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Niacin amide OR Nicotinamide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792876/nad-deficiency-congenital-malformations-and-niacin-supplementation
#1
Hongjun Shi, Annabelle Enriquez, Melissa Rapadas, Ella M M A Martin, Roni Wang, Julie Moreau, Chai K Lim, Justin O Szot, Eddie Ip, James N Hughes, Kotaro Sugimoto, David T Humphreys, Aideen M McInerney-Leo, Paul J Leo, Ghassan J Maghzal, Jake Halliday, Janine Smith, Alison Colley, Paul R Mark, Felicity Collins, David O Sillence, David S Winlaw, Joshua W K Ho, Gilles J Guillemin, Matthew A Brown, Kazu Kikuchi, Paul Q Thomas, Roland Stocker, Eleni Giannoulatou, Gavin Chapman, Emma L Duncan, Duncan B Sparrow, Sally L Dunwoodie
BACKGROUND: Congenital malformations can be manifested as combinations of phenotypes that co-occur more often than expected by chance. In many such cases, it has proved difficult to identify a genetic cause. We sought the genetic cause of cardiac, vertebral, and renal defects, among others, in unrelated patients. METHODS: We used genomic sequencing to identify potentially pathogenic gene variants in families in which a person had multiple congenital malformations...
August 10, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736097/alcoholic-pellagra-as-a-cause-of-altered-mental-status-in-the-emergency-department
#2
Sarah Kyuragi Luthe, Ryota Sato
BACKGROUND: Pellagra, which is caused by a deficiency of niacin and tryptophan, the precursor of niacin, is a rare disease in developed countries where alcoholism is a major risk factor due to malnutrition and lack of B vitamins. Although pellagra involves treatable dementia and psychosis, it is often underdiagnosed, especially in developed countries. CASE REPORT: In Japan, a 37-year-old man presented to the emergency department with altered mental status and seizures...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722260/effect-of-long-distance-transportation-on-serum-metabolic-profiles-of-steer-calves
#3
Satoshi Takemoto, Shozo Tomonaga, Masayuki Funaba, Tohru Matsui
Long-distance transportation is sometimes inevitable in the beef industry because of the geographic separation of major breeding and fattening areas. Long-distance transportation negatively impacts production and health of cattle, which may, at least partly, result from the disturbance of metabolism during and after transportation. However, alteration of metabolism remains elusive in transported cattle. We investigated the effects of transportation on the metabolomic profiles of Holstein steer calves. Non-targeted analysis of serum concentrations of low molecular weight metabolites was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry...
July 19, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541582/definition-of-a-tolerable-upper-intake-level-of-niacin-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-dose-dependent-effects-of-nicotinamide-and-nicotinic-acid-supplementation
#4
Clara Minto, Maria Gabriella Vecchio, Manfred Lamprecht, Dario Gregori
Context: Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are soluble compounds of the vitamin B group, widely used to regulate the lipid profile in hyperlipidemic individuals. Higher doses of nicotinic acid are associated with adverse effects, especially flushing. A unique tolerable upper intake level (UL) of nicotinic acid has not been defined. Objective: This meta-analysis aims to evaluate adverse effects and their incidence after supplementation with different doses of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, comparing results with current ULs in Europe and the United States...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473059/nicotinamide-protects-hepatocytes-against-palmitate-induced-lipotoxicity-via-sirt1-dependent-autophagy-induction
#5
Chen Shen, Xiaobing Dou, Yue Ma, Wang Ma, Songtao Li, Zhenyuan Song
Lipotoxicity induced by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) plays a pathological role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the exact mechanism remains to be clearly elucidated. Palmitate is the most abundant SFA in the circulation and major lipotoxic inducer. Accumulating evidence supports that autophagy induction is protective against palmitate-induced cell death in a variety of cell types, including hepatocytes. Nicotinamide is the amide form of nicotinic acid (vitamin B3, Niacin) and a dietary supplementation as a source of vitamin B3...
April 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464103/comparison-of-plasma-tryptophan-related-metabolites-in-crossbred-pi%C3%A3-train-and-duroc-pigs
#6
N Le Floc'h, A Simongiovanni, E Corrent, J J Matte
Besides being incorporated into proteins, Trp, an indispensable AA, is involved in numerous metabolic pathways. Previous data showed that Trp conversion into kynurenine (Kyn) and nicotinamide (Nam) differs among studies, and such differences cannot be explained by different dietary niacin supplies. We hypothesized that pig genotype influences Trp metabolism and thus the conversion of Trp into its metabolites. The objective of this study was to compare plasma appearance of Trp and related metabolites in 12 Duroc and 12 Piétrain crossbred postweaning pigs fed 2 contrasting dietary Trp levels...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337428/niacin-mediated-gene-expression-and-role-of-niar-as-a-transcriptional-repressor-of-niax-nadc-and-pnuc-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#7
Muhammad Afzal, Oscar P Kuipers, Sulman Shafeeq
NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) biosynthesis is vital for bacterial physiology and plays an important role in cellular metabolism. A naturally occurring vitamin B complex, niacin (nicotinic acid), is a precursor of coenzymes NAD and NADP. Here, we study the impact of niacin on global gene expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 and elucidate the role of NiaR as a transcriptional regulator of niaX, nadC, and pnuC. Transcriptome comparison of the D39 wild-type grown in chemically defined medium (CDM) with 0 to 10 mM niacin revealed elevated expression of various genes, including niaX, nadC, pnuC, fba, rex, gapN, pncB, gap, adhE, and adhB2 that are putatively involved in the transport and utilization of niacin...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111310/niacin-intake-and-incident-adult-onset-atopic-dermatitis-in-women
#8
Aaron M Drucker, Wen-Qing Li, Min Kyung Park, Tricia Li, Abrar A Qureshi, Eunyoung Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592202/tissue-specific-regulation-of-sirtuin-and-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-biosynthetic-pathways-identified-in-c57bl-6-mice-in-response-to-high-fat-feeding
#9
Janice E Drew, Andrew J Farquharson, Graham W Horgan, Lynda M Williams
The sirtuin (SIRT)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) system is implicated in development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diet-induced obesity, a major risk factor for T2D. Mechanistic links have not yet been defined. SIRT/NAD system gene expression and NAD/NADH levels were measured in liver, white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle from mice fed either a low-fat diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 days up to 16 weeks. An in-house custom-designed multiplex gene expression assay assessed all 7 mouse SIRTs (SIRT1-7) and 16 enzymes involved in conversion of tryptophan, niacin, nicotinamide riboside and metabolic precursors to NAD...
November 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567458/comparison-of-the-effects-of-nicotinic-acid-and-nicotinamide-degradation-on-plasma-betaine-and-choline-levels
#10
Wu-Ping Sun, Ming-Zhu Zhai, Da Li, Yiming Zhou, Na-Na Chen, Ming Guo, Shi-Sheng Zhou
AIM: The present study was to compare the effects of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on the plasma methyl donors, choline and betaine. METHODS: Thirty adult subjects were randomly divided into three groups of equal size, and orally received purified water (C group), nicotinic acid (300 mg, NA group) or nicotinamide (300 mg, NM group). Plasma nicotinamide, N(1)-methylnicotinamide, homocysteine, betaine and choline levels before and 1.5-h and 3-h post-dosing, plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine concentrations at 3-h post-dosing, and the urinary excretion of N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide during the test period were examined...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529289/neurodegeneration-in-equine-grass-sickness-is-not-attributable-to-niacin-deficiency
#11
B C McGorum, R C Jago, E Cillan-Garcia, R S Pirie, J A Keen, R J M Reardon, P Y Saffu, N J Miller
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of equine grass sickness (EGS) is currently unknown. We hypothesised that an acute deficiency of niacin (vitamin B3), which plays a key role in neural homeostasis, may contribute to neurodegeneration in EGS. Niacin deficiency can potentially result from ingestion of niacin antagonists produced by pasture mycotoxigenic fungi. OBJECTIVES: To compare the niacin status of EGS and control grazing horses. A secondary objective was to compare blood concentrations of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in EGS and control grazing horses to determine if the status of these vitamins was altered in EGS...
July 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491713/pellagra-secondary-to-medication-and-alcoholism-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Rongrong Li, Kang Yu, Qiang Wang, Lilin Wang, Jiangfeng Mao, Jiaming Qian
Pellagra usually results from niacin deficiency and presents with the classic triad of dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. It is most commonly associated with malnutrition and poverty and is extremely rare in industrialized societies. Furthermore, pellagra can be induced by special clinical conditions that interfere with the intake, absorption, and metabolism of niacin. Because of its detrimental effects on health and its favorable prognosis after supplementation of nicotinamide, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment should be emphasized...
August 4, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465020/emerging-therapeutic-roles-for-nad-metabolism-in-mitochondrial-and-age-related-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Sarika Srivastava
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a central metabolic cofactor in eukaryotic cells that plays a critical role in regulating cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. NAD(+) in its reduced form (i.e. NADH) serves as the primary electron donor in mitochondrial respiratory chain, which involves adenosine triphosphate production by oxidative phosphorylation. The NAD(+)/NADH ratio also regulates the activity of various metabolic pathway enzymes such as those involved in glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, and fatty acid oxidation...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429300/urinary-excretion-ratio-of-xanthurenic-acid-kynurenic-acid-as-a-functional-biomarker-of-niacin-nutritional-status
#14
Katsumi Shibata, Marika Yamazaki, Yukiyo Matsuyama
The present study was conducted to survey functional biomarkers for evaluation of niacin nutritional status. Over 500 enzymes require niacin as a coenzyme. Of these, we chose the tryptophan degradation pathway. To create niacin-deficient animals, quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase-knock out mice were used in the present study because wild type mice can synthesize nicotinamide from tryptophan. When the mice were made niacin-deficient, the urinary excretion of xanthurenic acid (XA) was extremely low compared with control mice; however, it increased according to the recovery of niacin nutritional status...
July 18, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27285694/tryptophan-metabolism-growth-responses-and-postprandial-insulin-metabolism-in-weaned-piglets-according-to-the-dietary-provision-of-niacin-vitamin-b-and-tryptophan
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
J Jacques Matte, Etienne Corrent, Aude Simongiovanni, Nathalie Le Floc'h
The present experiment aimed to determine if Trp metabolism and growth responses to dietary Trp are modulated by dietary niacin (B) in weanling piglets. Piglets weaned at 3 wk of age were distributed 1 wk later (7.6 kg of BW, SEM = 0.1) in 52 pens of 2 animals each. Pens were assigned to factorial dietary treatments with 2 additions of B, 15 mg/kg (LB3) vs. 45 mg/kg (HB3) and 2 additions of Trp, 0 mg/kg (-Trp) vs. 1 mg/kg (+Trp) for Trp to Lys ratios of 0.16 vs. 0.24, respectively. Growth performance was recorded every week from 4 to 10 wk of age...
May 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27219041/nicotinamide-and-phosphate-homeostasis-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Charles Ginsberg, Joachim H Ix
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Higher serum phosphate concentration is a central driver of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) mineral bone disorder (MBD). Although phosphate binders are commonly used to lower phosphate, they are minimally effective in CKD. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) decreases intestinal phosphate transport in animals. Its efficacy and safety in CKD is uncertain. RECENT FINDINGS: We review data differentiating nicotinamide from nicotinic acid (niacin) and compare the metabolism and side-effect profile of each...
July 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26791540/safety-assessment-of-nicotinamide-riboside-a-form-of-vitamin-b3
#17
D B Conze, J Crespo-Barreto, C L Kruger
Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a naturally occurring form of vitamin B3 present in trace amounts in some foods. Like niacin, it has been shown to be a precursor in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). The safety of Niagen™, a synthetic form of NR, was determined using a bacterial reverse mutagenesis assay (Ames), an in vitro chromosome aberration assay, an in vivo micronucleus assay, and acute, 14-day and 90-day rat toxicology studies. NR was not genotoxic. There was no mortality at an oral dose of 5000 mg/kg...
January 20, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26641976/evaluation-of-the-antioxidant-properties-of-tryptophan-and-its-metabolites-in-in-vitro-assay
#18
Bichitra N Nayak, Harpal S Buttar
BACKGROUND: Human milk contains a number of nutrients and bioactive ingredients which play an important role in the growth and development of infants. One important nutrient and bioactive ingredient of human milk is L-tryptophan. L-Tryptophan is an essential aromatic α-amino acid and is required in the diet of children and adult humans. As an essential amino acid, it is needed for protein synthesis and as a precursor of key biomolecules such as serotonin, melatonin, tryptamine, niacin, quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26598845/niacin-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Yutaka Taketani, Masashi Masuda, Hisami Yamanaka-Okumura, Sawako Tatsumi, Hiroko Segawa, Ken-ichi Miyamoto, Eiji Takeda, Hironori Yamamoto
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing problem worldwide. The number of end-stage renal disease patients requiring treatment by dialysis is estimated to be increasing by 10,000 patients per year in Japan. Furthermore, an estimated 13 million people are living with CKD in Japan. Various complications are associated with CKD, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). More than one-third of CKD patients die from CVD. Thus, prevention of CVD is a primary concern for the treatment of CKD patients. CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a serious complication that typically leads to CVD...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26537941/antiretroviral-therapy-provided-to-hiv-infected-malawian-women-in-a-randomized-trial-diminishes-the-positive-effects-of-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-on-breast-milk-b-vitamins
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lindsay H Allen, Daniela Hampel, Setareh Shahab-Ferdows, Emily R York, Linda S Adair, Valerie L Flax, Gerald Tegha, Charles S Chasela, Debbie Kamwendo, Denise J Jamieson, Margaret E Bentley
BACKGROUND: Little information is available on B vitamin concentrations in human milk or on how they are affected by maternal B vitamin deficiencies, antiretroviral therapy, or maternal supplementation. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effects of antiretroviral therapy and/or lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on B vitamin concentrations in breast milk from HIV-infected women in Malawi. DESIGN: Breast milk was collected from 537 women recruited within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study at 2 or 6 wk and 24 wk postpartum...
December 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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