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Niacin amide OR Nicotinamide

Muhammad Afzal, Oscar P Kuipers, Sulman Shafeeq
NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) biosynthesis is vital for bacterial physiology and plays an important role in cellular metabolism. A naturally occurring vitamin B complex, niacin (nicotinic acid), is a precursor of coenzymes NAD and NADP. Here, we study the impact of niacin on global gene expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 and elucidate the role of NiaR as a transcriptional regulator of niaX, nadC, and pnuC. Transcriptome comparison of the D39 wild-type grown in chemically defined medium (CDM) with 0 to 10 mM niacin revealed elevated expression of various genes, including niaX, nadC, pnuC, fba, rex, gapN, pncB, gap, adhE, and adhB2 that are putatively involved in the transport and utilization of niacin...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Aaron M Drucker, Wen-Qing Li, Min Kyung Park, Tricia Li, Abrar A Qureshi, Eunyoung Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Janice E Drew, Andrew J Farquharson, Graham W Horgan, Lynda M Williams
The sirtuin (SIRT)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) system is implicated in development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diet-induced obesity, a major risk factor for T2D. Mechanistic links have not yet been defined. SIRT/NAD system gene expression and NAD/NADH levels were measured in liver, white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle from mice fed either a low-fat diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 days up to 16 weeks. An in-house custom-designed multiplex gene expression assay assessed all 7 mouse SIRTs (SIRT1-7) and 16 enzymes involved in conversion of tryptophan, niacin, nicotinamide riboside and metabolic precursors to NAD...
August 14, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Wu-Ping Sun, Ming-Zhu Zhai, Da Li, Yiming Zhou, Na-Na Chen, Ming Guo, Shi-Sheng Zhou
AIM: The present study was to compare the effects of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on the plasma methyl donors, choline and betaine. METHODS: Thirty adult subjects were randomly divided into three groups of equal size, and orally received purified water (C group), nicotinic acid (300 mg, NA group) or nicotinamide (300 mg, NM group). Plasma nicotinamide, N(1)-methylnicotinamide, homocysteine, betaine and choline levels before and 1.5-h and 3-h post-dosing, plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine concentrations at 3-h post-dosing, and the urinary excretion of N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide during the test period were examined...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
B C McGorum, R C Jago, E Cillan-Garcia, R S Pirie, J A Keen, R J M Reardon, P Y Saffu, N J Miller
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of equine grass sickness (EGS) is currently unknown. We hypothesised that an acute deficiency of niacin (vitamin B3), which plays a key role in neural homeostasis, may contribute to neurodegeneration in EGS. Niacin deficiency can potentially result from ingestion of niacin antagonists produced by pasture mycotoxigenic fungi. OBJECTIVES: To compare the niacin status of EGS and control grazing horses. A secondary objective was to compare blood concentrations of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in EGS and control grazing horses to determine if the status of these vitamins was altered in EGS...
August 16, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Rongrong Li, Kang Yu, Qiang Wang, Lilin Wang, Jiangfeng Mao, Jiaming Qian
Pellagra usually results from niacin deficiency and presents with the classic triad of dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. It is most commonly associated with malnutrition and poverty and is extremely rare in industrialized societies. Furthermore, pellagra can be induced by special clinical conditions that interfere with the intake, absorption, and metabolism of niacin. Because of its detrimental effects on health and its favorable prognosis after supplementation of nicotinamide, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment should be emphasized...
August 4, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Sarika Srivastava
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a central metabolic cofactor in eukaryotic cells that plays a critical role in regulating cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. NAD(+) in its reduced form (i.e. NADH) serves as the primary electron donor in mitochondrial respiratory chain, which involves adenosine triphosphate production by oxidative phosphorylation. The NAD(+)/NADH ratio also regulates the activity of various metabolic pathway enzymes such as those involved in glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, and fatty acid oxidation...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Katsumi Shibata, Marika Yamazaki, Yukiyo Matsuyama
The present study was conducted to survey functional biomarkers for evaluation of niacin nutritional status. Over 500 enzymes require niacin as a coenzyme. Of these, we chose the tryptophan degradation pathway. To create niacin-deficient animals, quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase-knock out mice were used in the present study because wild type mice can synthesize nicotinamide from tryptophan. When the mice were made niacin-deficient, the urinary excretion of xanthurenic acid (XA) was extremely low compared with control mice; however, it increased according to the recovery of niacin nutritional status...
July 18, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
J Jacques Matte, Etienne Corrent, Aude Simongiovanni, Nathalie Le Floc'h
The present experiment aimed to determine if Trp metabolism and growth responses to dietary Trp are modulated by dietary niacin (B) in weanling piglets. Piglets weaned at 3 wk of age were distributed 1 wk later (7.6 kg of BW, SEM = 0.1) in 52 pens of 2 animals each. Pens were assigned to factorial dietary treatments with 2 additions of B, 15 mg/kg (LB3) vs. 45 mg/kg (HB3) and 2 additions of Trp, 0 mg/kg (-Trp) vs. 1 mg/kg (+Trp) for Trp to Lys ratios of 0.16 vs. 0.24, respectively. Growth performance was recorded every week from 4 to 10 wk of age...
May 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Charles Ginsberg, Joachim H Ix
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Higher serum phosphate concentration is a central driver of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) mineral bone disorder (MBD). Although phosphate binders are commonly used to lower phosphate, they are minimally effective in CKD. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) decreases intestinal phosphate transport in animals. Its efficacy and safety in CKD is uncertain. RECENT FINDINGS: We review data differentiating nicotinamide from nicotinic acid (niacin) and compare the metabolism and side-effect profile of each...
July 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
D B Conze, J Crespo-Barreto, C L Kruger
Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a naturally occurring form of vitamin B3 present in trace amounts in some foods. Like niacin, it has been shown to be a precursor in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). The safety of Niagen™, a synthetic form of NR, was determined using a bacterial reverse mutagenesis assay (Ames), an in vitro chromosome aberration assay, an in vivo micronucleus assay, and acute, 14-day and 90-day rat toxicology studies. NR was not genotoxic. There was no mortality at an oral dose of 5000 mg/kg...
January 20, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Bichitra N Nayak, Harpal S Buttar
BACKGROUND: Human milk contains a number of nutrients and bioactive ingredients which play an important role in the growth and development of infants. One important nutrient and bioactive ingredient of human milk is L-tryptophan. L-Tryptophan is an essential aromatic α-amino acid and is required in the diet of children and adult humans. As an essential amino acid, it is needed for protein synthesis and as a precursor of key biomolecules such as serotonin, melatonin, tryptamine, niacin, quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Yutaka Taketani, Masashi Masuda, Hisami Yamanaka-Okumura, Sawako Tatsumi, Hiroko Segawa, Ken-ichi Miyamoto, Eiji Takeda, Hironori Yamamoto
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing problem worldwide. The number of end-stage renal disease patients requiring treatment by dialysis is estimated to be increasing by 10,000 patients per year in Japan. Furthermore, an estimated 13 million people are living with CKD in Japan. Various complications are associated with CKD, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). More than one-third of CKD patients die from CVD. Thus, prevention of CVD is a primary concern for the treatment of CKD patients. CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a serious complication that typically leads to CVD...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Lindsay H Allen, Daniela Hampel, Setareh Shahab-Ferdows, Emily R York, Linda S Adair, Valerie L Flax, Gerald Tegha, Charles S Chasela, Debbie Kamwendo, Denise J Jamieson, Margaret E Bentley
BACKGROUND: Little information is available on B vitamin concentrations in human milk or on how they are affected by maternal B vitamin deficiencies, antiretroviral therapy, or maternal supplementation. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effects of antiretroviral therapy and/or lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on B vitamin concentrations in breast milk from HIV-infected women in Malawi. DESIGN: Breast milk was collected from 537 women recruited within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study at 2 or 6 wk and 24 wk postpartum...
December 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sung-Wook Kim, Ju-Hee Lee, Ji-Hong Moon, Uddin M D Nazim, You-Jin Lee, Jae-Won Seol, Jin Hur, Seong-Kug Eo, John-Hwa Lee, Sang-Youel Park
Niacin, also known as vitamin B3 or nicotinamide is a water-soluble vitamin that is present in black beans and rice among other foods. Niacin is well known as an inhibitor of metastasis in human breast carcinoma cells but the effect of niacin treatment on TRAIL-mediated apoptosis is unknown. Here, we show that niacin plays an important role in the regulation of autophagic flux and protects tumor cells against TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Our results indicated that niacin activated autophagic flux in human colon cancer cells and the autophagic flux activation protected tumor cells from TRAIL-induced dysfunction of mitochondrial membrane potential and tumor cell death...
January 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Andrei Osterman
Universal and ubiquitous redox cofactors, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated analog (NADP), collectively contribute to approximately 12% of all biochemical reactions included in the metabolic model of Escherichia coli K-12. A homeostasis of the NAD pool faithfully maintained by the cells results from a dynamic balance in a network of NAD biosynthesis, utilization, decomposition, and recycling pathways that is subject to tight regulation at various levels. A brief overview of NAD utilization processes is provided in this review, including some examples of nonredox utilization...
August 2009: EcoSal Plus
Tuzz-Ying Song, Shu-Lan Yeh, Miao-Lin Hu, Mei-Yau Chen, Nae-Cherng Yang
Vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency can cause pellagra with symptoms of dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. However, it is unclear whether the vitamin B3 deficiency causes human aging. FK866 (a Nampt inhibitor) can reduce intracellular NAD(+) level and induce senescence of human Hs68 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells are unclear. In this study, we used FK866 to mimic the effects of vitamin B3 deficiency to reduce the NAD(+) level and investigated the mechanisms of FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells...
December 2015: Biogerontology
Michael D L Johnson, Haley Echlin, Tina H Dao, Jason W Rosch
NAD is a necessary cofactor present in all living cells. Some bacteria cannot de novo synthesize NAD and must use the salvage pathway to import niacin or nicotinamide riboside via substrate importers NiaX and PnuC, respectively. Although homologues of these two importers and their substrates have been identified in other organisms, limited data exist in Streptococcus pneumoniae, specifically, on its effect on overall virulence. Here, we sought to characterize the substrate specificity of NiaX and PnuC in Str...
November 2015: Microbiology
Priyesh Bipath, Peter F Levay, Margaretha Viljoen
BACKGROUND: Tryptophan is an essential amino acid for the synthesis of proteins and important metabolites such as serotonin, melatonin, tryptamine and niacin. After protein synthesis, more than 90 % of tryptophan catabolism occurs along the kynurenine pathway. The inflammation-inducible enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) is responsible for the first rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway, i.e., oxidation of tryptophan to kynurenine. Excessive IDO activity in conditions such as HIV/AIDS may lead to tryptophan depletion and accumulation of metabolites downstream from kynurenine...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ki Young Jeong, Gil Joon Suh, Woon Yong Kwon, Kyung Su Kim, Yoon Sun Jung, Yu Chan Kye
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of niacin on acute lung injury by the down-regulation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway in hemorrhagic shock (HS) rats. METHODS: HS was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by withdrawing blood to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 20 mm Hg to 25 mm Hg for 40 minutes. The rats were resuscitated by the reinfusion of the drawn blood, and a vehicle (HS), a low-dose of niacin (360 mg/kg, HS + LD-NA), or a high dose of niacin (1,080 mg/kg, HS + HD-NA) were administered orally...
August 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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