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Niacinamide OR Nicotinamide

Brett A Beaupre, Joseph V Roman, Matthew R Hoag, Kathleen M Meneely, Nicholas R Silvaggi, Audrey L Lamb, Graham R Moran
Renalase catalyzes the oxidation of isomers of β-NAD(P)H that carry the hydride in the 2 or 6 positions of the nicotinamide base to form β-NAD(P)(+). This activity is thought to alleviate inhibition of multiple β-NAD(P)-dependent enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism by these isomers. Here we present evidence for a variety of ligand binding phenomena relevant to the function of renalase. We offer evidence of the potential for primary metabolism inhibition with structures of malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase bound to the 6-dihydroNAD isomer...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Akihiro Orita, Michael G Verde, Masanori Sakai, Ying Shirley Meng
The versatility in design of redox flow batteries makes them apt to efficiently store energy in large-scale applications at low cost. The discovery of inexpensive organic electroactive materials for use in aqueous flow battery electrolytes is highly attractive, but is thus far limited. Here we report on a flow battery using an aqueous electrolyte based on the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide. Flavins are highly versatile electroactive molecules, which catalyse a multitude of redox reactions in biological systems...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Zhen Wang, Eric P Chang, Vern L Schramm
Transition path sampling simulations have proposed that human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) employs protein promoting vibrations (PPVs) on the femtosecond (fs) to picosecond (ps) timescale to promote crossing of the chemical barrier. This chemical barrier involves both hydride and proton transfers to pyruvate to form L-lactate, using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as the cofactor. Here we report experimental evidence from three types of isotope effect experiments that support coupling of the promoting vibrations to barrier crossing and the coincidence of hydride and proton transfer...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Franziska Fischer, Sebastian Greiser, Dietmar Pfeifer, Christian Jäger, Klaus Rademann, Franziska Emmerling
Benzamide has been known for its polymorphism for almost 200 years. Three polymorphic forms are described. To date, it was only possible to crystallize a metastable form in a mixture together with the thermodynamically most stable form I. A complete transformation of form I into the metastable form III by mechanochemical treatment has been achieved. Catalytic amounts of nicotinamide seeds were used to activate the conversion by mechanochemical seeding. NMR experiments indicated that the nicotinamide molecules were incorporated statistically in the crystal lattice of benzamide form III during the conversion...
October 20, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Bera Rammohan, Karmakar Samit, Das Chinmoy, Saha Arup, Kundu Amit, Sarkar Ratul, Karmakar Sanmoy, Adhikari Dipan, Sen Tuhinadri
BACKGROUND: Traditionally GS is used to treat diabetes mellitus. Drug-herb interaction of GS via cytochrome P450 enzyme system by substrate cocktail method using HLM has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in-vitro modulatory effects of GS extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) and deacylgymnemic acid (DGA) on human CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 activities in HLM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Probe substrate-based LCMS/MS method was established for all CYPs...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Kyle T Amber, Christine M Panganiban, Dorota Korta, Sebastien de Feraudy, Kristen M Kelly, Sergei A Grando
The association of bullous pemphigoid with melanoma remains controversial and poorly understood. Recent studies report the presence of the bullous pemphigoid antigen, BP180, in melanoma cells, yet not normal melanocytes, suggesting an underlying mechanism for cases of melanoma-associated bullous pemphigoid. We report on an 88-year-old woman who showed a temporal relationship between the development of bullous pemphigoid and melanoma. The patient did not receive programmed death ligand 1 inhibitor therapy and improved rapidly following complete excision of her melanoma, with clobetasol, doxycycline, and niacinamide...
October 18, 2016: Melanoma Research
Delphine Ohayon, Alessia De Chiara, Nicolas Chapuis, Céline Candalh, Julie Mocek, Jean-Antoine Ribeil, Lamya Haddaoui, Norbert Ifrah, Olivier Hermine, Frédéric Bouillaud, Philippe Frachet, Didier Bouscary, Véronique Witko-Sarsat
Cytosolic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a scaffolding protein involved in DNA replication, has been described as a key element in survival of mature neutrophil granulocytes, which are non-proliferating cells. Herein, we demonstrated an active export of PCNA involved in cell survival and chemotherapy resistance. Notably, daunorubicin-resistant HL-60 cells (HL-60R) have a prominent cytosolic PCNA localization due to increased nuclear export compared to daunorubicin-sensitive HL-60 cells (HL-60S)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Antonino Baez, Joseph Shiloach
The damaging effect of high oxygen concentration on growth of Escherichia coli is well established. Over-oxygenation increases the intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing the destruction of the [4Fe-4S] cluster of dehydratases and limiting the biosynthesis of both branched-chain amino acids and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. A key enzyme that reduces the damaging effect of superoxide is superoxide dismutase (SOD). Its transcriptional regulation is controlled by global transcription regulators that respond to changes in oxygen and iron concentrations and pH...
October 18, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Ivyna Bong Pau Ni, Ng Ching Ching, Shaik Kamal Fakiruddin, Lim Moon Nian, Zubaidah Zakaria
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes or plasma cells. Our array-based comparative genomic hybridization findings revealed chromosomal gains at 7q22.3 and 1q42.3, where nicotinamide (NAM) phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) genes are localized, respectively. This led us to further study the functions of these genes in myeloma cells. NAMPT is a key enzyme involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, and it is frequently overexpressed in human cancers...
October 18, 2016: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Sanad Alonezi, Jonans Tusiimire, Jennifer Wallace, Mark J Dufton, John A Parkinson, Louise C Young, Carol J Clements, Jin Kyu Park, Jong Woon Jeon, Valerie A Ferro, David G Watson
In the present study, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was employed to characterise the metabolic profiles of two human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive) and A2780CR (cisplatin-resistant) in response to their exposure to melittin, a cytotoxic peptide from bee venom. In addition, the metabolomics data were supported by application of Biolog microarray technology to examine the utilisation of carbon sources by the two cell lines. Data extraction with MZmine 2.14 and database searching were applied to provide metabolite lists...
October 13, 2016: Metabolites
Teeradate Kongpichitchoke, Ming-Tzu Chiu, Tzou-Chi Huang, Jue-Liang Hsu
Teas can be classified according to their degree of fermentation, which has been reported to affect both the bioactive components in the teas and their antioxidative activity. In this study, four kinds of commercial Taiwanese tea at different degrees of fermentation, which include green (non-fermented), oolong (semi-fermented), black (fully fermented), and Pu-erh (post-fermented) tea, were profiled for catechin levels by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The result indicated that the gallic acid content in tea was directly proportional to the degree of fermentation in which the lowest and highest gallic acid content were 1...
October 12, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jun Tao
OBJECTIVE: Hyperaldosteronemia exerts adverse effects on vascular endothelium except enhanceing blood pressure; however, the impacts and molecular mechanisms of hyperaldosteronemia on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-mediated endothelial repair are yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial repair capacity of EPCs from hypertensive patients with primary hyperaldosteronemia (PHA). DESIGN AND METHOD: In vivo endothelial repair capacity of EPCs from PHAs (n = 20), age- and blood pressure-matched essential hypertension patients (n = 20), and age-matched healthy subjects (n = 20) was evaluated by transplantation into nude mice with carotid artery denudation injury...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hirokazu Muraoka, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Shu Wakino
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) cooperates with a longevity gene, Sirt1, to exert the potentiation of stress resistance. We have reported that the high expression level of Nampt in PTs contributes to the sufficient supply of NMN to glomeruli. We also showed that downregulation of Nampt and NMN in PT in DN leads to glomerular damages (Nature Medicine 2013). However, the regulation mechanisms of Nampt expression remain unknown. DESIGN AND METHOD: We investigated how Nampt expression is consistently retained at high levels in PTs under normal conditions and how Nampt levels are decreased in DN...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ming Liu, Lihua Li, Jihong Chu, Guoliang Dai, Wenzheng Ju, Zhenxing Wang, Zhuyuan Fang
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is a novel histone methylation modulator that regulates energy metabolism, and NNMT knockdown prevents diet-induced obesity in mice. However, whether NNMT plays a role in human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains to be elucidated. NNMT catalyzes methylation of nicotinamide to generate N-methylnicotinamide (me-NAM). We aimed to investigate the associations of serum me-NAM with obesity and T2DM in Chinese. DESIGN AND METHOD: The study subjects (n = 1160) were recruited from Dali, a city of Yunan province, in southwest China...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hironobu Nakada, Tomofumi Fushima, Akiyo Sekimoto, Yuji Oe, Emiko Sato, Sadayoshi Ito, Hiroshi Sato, Nobuyuki Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia (PE) is pregnancy-induced hypertension with proteinuria. It causes maternal death or fetal growth restriction (FGR). Although high BP can be managed with antihypertensive drugs, there is no effective treatment of FGR associated with PE. We have clarified that nicotinamide (Nam) alleviates PE-like condition and FGR induced by soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) in mice. But the mechanism of how Nam works is unclear. Because Nam induces cytoprotective heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), our aim is to clarify whether HO-1 contributes to therapeutic effect of Nam against FGR associated with PE...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Asghar Tofighi, Minoo Shirpoor, M H Khadem Ansari, Alireza Shirpoor, Mitra Zerehpoosh
OBJECTIVE: Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) consumption increases incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in athletes and mechanisms underlying those abnormalities continue to be investigated. This study examines whether nandrolone consumption induced cardiac and coronary artery wall abnormalities via oxidative stress. It was also designed to determine whether enforced swimming augmented possible cardiotoxic effects of nandrolone in rat heart. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control, nandrolone, and nandrolone with enforced swimming...
October 12, 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Tian Yang, Jinyuan Wang, Yamei Pang, Xiaomin Dang, Hui Ren, Ya Liu, Mingwei Chen, Dong Shang
Pulmonary silicosis is characterized by lung fibrosis, which leads to impairment of pulmonary function; the specific mechanism remains to be fully elucidated Emodin shows antifibrotic effects in several organs with fibrosis, however, it has not been investigated in pulmonary silicosis. In the present study, the possible mechanism of lung fibrosis and the antifibrotic effect of emodin in silica inhalation‑induced lung fibrosis were investigated. Pulmonary silica particle inhalation was used to induce lung fibrosis in mice...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Frane Banovic, Keith E Linder, Maarja Uri, Michael A Rossi, Thierry Olivry
BACKGROUND: Generalized discoid lupus erythematosus (GDLE) is a newly recognized canine variant of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) that is not well characterized. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: We report herein the signalment, clinical signs, treatment outcome, histopathology and immunological findings of 10 dogs with GDLE. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: (i) a >3 month history of generalized skin lesions indicating a chronic or recurrent nature; (ii) skin lesions resembling those of human GDLE; (iii) histopathology of CLE (lymphocyte-rich interface dermatitis)...
October 16, 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
Nurcan Akduran, Hacali Necefoğlu, Ömer Aydoğdu, Tuncer Hökelek
In the title complex, [Zn(C8H4NO2)2(C10H14N2O)2(H2O)2], the Zn(II) cation, located on an inversion centre, is coordinated by two water mol-ecules, two 4-cyano-benzoate (CB) anions and two di-ethyl-nicotinamide (DENA) ligands in a distorted N2O4 octa-hedral geometry. In the mol-ecule, the dihedral angle between the planar carboxyl-ate group and the adjacent benzene ring is 9.50 (14)°, while the benzene and pyridine rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 56.99 (5)°. The water mol-ecules exhibit both an intra-molecular hydrogen bond [to the non-coordinating carboxyl-ate O atom, enclosing an S(6) hydrogen-bonding motif, where O⋯O = 2...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Dan Y Gui, Lucas B Sullivan, Alba Luengo, Aaron M Hosios, Lauren N Bush, Nadege Gitego, Shawn M Davidson, Elizaveta Freinkman, Craig J Thomas, Matthew G Vander Heiden
Metformin use is associated with reduced cancer mortality, but how metformin impacts cancer outcomes is controversial. Although metformin can act on cells autonomously to inhibit tumor growth, the doses of metformin that inhibit proliferation in tissue culture are much higher than what has been described in vivo. Here, we show that the environment drastically alters sensitivity to metformin and other complex I inhibitors. We find that complex I supports proliferation by regenerating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+, and metformin's anti-proliferative effect is due to loss of NAD+/NADH homeostasis and inhibition of aspartate biosynthesis...
October 12, 2016: Cell Metabolism
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