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Threat appraisal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792907/electrocortical-reactivity-to-negative-and-positive-facial-expressions-in-individuals-with-a-family-history-of-major-depression
#1
Anna J Watters, Anthony W F Harris, Leanne M Williams
Facial expressions signaling threat and mood-congruent loss have been used to probe abnormal neural reactivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) and may be implicated in genetic vulnerability to MDD. This study investigated electro-cortical reactivity to facial expressions 101 unaffected, adult first degree relatives of probands with MDD and non-relative controls (n = 101). We investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) to five facial expressions of basic emotion: fear, anger, disgust, sadness and happiness under both subliminal (masked) and conscious (unmasked) presentation conditions, and the source localization of group differences...
May 21, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792447/the-source-model-of-group-threat-responding-to-internal-and-external-threats
#2
Katharine H Greenaway, Tegan Cruwys
We introduce a model of group threat that articulates the opposing effects of intergroup (between-groups) and intragroup (within-group) threat on identity processes and group relations. The source model of group threat argues that the perceived source of a threat is critical in predicting its consequences, such that perceptions of intergroup threat will strengthen (in)group identity processes and relations, whereas perceptions of intragroup threat has the potential to undermine the same. In addition to reviewing the large literature on intergroup threat and a smaller body of unsynthesized work on intragroup threat, we discuss how these processes are captured in representations of monsters (aliens, vampires, and zombies) in popular media and how these ideas can inform interpretation of current political debates, such as those around homegrown terrorism...
May 24, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781633/from-self-construal-to-threat-appraisal-understanding-cultural-differences-in-social-anxiety-between-asian-americans-and-european-americans
#3
Alexander Krieg, Yiyuan Xu
OBJECTIVE: Abundant research has shown that Asian Americans tend to score higher on standardized social anxiety measures than do European Americans. The current study explored how this cultural difference in social anxiety may be explained by cultural differences in self-construals and threat appraisal between Asian Americans and European Americans. METHOD: Participants were 310 Asian Americans and 249 European Americans recruited from a large university in Hawaii who completed questionnaires online in exchange for course credit...
May 21, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742965/personality-characteristics-and-cognitive-appraisals-associated-with-self-discrepancy-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Elizabeth Jane Beadle, Tamara Ownsworth, Jennifer Fleming, David H K Shum
Although changes to self-identity or self-discrepancy are common after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the influence of personality characteristics and cognitive appraisals on self-discrepancy. Participants were 51 adults (74% male) with severe TBI (M age = 36.22 years; SD = 12.65) who were on average 34 months (SD = 40.29) post-injury. They completed self-report measures of personality style (optimism and defensiveness), cognitive appraisals (threat appraisals, rumination and reflection and perceived coping resources), and self-discrepancy (Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale - III)...
May 9, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742753/blood-pressure-emotional-dampening-and-risk-behavior-implications-for-hypertension-development
#5
James A McCubbin, Aaron Nathan, Melissa A Hibdon, Anastasia M Castillo, Jack G Graham, Fred S Switzer
OBJECTIVE: Elevated resting blood pressure (BP) is associated with risk for hypertension and emotional dampening, including reduced responses to emotionally meaningful stimuli. Perception of threat is a critical motivator in avoidance of risky health-damaging behavior. We hypothesize that BP-associated dampening of threat appraisal may increase risk-taking behavior. METHODS: We measured resting BP, perception of affect, and risk behavior in 92 healthy, women (n=49) and men (n=43) recruited from university students and staff, and members of the surrounding community...
May 7, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734226/functional-neuroanatomy-of-emotion-and-its-regulation-in-ptsd
#6
Jacklynn M Fitzgerald, Julia A DiGangi, K Luan Phan
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a devastating disorder, linked to profound mental, physical, occupational, and functional impairment. In addition, it is a highly complex disorder, characterized by symptom heterogeneity across multiple domains. Nevertheless, emotion dysregulation arising from the exaggerated response to threat or from the inability to regulate negative emotional states plays a defining role in the pathophysiology of PTSD. In order to improve our understanding of how emotion dysregulation manifests in this illness, functional neuroimaging research over the past 20 years provides great insight into underlying neuroanatomy of each component of emotion dysregulation in the context of PTSD...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733622/a-meta-analytic-investigation-of-the-relation-between-interpersonal-attraction-and-enacted-behavior
#7
R Matthew Montoya, Christine Kershaw, Julie L Prosser
We present a meta-analysis that investigated the relation between self-reported interpersonal attraction and enacted behavior. Our synthesis focused on (a) identifying the behaviors related to attraction; (b) evaluating the efficacy of models of the relation between attraction and behavior; (c) testing the impact of several moderators, including evaluative threat salience, cognitive appraisal salience, and the sex composition of the social interaction; and (d) investigating the degree of agreement between the meta-analytic findings and an ethnographic analysis...
May 7, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724665/disentangling-intolerance-of-uncertainty-and-threat-appraisal-in-everyday-situations
#8
E Pepperdine, C Lomax, M H Freeston
Intolerance of Uncertainty is a transdiagnostic risk and maintenance factor in a range of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. However, the mechanism of action in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders is poorly understood, with the relationship between the constructs of uncertainty and threat appraisal remaining unclear. Most research to date has investigated IU in situations that are explicitly or implicitly threatening (i.e. where they have a negative outcome), which makes it difficult to establish whether it is the uncertainty or the prospect of a negative outcome (or threat) that people find aversive...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713465/estimating-the-burden-of-antimicrobial-resistance-a-systematic-literature-review
#9
Nichola R Naylor, Rifat Atun, Nina Zhu, Kavian Kulasabanathan, Sachin Silva, Anuja Chatterjee, Gwenan M Knight, Julie V Robotham
Background: Accurate estimates of the burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are needed to establish the magnitude of this global threat in terms of both health and cost, and to paramaterise cost-effectiveness evaluations of interventions aiming to tackle the problem. This review aimed to establish the alternative methodologies used in estimating AMR burden in order to appraise the current evidence base. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, EconLit, PubMed and grey literature were searched...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658755/interparental-conflict-and-long-term-adolescent-substance-use-trajectories-the-role-of-adolescent-threat-appraisals
#10
Gregory M Fosco, Mark E Feinberg
Although interparental conflict (IPC) has been linked directly and indirectly (via adolescents' appraisals) with a wide range of adolescent outcomes, little is known about the implications of IPC and related adolescent threat appraisals for substance use. Drawing on the cognitive-contextual framework, we test competing hypotheses about how IPC may impact adolescent substance use outcomes, specifically testing whether (a) threat appraisals are directly related to escalation in alcohol and tobacco use over adolescence, or (b) threat appraisals are indirectly associated with substance use through their impact on adolescent internalizing problems...
March 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621228/preclinical-efficacy-studies-in-investigator-brochures-do-they-enable-risk-benefit-assessment
#11
Susanne Wieschowski, William Wei Lim Chin, Carole Federico, Sören Sievers, Jonathan Kimmelman, Daniel Strech
Human protection policies require favorable risk-benefit judgments prior to launch of clinical trials. For phase I and II trials, evidence for such judgment often stems from preclinical efficacy studies (PCESs). We undertook a systematic investigation of application materials (investigator brochures [IBs]) presented for ethics review for phase I and II trials to assess the content and properties of PCESs contained in them. Using a sample of 109 IBs most recently approved at 3 institutional review boards based at German Medical Faculties between the years 2010-2016, we identified 708 unique PCESs...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617410/how-social-exclusion-modulates-social-information-processing-a-behavioural-dissociation-between-facial-expressions-and-gaze-direction
#12
Francesco Bossi, Marcello Gallucci, Paola Ricciardelli
Social exclusion is a painful experience that is felt as a threat to the human need to belong and can lead to increased aggressive and anti-social behaviours, and results in emotional and cognitive numbness. Excluded individuals also seem to show an automatic tuning to positivity: they tend to increase their selective attention towards social acceptance signals. Despite these effects known in the literature, the consequences of social exclusion on social information processing still need to be explored in depth...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616363/a-comparative-in-vivo-scrutiny-of-biosynthesized-copper-and-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-by-intraperitoneal-and-intravenous-administration-routes-in-rats
#13
Ashajyothi C, Harish K Handral, Chandrakanth Kelmani R
During the present time, anti-microbial features of copper (Cu) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are extensively used to combat the growth of pathogenic microbes. CuNPs and ZnONPs are recurrently used in cosmetics, medicine and food additives, and their potential for toxic impacts on human and ecosystem is of high concern. In this study, the fate and toxicity of 16- to 96-nm-ranged biosynthesized copper (Bio-CuNPs) and zinc oxide (Bio-ZnONPs) was assessed in male Wistar rats. In vivo exposures of the two nanoparticles are achieved through two different administration routes namely, intraperitoneal (i/p) and intravenous (i/v) injections...
April 3, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566774/d%C3%A3-tresse-chez-les-pr%C3%A3-pos%C3%A3-s-aux-b%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-ficiaires-en-centre-d-h%C3%A3-bergement-expos%C3%A3-s-%C3%A3-des-sympt%C3%A3-mes-comportementaux
#14
Véronique Angers, Jean Vézina
Care aides working in nursing homes are often exposed to responsive behaviours in older adults living with Alzheimer's disease. As these behaviors may induce psychological distress, the current research aims to estimate the contribution of a set of variables on the psychological distress reported by care aides. Variables include perceived frequency of responsive behaviours, primary and secondary cognitive appraisal, and coping strategies. A total of ninety-two day care aides were recruited in nursing homes in the Quebec City area...
March 23, 2018: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550675/morphine-reduced-perceived-anger-from-neutral-and-implicit-emotional-expressions
#15
Guro E Løseth, Marie Eikemo, Peder Isager, Jostein Holmgren, Bruno Laeng, Vigdis Vindenes, Trine Hjørnevik, Siri Leknes
The μ-opioid system modulates responses to pain and psychosocial stress and mediates non-social and social reward. In humans, the μ-opioid agonist morphine can increase overt attention to the eye-region and visual exploration of faces with neutral expressions. However, little is known about how the human μ-opioid system influences sensitivity to and appraisal of subtle and explicit cues of social threats and reward. Here, we examined the effects of selective μ-opioid stimulation on perception of anger and happiness in faces with explicit, neutral or implicit emotion expressions...
May 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543659/do-pain-coping-and-pain-beliefs-associate-with-outcome-measures-before-knee-arthroplasty-in-patients-who-catastrophize-about-pain-a-cross-sectional-analysis-from-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Daniel L Riddle, Mark P Jensen, Dennis Ang, James Slover, Robert Perera, Levent Dumenci
BACKGROUND: Pain-coping strategies and appraisals are responses to the pain experience. They can influence patient-reported and physical performance outcome measures in a variety of disorders, but the associations between a comprehensive profile of pain-coping responses and preoperative pain/function and physical performance measures in patients scheduled for knee arthroplasty have not been examined. Patients with moderate to high pain catastrophizing (a pain appraisal approach associated with an exaggerated focus on the threat value of pain) may represent an excellent study population in which to address this knowledge gap...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530516/fear-extinction-in-the-human-brain-a-meta-analysis-of-fmri-studies-in-healthy-participants
#17
REVIEW
Miquel A Fullana, Anton Albajes-Eizagirre, Carles Soriano-Mas, Bram Vervliet, Narcís Cardoner, Olívia Benet, Joaquim Radua, Ben J Harrison
The study of fear extinction represents an important example of translational neuroscience in psychiatry and promises to improve the understanding and treatment of anxiety and fear-related disorders. We present the results of a set of meta-analyses of human fear extinction studies in healthy participants, conducted with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reporting whole-brain results. Meta-analyses of fear extinction learning primarily implicate consistent activation of brain regions linked to threat appraisal and experience, including the dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices...
May 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529922/assessing-the-antecedents-and-consequences-of-threat-appraisal-of-an-acute-psychosocial-stressor-the-role-of-optimism-displacement-behavior-and-physiological-responses
#18
Martina Zandara, Carolina Villada, Vanesa Hidalgo, Alicia Salvador
The feeling of stress is increasing in today's societies, particularly in young adults subjected to social evaluative situations in highly competitive academic and work contexts. Threat appraisal is a primary and fundamental reaction when people face a stressful situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dispositional optimism as an antecedent and displacement behavior as a consequence of threat appraisal of a social-evaluative situation of stress. A second objective was to verify the moderating role of physiological responses to stress (heart rate and cortisol reactivity) in the relationship between threat appraisal and displacement behavior...
March 13, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520882/sex-related-differences-in-behavioral-and-amygdalar-responses-to-compound-facial-threat-cues
#19
Hee Yeon Im, Reginald B Adams, Cody A Cushing, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Kestutis Kveraga
During face perception, we integrate facial expression and eye gaze to take advantage of their shared signals. For example, fear with averted gaze provides a congruent avoidance cue, signaling both threat presence and its location, whereas fear with direct gaze sends an incongruent cue, leaving threat location ambiguous. It has been proposed that the processing of different combinations of threat cues is mediated by dual processing routes: reflexive processing via magnocellular (M) pathway and reflective processing via parvocellular (P) pathway...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498777/emotional-distress-with-dementia-a-systematic-review-using-corpus-based-analysis-and-meta-ethnography
#20
REVIEW
Stephanie Petty, Kevin Harvey, Amanda Griffiths, Donna Maria Coleston, Tom Dening
OBJECTIVE: More understanding is needed about the emotional experiences of dementia from the perspective of the individual. This understanding can then inform the provision of health care to meet individual needs. This systematic review aimed to present all available descriptions of emotional distress and explanations for emotional distress experienced by individuals with dementia, articulated personally and by others. METHODS: A systematic mixed-method review identified literature that was screened and quality appraised...
May 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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