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Weihua Li, Aisha E Bradshaw, Caitlin B Clary, Skyler J Cranmer
States form defensive military alliances to enhance their security in the face of potential or realized interstate conflict. The network of these international alliances is increasingly interconnected, now linking most of the states in a complex web of ties. These alliances can be used both as a tool for securing cooperation and to foster peace between direct partners. However, do indirect connections-such as the ally of an ally or even further out in the alliance network-result in lower probabilities of conflict? We investigate the extent to which military alliances produce peace between states that are not directly allied...
March 2017: Science Advances
Deborah Weinstein
Why do people fight wars? Following the devastation of the Second World War, this question became particularly pressing. Postwar scholars in the human sciences, from political science to anthropology, investigated the role of human nature in the causes of war even as they debated the very meaning of human nature itself. Among the wide-ranging efforts of postwar social and behavioral scientists to explain the causes of war, research on primate aggression became a compelling approach to studying the evolution of human warfare...
December 2016: Endeavour
Alaaddin M Salih, Jasim M Ahmed, Jamal F Mohamed, Musaab M Alfaki
Given the persistent recurrence of armed conflict, influential actors owe it to the affected communities to take action. The legitimacy of health professionals to mitigate the effects of conflict relates to their ability to save lives and address the physical and mental consequences of armed conflict during which thousands of lives may be lost. Medical professionals have unique and potentially far-reaching skills. These become crucial during wartime and disasters in terms of providing medical services and humanitarian aid...
April 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Nir Halevy, Eliran Halali
The tremendous costs of conflict have made humans resourceful not only at warfare but also at peacemaking. Although third parties have acted as peacemakers since the dawn of history, little is known about voluntary, informal third-party intervention in conflict. Here we introduce the Peacemaker Game, a novel experimental paradigm, to model and study the interdependence between disputants and third parties in conflict. In the game, two disputants choose whether to cooperate or compete and a third party chooses whether or not to intervene in the conflict...
June 2, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Peiduo Liu, Wenjing Yang, Xiangyong Yuan, Cuihua Bi, Antao Chen, Xiting Huang
Time perception plays a fundamental role in human perceptual and motor activities, and can be influenced by various factors, such as selective attention and arousal. However, little is known about the influence of individual alerting efficiency on perceived duration. In this study, we explored this question by running two experiments. The Attentional Networks Test was used to evaluate individual differences in alerting efficiency in each experiment. Temporal bisection (Experiment 1) and time generalization task (Experiment 2) were used to explore the participants' perception of duration...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Béatrice S Hasler, Gilad Hirschberger, Tal Shani-Sherman, Doron A Friedman
This research examined virtual-human interactions as a new form of simulated contact between members of groups in conflict. A virtual human representing an outgroup member (a Palestinian) interacted with 60 Jewish Israeli participants in an experimental study. We manipulated postural mimicry by the virtual interaction partner during a conversation about a sensitive conflict issue. Mimicry increased empathy toward the Palestinians, irrespective of participants' feelings toward the Palestinians prior to the experiment...
December 2014: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
P G Gaupp
The commitment to serve the "public interest"is often referred to by community organization and planning professionals. This idealized concept is examined and compared to the behavior of practitioners. The necessity for determining which publics, and whose interests, are to be served in order to find an appropriate approach are discussed. Whether the practitioners are to see themselves as technical expediters, change agents, or peacemakers, seems to be at issue. The past community organization commitment to a process as the ultimate guarantee of accomplishment is questioned and new directions are discussed...
June 1969: Community Mental Health Journal
Tabish A Saifee, Mark J Edwards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2013: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Hugh O'Doherty, Dannielle Kennedy
This article examines the practice of organization consultation using the adaptive leadership approach through a case example of a large system intervention in a peacemaking project in Nepal. The authors define core activities of the Adaptive Leadership model and provide parallels to psychodynamic group psychotherapy theory and technique that demonstrate how group therapists can apply their expertise to larger systems and arenas beyond the group therapy office.
April 2013: International Journal of Group Psychotherapy
I M Samokhvalov, V I Badalov, A V Goncharov, P G Alisov, V G Severin, V V Panov, P G Kolos
The organization of surgical care for the wounded in various local wars and armed conflict has its own characteristics, the study of which is necessary to optimize the planning of medical evacuation support of troops. It is based on the concept on an early specialized surgical care. The paper discusses the problematic issues of medical care to the wounded in past peacekeeping operations, and analyze features of specialized surgical care.
July 2012: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
L Dănăilă, V Păiş
Our research work, which has led us to discovering the new cerebral cell, has started 30 years ago. An important moment was the year 1986, when we have highlighted it for the first time, during a study upon the clarification of some undiscovered aspects of cerebral atherosclerosis. In 2006 we have initiated the publishing of our results at three congresses (Cape Town - 2006; San Diego - 2009 and Los Angeles - 2011) as well as in three Atlases, form 2006, 2008 and 2010. By means of the electronic microscope we have analyzed to this purpose alone, a number of neurosurgery patients, with 1176 cerebral, vascular, tumoral, cortical, choroid plexus tumor and infectious biopsies...
November 2011: Chirurgia
I M Chizh
The article presents an observe of such parts of military medicine as intensive aid and operative treatment on the place of case, contestation against infectious diseases, preservation of psychic health, medical and social rehabilitation. Were lighted successful activity of military physicians during liquidation of Chernobyl accident (1986), earthquakes in Armenia (1988), railway accident in Bashkiria (1989) and other accidents. Experience of military medicine (particularly using medical units of special purposes) was used in proving of conception of medicine of accidents, and in organization of medical supply of troops in armed conflicts of restricted scale--in effectuating of antiterrorist operations in Northern Caucasus (1994-1996, 1999-2002), in effectuating of peacemaking operation in Kosovo (1999-2003), natural disasters...
September 2010: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Shannon Frattaroli, Keshia M Pollack, Karen Jonsberg, Gregg Croteau, JuanCarlos Rivera, Jennifer S Mendel
BACKGROUND: Communities across the United States are using street outreach workers (SWs) to prevent violence. SW programs are generally recognized as a promising model, particularly in light of a 2008 evaluation that demonstrated positive impacts associated with one well-known program. The United Teen Equality Center (UTEC) includes an SW program. OBJECTIVES: Through this paper we aim to (1) document the work of the UTEC SWs, (2) describe UTEC's approach to training SWs and managing the program, and (3) understand interviewees' perspectives (including UTEC managers, SWs and partners) on how the SWs impact youth violence in Lowell...
2010: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
E V Boiarskikh, V V Rychkov, A P Gonchar-Zaĭkin, Iu N Trunov
Orenburg military hospital, founded according to decree of empress Anna Ioanovna one year later after grounding of fortress Orenburg, started it's work in June 1744. To the beginning of the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945 the hospital was a big military treatment institute. In 1946-1958 the hospital was a regional hospital of South-Ural military region, and then--regional hospital of Baikal military region. Hospital takes an active party in life of the Armed Forces in general, it's staff comprises veterans of Afgan war, of other flash points, military servicemen and civil staff taken part in peacemaking operations...
December 2009: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Ethel Mitty
Storytelling can be therapeutic. For the person, it is both validating and valuing--as nothing else can do. There is a connection between old age and spirituality and a quest for transcendence--to express one's self as part of the human condition. This article seeks to describe the links among spirituality, nursing care, and patient/resident storytelling, and includes suggestions on how to help older adults tell their stories, even if they are cognitively challenged by memory and language loss. It describes a worldview as expressed in several of the new nursing theories as "humanness": a life cycle of continuous growth leading, perhaps, to "self-transcendence...
January 2010: Geriatric Nursing
J H Stiehm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2001: International Peacekeeping
Daniel J Christie, Barbara S Tint, Richard V Wagner, Deborah DuNann Winter
Although the literature in peace psychology has been growing rapidly, many American psychologists are unaware of how conflict is resolved and peace is conceptualized and achieved. This article reviews the long history and broadening scope of peace psychology and introduces a model of peace that is useful for organizing the literature. The model suggests that peace can be facilitated at four different points of intervention. The authors discuss relationships between positive and negative peace, structural and direct violence, and peacekeeping, peacemaking, and peacebuilding...
September 2008: American Psychologist
G I Prokhvatilov, A M Shelepov, G A Grebnev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2008: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Iu F Radysh, V P Mehed', O M Mel'nyk
The article is devoted to the question on legal regulation of participation of medical personnel in an international peacemaking action.
2007: Likars'ka Sprava
K Chul Kim, Erik P Lillehoj
MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the surface of epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces. Recent studies have begun to elucidate the physiologic function of MUC1 in the airways, pointing to an antiinflammatory role that is initiated late in the course of bacterial infection and is mediated through inhibition of TLR signaling. These new findings have great potential for clinical applications in controlling excessive and prolonged lung inflammation. This review briefly summarizes the protein structural features of MUC1 relevant to its function, the discovery of its antiinflammatory properties, and potential directions for future avenues of study...
December 2008: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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