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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331887/idh1r132h-promotes-malignant-transformation-of-benign-prostatic-epithelium-by-dysregulating-micrornas-involvement-of-igf1r-akt-stat3-signaling-pathway
#1
Lili Zhang, Mei Qi, Tingting Feng, Jing Hu, Lin Wang, Xinjun Li, Wei Gao, Hui Liu, Meng Jiao, Zhen Wu, Xinnuo Bai, Yifan Bie, Long Liu, Bo Han
Risk stratification using molecular features could potentially help distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) acquire an abnormal enzymatic activity, resulting in the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate and alterations in cellular metabolism, histone modification, and DNA methylation. Mutant IDH1 has been identified in various human malignancies, and IDH1R132H constituted the vast majority of mutational events of IDH1. Most recent studies suggested that IDH1 mutations define a methylator subtype in PCa...
January 11, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330379/identification-of-shared-genetic-variants-between-schizophrenia-and-lung-cancer
#2
Verena Zuber, Erik G Jönsson, Oleksandr Frei, Aree Witoelar, Wesley K Thompson, Andrew J Schork, Francesco Bettella, Yunpeng Wang, Srdjan Djurovic, Olav B Smeland, Ingrid Dieset, Ayman H Fanous, Rahul S Desikan, Sébastien Küry, Stéphane Bézieau, Anders M Dale, Ian G Mills, Ole A Andreassen
Epidemiology studies suggest associations between schizophrenia and cancer. However, the underlying genetic mechanisms are not well understood, and difficult to identify from epidemiological data. We investigated if there is a shared genetic architecture between schizophrenia and cancer, with the aim to identify specific overlapping genetic loci. First, we performed genome-wide enrichment analysis and second, we analyzed specific loci jointly associated with schizophrenia and cancer by the conjunction false discovery rate...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330297/characterization-and-evidence-of-the-mir-888-cluster-as-a-novel-cancer-network-in-prostate
#3
Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Garrison Glavich, Mary Pahuski, Aleena M Short, Oliver John Semmes, Lifang Yang, Vitold Galkin, Richard R Drake, Aurora Esquela-Kerscher
Prostate cancer afflicts 1 in 7 men and is the second leading cause of male cancer-related deaths in the United States. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), an extensive class of ~22 nucleotide non-coding RNAs, are often aberrantly expressed in tissues and fluids from prostate cancer patients but the mechanism of how specific miRNAs regulate prostate tumorigenesis and metastasis are poorly understood. Here, miR-888 was identified as a novel prostate factor that promotes proliferation and migration. miR-888 resides within a genomic cluster of 7 miRNA genes (mir-892c, mir-890, mir-888, mir-892a, mir-892b, mir-891b, mir-891a) on human chromosome Xq27...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324665/genome-wide-methylation-patterns-in-androgen-independent-prostate-cancer-cells-a-comprehensive-analysis-combining-medip-bisulfite-rna-and-microrna-sequencing-data
#4
Yumin Wang, Tingting Qin, Wangqiang Hu, Binghua Chen, Meijie Dai, Gang Xu
This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the development of the androgen-independent phenotype in prostate cancer. Methylation patterns were detected in androgen-independent and androgen-dependent lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) prostate carcinoma cells based on methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-bisulfite sequencing data and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and micro RNAs (miRNAs) with DMRs (named MDEGs and MDEmiRNAs) were identified by combining transcriptome and methylation data, and transcription factor (TF)-DEGs with DMRs in promoter (PMDEGs) and MDEmiRNA-MDEGs networks were constructed...
January 11, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317479/sex-steroids-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-prostate-cancer-progression
#5
Clovis Boibessot, Paul Toren
Prostate cancer is uniquely dependent on androgens. Despite years of research on the relationship between androgens and prostate cancer, many questions remain as to the biological effects of androgens and other sex steroids during prostate cancer progression. This article reviews the clinical and basic research on the influence of sex steroids such as androgens, estrogens and progesterone within the prostate tumor microenvironment on the progression of prostate cancer. We review clinical studies to date evaluating serum sex steroids as prognostic biomarkers and discuss their respective biological effects within the prostate tumor microenvironment...
January 9, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304771/high-bcar1-expression-is-associated-with-early-psa-recurrence-in-erg-negative-prostate-cancer
#6
Asmus Heumann, Nina Heinemann, Claudia Hube-Magg, Dagmar S Lang, Katharina Grupp, Martina Kluth, Sarah Minner, Christina Möller-Koop, Markus Graefen, Hans Heinzer, Maria Christina Tsourlakis, Waldemar Wilczak, Corinna Wittmer, Frank Jacobsen, Hartwig Huland, Ronald Simon, Thorsten Schlomm, Guido Sauter, Stefan Steurer, Patrick Lebok, Andrea Hinsch
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1/p130cas) is a hub for diverse oncogenic signaling cascades and promotes tumor development and progression. METHODS: To understand the effect of BCAR1 in prostate cancer, we analyzed its expression on more than 11,000 prostate cancer samples. BCAR1 expression levels were compared with clinical characteristics, PSA recurrence, molecular subtype defined by ERG status and 3p, 5q, 6q and PTEN deletion. RESULTS: BCAR1 staining was barely detectable in normal prostate glands but seen in 77...
January 5, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302046/p53-status-in-the-primary-tumor-predicts-efficacy-of-subsequent-abiraterone-and-enzalutamide-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#7
Benjamin L Maughan, Liana B Guedes, Kenneth Boucher, Gaurav Rajoria, Zach Liu, Szczepan Klimek, Roberto Zoino, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Tamara L Lotan
BACKGROUND: We tested whether tissue-based analysis of p53 and PTEN genomic status in primary tumors is predictive for subsequent sensitivity to abiraterone and enzalutamide in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 309 consecutive patients with CRPC treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide. Of these, 101 men (33%) had available primary tumor tissue for analysis. We screened for deleterious TP53 missense mutations and PTEN deletions using genetically validated immunohistochemical assays for nuclear accumulation of p53 protein and PTEN protein loss, with sequencing confirmation of TP53 mutations in a subset...
January 4, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297493/the-genomics-of-prostate-cancer-emerging-understanding-with-technologic-advances
#8
Mark A Rubin, Francesca Demichelis
With the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies and large whole-exome and genome studies in prostate and other cancers, our understanding of the landscape of genomic alterations has dramatically been refined. In additional to well-known alterations in genomic regions involving 8p, 8q, 10q23, common ETS translocations and androgen receptor amplifications, newer technology have uncovered recurrent mutations in SPOP, FOXA1, MED12, IDH and complex large scale genomic alterations (eg, chromoplexy). This review surveys the enhanced landscape of genomic alterations in clinically localized and advanced prostate cancer...
January 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295717/cribriform-and-intraductal-prostate-cancer-are-associated-with-increased-genomic-instability-and-distinct-genomic-alterations
#9
René Böttcher, Charlotte F Kweldam, Julie Livingstone, Emilie Lalonde, Takafumi N Yamaguchi, Vincent Huang, Fouad Yousif, Michael Fraser, Robert G Bristow, Theodorus van der Kwast, Paul C Boutros, Guido Jenster, Geert J L H van Leenders
BACKGROUND: Invasive cribriform and intraductal carcinoma (CR/IDC) is associated with adverse outcome of prostate cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular aberrations associated with CR/IDC in primary prostate cancer, focusing on genomic instability and somatic copy number alterations (CNA). METHODS: Whole-slide images of The Cancer Genome Atlas Project (TCGA, N = 260) and the Canadian Prostate Cancer Genome Network (CPC-GENE, N = 199) radical prostatectomy datasets were reviewed for Gleason score (GS) and presence of CR/IDC...
January 2, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282359/the%C3%A2-molecular-biology-of-prostate-cancer-current-understanding-and-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Jason Gandhi, Adil Afridi, Sohrab Vatsia, Gargi Joshi, Gunjan Joshi, Steven A Kaplan, Noel L Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: With continuous progress over the past few decades in understanding diagnosis, treatment, and genetics, much has been learned about the prostate cancer-diagnosed genome. METHODS: A comprehensive MEDLINE® and Google scholar literature search was conducted using keyword variations relating to the genetics of prostate cancer such as chromosomal alterations, androgen receptor, castration-resistant, inheritance, polymorphisms, oncogenes, metastasis, biomarkers, and immunotherapy...
December 27, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260919/the-development-of-parp-as-a-successful-target-for-cancer-therapy
#11
Roberto Ferrara, Francesca Simionato, Chiara Ciccarese, Elisabetta Grego, Sara Cingarlini, Roberto Iacovelli, Emilio Bria, Giampaolo Tortora, Davide Melisi
PARP1 and BRCA genes are essential genome caretakers and their interaction has been the first example of synthetic lethality, a genetic concept proposed in the early 20th century, but deeply explored in cancer patients only in the last decade. Areas covered: This review describes PARP1 and BRCA main functions and different roles in genome protection. Furthermore, an overview of the principle mechanisms of action and resistance to PARP inhibitors (PARPi) is presented. This review illustrates the concept of BRCAness, and how this discovery has broadened the routes of PARPi to several different malignancies such as ovarian, breast and prostate cancer...
December 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250550/prostate-cancer-from-genomics-to-the-whole-body-and-beyond
#12
EDITORIAL
Fabio Grizzi, Gianluigi Taverna, Richard J Cote, Giorgio Guazzoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248429/predicting-therapy-response-and-resistance-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer-with-circulating-tumor-dna
#13
REVIEW
Elie Ritch, Alexander W Wyatt
The treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is empirical, with progress to a more precision medicine approach hampered by lack of predictive biomarkers. This is due in large part to the historical difficulty of molecularly profiling a bone-predominant metastatic disease. Focus has turned to minimally invasive sources of tumor material to better understand the molecular drivers of therapy resistance. Circulating cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) is highly abundant in the bloodstream of mCRPC patients and appears to provide an accurate snapshot of real-time tumor genomics...
December 13, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247555/the-triterpenoid-corosolic-acid-blocks-transformation-and-epigenetically-reactivates-nrf2-in-tramp-c1-prostate-cells
#14
Jie Yang, Renyi Wu, Wenji Li, Linbo Gao, Yuqing Yang, Ping Li, Ah-Ng Kong
Corosolic acid (CRA) is found in various plants and has been used as a health food supplement worldwide. Although it has been reported that CRA exhibits significant anticancer activity, the effect of this compound on prostate cancer remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of CRA on cellular transformation and the reactivation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) through epigenetic regulation in TRAMP-C1 prostate cells. Specifically, we found that CRA inhibited anchorage-independent growth of prostate cancer TRAMP-C1 cells but not Nrf2 knockout prostate cancer TRAMP-C1 cells...
December 16, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247473/the-movember-foundation-s-gap3-cohort-a-profile-of-the-largest-global-prostate-cancer-active-surveillance-database-to-date
#15
S M Bruinsma, L Zhang, M J Roobol, C H Bangma, E W Steyerberg, D Nieboer, M Van Hemelrijck
OBJECTIVES: The Movember Foundation launched the Global Action Plan Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance (GAP3) initiative to create a global consensus on the selection and monitoring of men with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) on active surveillance (AS). The aim of this study is to present data on inclusion and follow-up for AS in this unique global AS database. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS (OR MATERIALS) AND METHODS: Between 2014 and 2016, the database was created by combining patient data from 25 established AS cohorts worldwide (USA, Canada, Australasia, UK, Europe) (n=15,101)...
December 15, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242595/germline-brca-mutation-in-male-carriers-ripe-for-precision-oncology
#16
REVIEW
Ricardo Romão Nazário Leão, Aryeh Joshua Price, Robert James Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the known heritable cancers with individual variations attributed to genetic factors. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumour suppressor genes with crucial roles in repairing DNA and thereby maintaining genomic integrity. Germline BRCA mutations predispose to multiple familial tumour types including PC. METHODS: We performed a Pubmed database search along with review of reference lists from prominent articles to capture papers exploring the association between BRCA mtuations and prostate cancer risk and prognosis...
December 14, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233929/single-cell-rna-seq-reveals-a-subpopulation-of-prostate-cancer-cells-with-enhanced-cell-cycle-related-transcription-and-attenuated-androgen-response
#17
Aaron M Horning, Yao Wang, Che-Kuang Lin, Anna D Louie, Rohit R Jadhav, Chia-Nung Hung, Chiou-Miin Wang, Chun-Lin Lin, Nameer B Kirma, Michael A Liss, Addanki P Kumar, LuZhe Sun, Zhijie Liu, Wei-Ting Chao, Qianben Wang, Victor X Jin, Chun-Liang Chen, Tim H-M Huang
Increasing evidence suggests the presence of minor cell subpopulations in prostate cancer that are androgen independent and poised for selection as dominant clones after androgen-deprivation therapy. In this study, we investigated this phenomenon by stratifying cell subpopulations based on transcriptome profiling of 144 single LNCaP prostate cancer cells treated or untreated with androgen after cell cycle synchronization. Model-based clustering of 397 differentially expressed genes identified eight potential subpopulations of LNCaP cells, revealing a previously unappreciable level of cellular heterogeneity to androgen stimulation...
December 12, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233664/performance-of-a-prostate-cancer-genomic-classifier-in-predicting-metastasis-in-men-with-prostate-specific-antigen-persistence-postprostatectomy
#18
Daniel E Spratt, Darlene L Y Dai, Robert B Den, Patricia Troncoso, Kasra Yousefi, Ashley E Ross, Edward M Schaeffer, Zaid Haddad, Elai Davicioni, Rohit Mehra, Todd M Morgan, Walter Rayford, Firas Abdollah, Edouard Trabulsi, Mary Achim, Elsa Li Ning Tapia, Mireya Guerrero, Robert Jeffrey Karnes, Adam P Dicker, Mark A Hurwitz, Paul L Nguyen, Felix F Y Feng, Stephen J Freedland, John W Davis
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer patients who have a detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) postprostatectomy may harbor pre-existing metastatic disease. To our knowledge, none of the commercially available genomic biomarkers have been investigated in such men. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if a 22-gene genomic classifier can independently predict development of metastasis in men with PSA persistence postoperatively. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A multi-institutional study of 477 men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1990 and 2015 from three academic centers...
December 9, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230413/establishment-and-application-of-prostate-cancer-circulating-tumor-cells-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Yoon Seok Suh, Jae Young Joung, Sung Han Kim, Ho Kyung Seo, Jinsoo Chung, Kang Hyun Lee
Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cancer in men and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Additionally, there is concern for overdiagnosis and overtreatment of PC. Thus, selection of an appropriate candidate for active surveillance as well as more accurate and less invasive tools for monitoring advanced PC is required. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have emerged as a liquid biopsy tool; there have been several reports on its role, technologies, and applications to various cancers, including PC...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229666/prostate-cancer-disparities-by-race-and-ethnicity-from-nucleotide-to-neighborhood
#20
Timothy R Rebbeck
Prostate cancer (CaP) incidence, morbidity, and mortality rates vary substantially by race and ethnicity, with African American men experiencing among the highest CaP rates in the world. The causes of these disparities are multifactorial and complex, and likely involve differences in access to screening and treatment, exposure to CaP risk factors, variation in genomic susceptibility, and other biological factors. To date, the proportion of CaP that can be explained by environmental exposures is small and differences in the role factors play by race or ethnicity is poorly understood...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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