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Threat appraisal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326231/linked-networks-for-learning-and-expressing-location-specific-threat
#1
Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, John A King, Daniel S Pine, Neil Burgess
Learning locations of danger within our environment is a vital adaptive ability whose neural bases are only partially understood. We examined fMRI brain activity while participants navigated a virtual environment in which flowers appeared and were "picked." Picking flowers in the danger zone (one-half of the environment) predicted an electric shock to the wrist (or "bee sting"); flowers in the safe zone never predicted shock; and household objects served as controls for neutral spatial memory. Participants demonstrated learning with shock expectancy ratings and skin conductance increases for flowers in the danger zone...
January 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313745/factors-associated-with-tobacco-use-among-iranian-adolescents-an-application-of-protection-motivation-theory
#2
Leila Sabzmakan, Mahmood Ghasemi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Tahereh Kamalikhah, Mosharafeh Chaleshgar Kordasiabi
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a significant predisposing factor to many diseases. Protection motivation theory is a well-suited theory, since fear can motivate individuals to change their unhealthy behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the associations between the constructs of this theory with intention and tobacco use behavior. METHOD: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Noshahr, Iran. The participants were 440 high school boys selected using a stratified random sampling in 2016...
January 9, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313717/uplifting-fear-appeals-considering-the-role-of-hope-in-fear-based-persuasive-messages
#3
Robin L Nabi, Jessica Gall Myrick
Fear appeal research has focused, understandably, on fear as the primary emotion motivating attitude and behavior change. However, while the threat component of fear appeals associates with fear responses, a fear appeals' efficacy component likely associates with a different emotional experience: hope. Drawing from appraisal theories of emotion in particular, this article theorizes about the role of hope in fear appeals, testing hypotheses with two existing data sets collected within the context of sun safety messages...
January 9, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306614/emergency-nurses-and-department-preparedness-for-an-ebola-outbreak-a-narrative-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Mihirika Sds Pincha Baduge, Julia Morphet, Cheryle Moss
INTRODUCTION: The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa triggered a public health emergency of international concern. Emergency departments worldwide responded with Ebola containment and preparation measures. This paper reports a literature inquiry into how emergency departments and emergency nurses prepared to manage the Ebola risk. METHOD: Narrative review was the method used. Guidelines (n = 5) for organisational and emergency department preparedness were retrieved from relevant websites...
January 3, 2018: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294773/police-involvement-in-intimate-partner-violence-and-children-s-anxiety-symptoms
#5
Ernest N Jouriles, Caitlin Rancher, Nicole L Vu, Renee McDonald
This study examined whether police involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with children's anxiety symptoms and threat appraisals. Participants were 117 mothers and their children (7-10 years) recruited from domestic violence shelters and followed for 6 months. Mothers reported on IPV and police involvement in the past 6 months; children reported their own anxiety symptoms and threat appraisals. Police involvement in IPV incidents at Time 1 was positively related to children's anxiety symptoms at both the Time 1 and Time 2 assessments, even after controlling for the severity of the IPV...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291097/remote-sensing-appraisal-of-lake-chad-shrinkage-connotes-severe-impacts-on-green-economics-and-socio-economics-of-the-catchment-area
#6
Olapeju Y Onamuti, Emmanuel C Okogbue, Israel R Orimoloye
Lake Chad commonly serves as a major hub of fertile economic activities for the border communities and contributes immensely to the national growth of all the countries that form its boundaries. However, incessant and multi-decadal drying via climate change pose greater threats to this transnational water resource, and adverse effects on ecological sustainability and socio-economic status of the catchment area. Therefore, this study assessed the extent of shrinkage of Lake Chad using remote sensing. Landsat imageries of the lake and its surroundings between 1987 and 2005 were retrieved from Global Land Cover Facility website and analysed using Integrated Land and Water Information System version 3...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277940/psychophysical-well-being-profiles-in-patients-before-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#7
Aleksandra Kroemeke, Zuzanna Kwissa-Gajewska, Małgorzata Sobczyk-Kruszelnicka
OBJECTIVES: The literature offers very few in-depth reports on the time directly before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Also, researchers have focused on selected aspects of psychophysical well-being and treated the sample as homogeneous. Thus, we chose to investigate distinct multidimensional well-being profiles (including anxiety, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life [HRQOL] domains) among patients just before HSCT, as well as profile predictors (generalized self-efficacy) and outcomes (transplant appraisal) based on the transactional stress model...
December 26, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275790/the-clinical-utility-of-metacognitive-beliefs-and-processes-in-emotional-distress-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Philip Heffer-Rahn, Peter L Fisher
AIM: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease that poses significant life challenges. Depression and anxiety often occur in people with MS (PwMS). An information processing model of psychopathology, the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs play a fundamental role in the development and maintenance of distress. The model also asserts that a style of thinking known as the cognitive attentional syndrome (CAS), which consists of worry and rumination, focusing on sources of threat, and unhelpful coping responses, is common across all psychological conditions...
January 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273574/consumer-adoption-of-future-mydata-based-preventive-ehealth-services-an-acceptance-model-and-survey-study
#9
Timo Koivumäki, Saara Pekkarinen, Minna Lappi, Jere Väisänen, Jouni Juntunen, Minna Pikkarainen
BACKGROUND: Constantly increasing health care costs have led countries and health care providers to the point where health care systems must be reinvented. Consequently, electronic health (eHealth) has recently received a great deal of attention in social sciences in the domain of Internet studies. However, only a fraction of these studies focuses on the acceptability of eHealth, making consumers' subjective evaluation an understudied field. This study will address this gap by focusing on the acceptance of MyData-based preventive eHealth services from the consumer point of view...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260503/symmetry-and-its-role-in-the-crossmodal-correspondence-between-shape-and-taste
#10
Nora Turoman, Carlos Velasco, Yi-Chuan Chen, Pi-Chun Huang, Charles Spence
Despite the rapid growth of research on the crossmodal correspondence between visually presented shapes and basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty), most studies that have been published to date have focused on shape contour (roundness/angularity). Meanwhile, other important features, such as symmetry, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the shape-taste correspondence, have rarely been studied. Over two experiments, we systematically manipulated the symmetry and contours of shapes and measured the influences of these variables on shape-taste correspondences...
December 19, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223783/prior-stress-promotes-the-generalization-of-contextual-fear-memories-involvement-of-the-gabaergic-signaling-within-the-basolateral-amygdala-complex
#11
C L Bender, A Otamendi, G D Calfa, V A Molina
Fear generalization occurs when a response, previously acquired with a threatening stimulus, is transferred to a similar one. However, it could be maladaptive when stimuli that do not represent a real threat are appraised as dangerous, which is a hallmark of several anxiety disorders. Stress exposure is a major risk factor for the occurrence of anxiety disorders and it is well established that it influences different phases of fear memory; nevertheless, its impact on the generalization of contextual fear memories has been less studied...
December 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179936/clinical-relevance-of-appraisals-of-persistent-psychotic-experiences-in-people-with-and-without-a-need-for-care-an-experimental-study
#12
Emmanuelle Peters, Thomas Ward, Mike Jackson, Peter Woodruff, Craig Morgan, Philip McGuire, Philippa A Garety
BACKGROUND: Cognitive models of psychosis propose that appraisals (ie, the interpretation and meaning attributed to experiences) are central to the transition from anomalous experiences to psychotic symptoms. In the Unusual Experiences Enquiry (UNIQUE) study, we investigated the role of appraisals by comparing individuals with persistent psychotic experiences without a need for care with patients and people without psychotic experiences. METHOD: Eligible participants were patients with diagnosed psychotic disorders (clinical group) and adults in the general population with persistent psychotic experiences (non-clinical group) and without psychotic experiences (controls)...
December 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172052/profiling-risk-for-depressive-disorder-by-circuit-behavior-and-self-report-measures-of-emotion-function
#13
Anna J Watters, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Joanne S Carpenter, Anthony W F Harris, James J Gross, Leanne M Williams
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by maladaptions in affective brain circuitry and in emotion regulation. It remains unknown whether these maladaptions characterize first-degree relatives of probands who are unaffected yet have a higher risk of developing MDD. METHODS: Participants were 72 unaffected first-degree relatives of probands with MDD and 66 matched non-relative controls. We investigated brain circuit function and self-reported emotion regulation strategies for reappraisal and suppression...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171662/a-within-family-examination-of-interparental-conflict-cognitive-appraisals-and-adolescent-mood-and-well-being
#14
Gregory M Fosco, David M Lydon-Staley
Interparental conflict (IPC) is a well-established risk factor across child and adolescent development. This study disentangled situational (within-family) and global (between-family) appraisal processes to better map hypothesized processes to adolescents' experiences in the family. This 21-day daily dairy study sampled 151 caregivers and their adolescents (61.5% female). Using multilevel mediation analyses indicated that, on days when IPC was elevated, adolescents experienced more threat and self-blame. In turn, when adolescents experienced more threat appraisals, they experienced diminished positive well-being; whereas days when adolescents felt more self-blame, they experienced increased negative mood and diminished positive well-being...
November 24, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148082/insights-into-flood-coping-appraisals-of-protection-motivation-theory-empirical-evidence-from-germany-and-france
#15
Philip Bubeck, W J Wouter Botzen, Jonas Laudan, Jeroen C J H Aerts, Annegret H Thieken
Protection motivation theory (PMT) has become a popular theory to explain the risk-reducing behavior of residents against natural hazards. PMT captures the two main cognitive processes that individuals undergo when faced with a threat, namely, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The latter describes the evaluation of possible response measures that may reduce or avert the perceived threat. Although the coping appraisal component of PMT was found to be a better predictor of protective intentions and behavior, little is known about the factors that influence individuals' coping appraisals of natural hazards...
November 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098362/conventional-and-new-ways-of-governing-forest-threats-a-study-of-stakeholder-coherence-in-sweden
#16
Louise Eriksson
Based on a framework for analyzing stakeholder coherence horizontally and vertically, the present study examined the governance of forest threats in Sweden. Opinions of forest risk governance in stakeholder groups with and without a connection to private forestry were compared (n = 2496) and the opinions were analyzed in relation to current governance practices. More specifically, forest threat appraisals, trust in the Swedish Forest Agency (SFA), and the acceptability of forest risk policy measures directed at private forest owners were assessed...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016461/social-learning-pathways-in-the-relation-between-parental-chronic-pain-and-daily-pain-severity-and-functional-impairment-in-adolescents-with-functional-abdominal-pain
#17
Amanda L Stone, Stephen Bruehl, Craig A Smith, Judy Garber, Lynn S Walker
Having a parent with chronic pain (CP) may confer greater risk for persistence of CP from childhood into young adulthood. Social learning, such as parental modeling and reinforcement, represents one plausible mechanism for the transmission of risk for CP from parents to offspring. Based on a 7-day pain diary in 154 pediatric patients with functional abdominal CP, we tested a model in which parental CP predicted adolescents' daily average CP severity and functional impairment (distal outcomes) via parental modeling of pain behaviors and parental reinforcement of adolescent's pain behaviors (mediators) and adolescents' cognitive appraisals of pain threat (proximal outcome representing adolescents' encoding of parents' behaviors)...
October 6, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921733/effects-of-individual-and-partner-factors-on-anxiety-and-depression-in-taiwanese-prostate-cancer-patients-a-longitudinal-study
#18
C H Chien, C K Chuang, K L Liu, C T Wu, S T Pang, P K Tsay, Y H Chang, X Y Huang, H E Liu
Studies exploring the mediating and predictive factors of anxiety and depression for prostate cancer patients in Eastern countries are scant. Guided by the transactional model of stress and coping, this study determined the predictors and mediators of anxiety and depression in prostate cancer patients. The participants comprised 115 prostate cancer patients and 91 partners. The patients and partners completed questionnaires regarding physical symptoms, disease appraisals, coping behaviours, anxiety and depression in the period before confirmation of treatment decisions and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906047/a-systematic-review-to-explore-influences-on-parental-attitudes-towards-antibiotic-prescribing-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Helen Bosley, Catherine Henshall, Jane V Appleton, Debra Jackson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To understand the factors influencing parental attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing. BACKGROUND: Overuse of antibiotics and inappropriate prescribing has resulted in rapid development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and is a significant global threat to patient safety. In primary care settings, substantial numbers of antibiotics are prescribed for young children, despite viral nature of illness for which antibiotics are ineffective. Parents play a vital role in decision-making regarding accessing healthcare services and requesting treatment for their children...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858087/the-influences-of-cognitive-appraisal-physical-injury-coping-strategy-and-forgiveness-of-others-on-ptsd-symptoms-in-traffic-accidents-using-hierarchical-linear-modeling
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Myoung-Ho Hyun, Sung-Man Bae
The purpose of this study was to identify how physical injury, perceived threat, forgiveness of others, and problem-focused coping influence the change of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. One hundred twenty patients who had experienced a traumatic vehicle accident participated in 1 to 2 months after the accident; 70 of these people involved at 6 months after the accident. We used a hierarchical linear model analysis to verify the impacts of predictors on change of PTSD symptoms as time passed...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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