-stress-independent-of-threat-and-self-efficacy-appraisals
#19
James N Donald, Paul W B Atkins, Philip D Parker, Alison Christie, Jiesi Guo
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that the way in which individuals relate to their aversive thoughts predicts behavioural effectiveness more than the content of such thoughts. This paper is among the first to explore whether this is true for coping with stressful events. METHOD: Three studies with emerging adults (Study 1, N = 202) and adults (Study 2, N = 201 and Study 3, N = 141) tested whether changes in how individuals relate to their stress-related thoughts, measured using the individual-difference construct of cognitive defusion, predicted more approach and less avoidance coping behaviour, controlling for stress-related appraisals...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474134/a-stage-model-of-stress-and-disease
#20
Sheldon Cohen, Peter J Gianaros, Stephen B Manuck
In this article, we argued that the term stress has served as a valuable heuristic, helping researchers to integrate traditions that illuminate different stages of the process linking stressful life events to disease. We provided a short history of three traditions in the study of stress: the epidemiological, psychological, and biological. The epidemiological tradition focuses on defining which circumstances and experiences are deemed stressful on the basis of consensual agreement that they constitute threats to social or physical well-being...
July 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
keyword
keyword
96323
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"