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Niacinamide OR Nicotinamide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750181/sirt-1-regulates-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-dermal-fibroblast-migration-via-modulation-of-cyr61-expression
#1
Eun-Jeong Kwon, Eun-Jung Park, Hyeran Yu, Jung-Sik Huh, Jinseok Kim, Moon-Jae Cho
SIRT1 is a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that participates in cellular regulation. The increased migration of fibroblasts is an important phenotype in fibroblast activation. The role of SIRT1 in cell migration remains controversial as to whether SIRT1 acts as an activator or suppressor of cell migration. Therefore, we have established the role of SIRT1 in the migration of human dermal fibroblasts and explored targets of SIRT1 during dermal fibroblast migration. SIRT1 and Cyr61 were expressed in human dermal fibroblasts and the stimulation with TGF-β further induced their expression...
July 27, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750066/cross-modulation-of-pathogen-specific-pathways-enhances-malnutrition-during-enteric-co-infection-with-giardia-lamblia-and-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli
#2
Luther A Bartelt, David T Bolick, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Glynis L Kolling, Gregory L Medlock, Edna I Zaenker, Jeffery Donowitz, Rose Viguna Thomas-Beckett, Allison Rogala, Ian M Carroll, Steven M Singer, Jason Papin, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
Diverse enteropathogen exposures associate with childhood malnutrition. To elucidate mechanistic pathways whereby enteric microbes interact during malnutrition, we used protein deficiency in mice to develop a new model of co-enteropathogen enteropathy. Focusing on common enteropathogens in malnourished children, Giardia lamblia and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), we provide new insights into intersecting pathogen-specific mechanisms that enhance malnutrition. We show for the first time that during protein malnutrition, the intestinal microbiota permits persistent Giardia colonization and simultaneously contributes to growth impairment...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750065/biochemical-characterization-of-a-new-nicotinamidase-from-an-unclassified-bacterium-thriving-in-a-geothermal-water-stream-microbial-mat-community
#3
Rubén Zapata-Pérez, Ana-Belén Martínez-Moñino, Antonio-Ginés García-Saura, Juana Cabanes, Hideto Takami, Álvaro Sánchez-Ferrer
Nicotinamidases are amidohydrolases that convert nicotinamide into nicotinic acid, contributing to NAD+ homeostasis in most organisms. In order to increase the number of nicotinamidases described to date, this manuscript characterizes a nicotinamidase obtained from a metagenomic library fosmid clone (JFF054_F02) obtained from a geothermal water stream microbial mat community in a Japanese epithermal mine. The enzyme showed an optimum temperature of 90°C, making it the first hyperthermophilic bacterial nicotinamidase to be characterized, since the phylogenetic analysis of this fosmid clone placed it in a clade of uncultured geothermal bacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749080/cellular-and-genetic-models-of-h6pdh-and-11%C3%AE-hsd1-function-in-skeletal-muscle
#4
Agnieszka E Zielinska, Rachel S Fletcher, Mark Sherlock, Craig L Doig, Gareth G Lavery
Glucocorticoids are important for skeletal muscle energy metabolism, regulating glucose utilization, insulin sensitivity, and muscle mass. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1)-mediated glucocorticoid activation in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is integral to mediating the detrimental effects of glucocorticoid excess in muscle. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity requires glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT)-mediated G6P transport into the SR for its metabolism by hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) for NADPH generation...
July 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749007/reactive-oxygen-species-as-mediators-of-sperm-capacitation-and-pathological-damage
#5
REVIEW
R J Aitken
Oxidative stress plays a major role in the life and death of mammalian spermatozoa. These gametes are professional generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to derive from three potential sources: sperm mitochondria, cytosolic L-amino acid oxidases, and plasma membrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases. The oxidative stress created via these sources appears to play a significant role in driving the physiological changes associated with sperm capacitation through the stimulation of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate/Protein kinase A phosphorylation cascade, including the activation of Extracellular signal regulated kinase-like proteins, massive up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation in the sperm tail, as well as the induction of sterol oxidation...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748119/uric-acid-in-the-pathogenesis-of-metabolic-renal-and-cardiovascular-diseases-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Usama A A Sharaf El Din, Mona M Salem, Dina O Abdulazim
The association between uric acid (UA) on one side and systemic hypertension (Htn), dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, overweight, fatty liver, renal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the other side is well recognized. However, the causal relationship between UA and these different clinical problems is still debatable. The recent years have witnessed hundreds of experimental and clinical trials that favored the opinion that UA is a probable player in the pathogenesis of these disease entities. These studies disclosed the strong association between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, Htn, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertriglyceridemia, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease (CKD), coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure and increased mortality among cardiac and CKD patients...
September 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747214/culturing-and-transcriptome-profiling-of-progenitor-like-colonies-derived-from-adult-mouse-pancreas
#7
Dongshen Ma, Shanshan Tang, Jing Song, Qiong Wu, Fangfang Zhang, Yun Xing, Yi Pan, Yanfeng Zhang, Jingwei Jiang, Yubin Zhang, Liang Jin
BACKGROUND: Transplantation of insulin-producing cells is considered an important diabetes therapy. Many research studies have shown that insulin-producing cells can be derived from the in-vitro cultured pancreatic colonies with self-renewal ability and multilineage potential. Even though these progenitor-like colonies have been prepared from adult pancreas cells, the efficient culture method is hardly established and regulation of the colonies is rarely known. We confirmed previously that single cells acquired from adult mouse pancreas could form cyst-like colonies in a 3D semi-solid system containing Matrigel and methylcellulose...
July 26, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744906/effects-of-combination-of-mitiglinide-with-various-oral-antidiabetic-drugs-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats-and-zucker-fatty-rats
#8
Kenji Akahane, Kazuma Ojima, Ayaka Yokoyama, Toshihiro Inoue, Sumiyoshi Kiguchi, Satoshi Tatemichi, Hiroo Takeda, Yohsuke Imai
We examined the effects of combining the rapid insulin secretagogue, mitiglinide, with various oral hypoglycemic drugs including biguanides, pioglitazone, α-glucosidase inhibitors, and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) using glucose, sucrose, or a liquid meal was used to compare the effects of mitiglinide with those of the four oral hypoglycemic drugs and examine their combined effects on blood glucose levels and insulin secretion in the rat model...
July 26, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743960/nadph-oxidase-4-is-required-for-the-generation-of-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-and-host-defense-against-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#9
Ji Hye Kim, Jina Lee, Su-Jin Bae, Yeeun Kim, Byung-Joon Park, Jae-Won Choi, Jaeyul Kwon, Guang-Ho Cha, Heon Jong Yoo, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Yun Soo Bae, Young-Ha Lee, Jae-Min Yuk
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (Nox) are an important family of catalytic enzymes that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which mediate the regulation of diverse cellular functions. Although phagocyte Nox2/gp91phox is closely associated with the activation of host innate immune responses, the roles of Nox family protein during Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection have not been fully investigated. Here, we found that T. gondii-mediated ROS production was required for the upregulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) mRNA and protein levels via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signaling in macrophages...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743869/nicotinamide-mononucleotide-and-related-metabolites-induce-disease-resistance-against-fungal-phytopathogens-in-arabidopsis-and-barley
#10
Akihiro Miwa, Yuji Sawada, Daisuke Tamaoki, Masami Yokota Hirai, Makoto Kimura, Kazuhiro Sato, Takumi Nishiuchi
Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), is known to act as a functional molecule in animals, whereas its function in plants is largely unknown. In this study, we found that NMN accumulated in barley cultivars resistant to phytopathogenic fungal Fusarium species. Although NMN does not possess antifungal activity, pretreatment with NMN and related metabolites enhanced disease resistance to Fusarium graminearum in Arabidopsis leaves and flowers and in barley spikes...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740353/anti-apoptotic-effect-of-banhasasim-tang-on-chronic-acid-reflux-esophagitis
#11
Mi-Rae Shin, Hyo-Jin An, Bu-Il Seo, Seong-Soo Roh
AIM: To evaluate the anti-apoptotic effect of banhasasim-tang (BHSST) on chronic acid reflux esophagitis (CARE) using a rat model. METHODS: A surgically-induced CARE model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. The modeled rats were divided into a treatment group or untreated group, and given BHSST (1 g/kg body weight per day) or water, respectively, for 15 consecutive days (n = 7 each group). Changes in expression of proteins related to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and apoptosis were assessed by western blotting...
July 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737940/defining-the-structural-basis-for-allosteric-product-release-from-e-coli-dihydrofolate-reductase-using-nmr-relaxation-dispersion
#12
David Oyen, R Bryn Fenwick, Phillip C Aoto, Robyn L Stanfield, Ian A Wilson, H Jane Dyson, Peter E Wright
The rate-determining step in the catalytic cycle of E.coli dihydrofolate reductase is tetrahydrofolate (THF) product release, which can occur via an allosteric or an intrinsic pathway. The allosteric pathway, which becomes accessible when the reduced cofactor NADPH is bound, involves transient sampling of a higher energy conformational state, greatly increasing the product dissociation rate compared to the intrinsic pathway that obtains when NADPH is absent. Although the kinetics of this process are known, the enzyme structure and the THF product conformation in the transiently formed excited state remains elusive...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736546/zb-16-a-novel-gpr119-agonist-relieves-the-severity-of-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-diabetes-in-rats
#13
Ivan N Tyurenkov, Denis V Kurkin, Dmitry A Bakulin, Elena V Volotova, Mikhail A Chafeev, Alexey V Smirnov, Evgeny I Morkovin
GPR119 is involved in the regulation of incretin and insulin secretion, so the GPR119 agonists have been suggested as novel antidiabetic medications. The purpose of this work was to assess the influence of novel GPR119 agonist ZB-16 on the glucose utilization, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and the morphology of pancreas in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes. 45 male Wistar rats were used in the study. The criteria of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes were blood glucose levels of 9-14 mmol/l measured in fasting conditions on the third day since administration of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (230 mg/kg)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736426/modulation-of-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-and-ros-generation-by-nicotinamide-in-a-manner-independent-of-sirt1-and-mitophagy
#14
Seon Beom Song, So-Young Jang, Hyun Tae Kang, Bie Wei, Un-Woo Jeoun, Gye Soon Yoon, Eun Seong Hwang
Nicotinamide (NAM) plays essential roles in physiology through facilitating NAD+ redox homeostasis. Importantly, at high doses, it protects cells under oxidative stresses, and has shown therapeutic effectiveness in a variety of disease conditions. In our previous studies, NAM lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and extended cellular life span in primary human cells. In the treated cells, levels of NAD+/NADH and SIRT1 activity increased, while mitochondrial content decreased through autophagy activation...
July 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734787/selenium-deficiency-induced-thioredoxin-suppression-and-thioredoxin-knock-down-disbalanced-insulin-responsiveness-in-chicken-cardiomyocytes-through-pi3k-akt-pathway-inhibition
#15
Jie Yang, Sattar Hamid, Jingzeng Cai, Qi Liu, Shiwen Xu, Ziwei Zhang
Thioredoxin (Txn) system is the most crucial antioxidant defense mechanism in cell consisting of Txn, thioredoxin reductase (TR) and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH). Perturbations in Txn system may compromise cell survival through oxidative stress induction. Metabolic activity of insulin plays important roles in fulfilling the stable and persistent demands of heart through glucose metabolism. However, the roles of Txn and Txn system in insulin modulated cardiac energy metabolism have been less reported...
July 19, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733523/preclinical-efficacy-of-the-novel-competitive-nampt-inhibitor-stf-118804-in-pancreatic-cancer
#16
Jair Machado Espindola-Netto, Claudia C S Chini, Mariana Tarragó, Enfeng Wang, Shamit Dutta, Krishnendu Pal, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Mauro Sola-Penna, Eduardo N Chini
NAD salvage is one of the pathways used to generate NAD in mammals. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, uses nicotinamide (NAM) to generate nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). NMN is one of the main precursors of NAD synthesis in cells. Our previous study showed the importance of NAMPT in maintaining NAD levels in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells (PDAC), and that the NAMPT inhibitor FK866 decreased pancreatic cancer growth. We now tested the effect of STF-118804, a new highly specific NAMPT inhibitor, in models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732729/crystal-structures-of-an-atypical-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-having-bidirectional-oxidizing-and-reducing-activities
#17
Kyoungho Jung, Seung-Hye Hong, Ho-Phuong-Thuy Ngo, Thien-Hoang Ho, Yeh-Jin Ahn, Deok-Kun Oh, Lin-Woo Kang
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are NAD(P)(+)-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation of a variety of aldehydes to their acid forms. In this study, we determined the crystal structures of ALDH from Bacillus cereus (BcALDH), alone, and in complex with NAD(+) and NADP(+). This enzyme can oxidize all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinoic acid using either NAD(+) or NADP(+) with equal efficiency, and atypically, as a minor activity, can reduce all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol using NADPH. BcALDH accommodated the additional 2'-phosphate of NADP(+) by expanding the cofactor-binding pocket and upshifting the AMP moiety in NADP(+)...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731346/kinetics-of-light-induced-intramolecular-energy-transfer-in-different-conformational-states-of-nadh
#18
Zsuzsanna Heiner, Thomas Roland, Jérémie Léonard, Stefan Haacke, Géza I Groma
When bound to a protein, the coenzyme NAD+/NADH typically exists in an extended conformation, while in aqueous solutions it can be characterized by an equilibrium of folded and unfolded structures. It was recognized long ago that in the folded conformation light absorption at the adenine ring initiates an effective energy transfer (ET) towards the nicotinamide group, but the mechanism of this process is still unexplored. Here we apply ultrafast transient absorption measurements on NADH combined with compartmental model analysis for following the kinetics of the ET...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726800/role-of-nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-in-dorsal-striatum-in-cocaine-place-preference
#19
Li Luo, Fei-Fei Shang, Hailei Long, Linhong Jiang, Ruiming Zhu, Qian Zhao, Hui Gu, Jueying Kong, Wei Xu, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) transfers the methyl from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to nicotinamide (NA) to produce S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) and 1-methylnicotinamide (MeN). NNMT has been implicated in a variety of diseases; however, the role of NNMT in drug addiction is largely unknown. Here, we found that the expression of Nnmt was significantly upregulated in the dorsal striatum (DS) of cocaine-conditioned mice. Cocaine significantly decreased SAM/SAH ratio levels in the DS, which was accompanied with the decreased activities of Rac1 and RhoA...
July 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726718/inhibitory-effects-of-trapping-agents-of-sulfur-drug-reactive-intermediates-against-major-human-cytochrome-p450-isoforms
#20
Jasleen K Sodhi, Erlie Marie Delarosa, Jason S Halladay, James P Driscoll, Teresa Mulder, Patrick M Dansette, S Cyrus Khojasteh
In some cases, the formation of reactive species from the metabolism of xenobiotics has been linked to toxicity and therefore it is imperative to detect potential bioactivation for candidate drugs during drug discovery. Reactive species can covalently bind to trapping agents in in vitro incubations of compound with human liver microsomes (HLM) fortified with β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), resulting in a stable conjugate of trapping agent and reactive species, thereby facilitating analytical detection and providing evidence of short-lived reactive metabolites...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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