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Patern recognition receptors

Ashley Moffett, Olympe Chazara, Francesco Colucci
Immunological adjustments are needed to accommodate the close contact between two genetically different individuals, the mother and her baby, during mammalian pregnancy. Contact occurs between fetal somatic or placental cells that enter the maternal systemic circulation or between uterine immune cells and the invading extravillous trophoblast. Here we discuss two main types of maternal allo-recognition of the fetus. One depends on avoidance of maternal T cells recognizing and responding to paternally-derived non-self human leukocyte antigens class I and class I allotypes...
June 2017: Fertility and Sterility
Manal Tabbaa, Kelly Lei, Yan Liu, Zuoxin Wang
Early life experiences, particularly the experience with parents, are crucial to phenotypic outcomes in both humans and animals. Although the effects of maternal deprivation on offspring well-being have been studied, paternal deprivation (PD) has received little attention despite documented associations between father absence and children health problems in humans. In the present study, we utilized the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), which displays male-female pair bonding and bi-parental care, to examine the effects of PD on adult behaviors and neurochemical expression in the hippocampus...
February 20, 2017: Neuroscience
Pablo S C Santos, Alexandre Courtiol, Andrew J Heidel, Oliver P Höner, Ilja Heckmann, Martina Nagy, Frieder Mayer, Matthias Platzer, Christian C Voigt, Simone Sommer
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a pivotal role in vertebrate self/nonself recognition, parasite resistance and life history decisions. In evolutionary terms, the MHC's exceptional diversity is likely maintained by sexual and pathogen-driven selection. Even though MHC-dependent mating preferences have been confirmed for many species, the sensory and genetic mechanisms underlying mate recognition remain cryptic. Since olfaction is crucial for social communication in vertebrates, variation in chemosensory receptor genes could explain MHC-dependent mating patterns...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Brianna Pomeroy, Anja Sipka, Suzanne Klaessig, Ynte Schukken
During late gestation the bovine immune system is less capable of eliciting inflammatory responses and eliminating invading pathogens. The maternal immune system is directed toward tolerance in order to prevent fetal rejection due to recognition of paternal antigens. In humans and mice, dendritic cell (DC) populations maintain a tolerogenic phenotype essential in the generation and preservation of maternal immune tolerance throughout pregnancy. However, the primary mechanisms which facilitate maternal immune tolerance involved in bovine gestation remain poorly understood...
September 15, 2015: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can induce promiscuous neurobehavioral disturbances. Bisphenol A and phthalates are two widely prevalent and persistent EDCs reported to lead to such effects. Parental and social behaviors are especially vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these traits are programmed by the organizational-activational effects of testosterone and estrogen. Exposure to BPA and other EDCs disrupts normal maternal care provided by rodents and non-human primates, such as nursing, time she spends hunched over and in the nest, and grooming her pups...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yuanyuan Zhang, Chunfeng Yang, Shuai Fu, Xin Chen, Shining Zhang, Yiyang Li, Meirong Du, Jianping Zhang
The NOD2 gene, encoding intracellular paternal recognition receptor (PRR) also called caspase activation and recruitment domain 15 (CARD15), is mutated in Crohn's disease, an autoimmune-disorder. Unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) involved in complex auto-immune disorder. However, little is known about the expression of NOD2 protein at maternal-fetal interface with URSA patients. Our aim was to compare the expression levels of NOD2 in the decidual stromal cells (DSCs) from patients with normal pregnancy to those with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) during first trimester pregnancy...
2014: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Youn Jong Park, Haing Woon Baik, Hae Il Cheong, Ju Hyung Kang
Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) is a rare disorder caused by mutations of the arginine vasopressin (AVP) V2 receptor or aquaporin 2 (AQP2) genes. The current study presented the case of CNDI in a 1-month-old male with a novel mutation in the AQP2 gene. The patient was referred due to the occurrence of hypernatremia and mild-intermittent fever since birth. An AVP stimulation test was compatible with CNDI as there was no significant response to desmopressin. Molecular genetic analysis demonstrated two mutations in exon 1 of the AQP2 gene: C to T transition, which resulted in a missense mutation of (108)Thr (ACG) to Met (ATG); and a 127, 128 delCA, which resulted in a deletion mutation of glutamine in position 43 at codon CAG as the first affected amino acid, with the new reading frame endign in a termination codon at position 62...
July 2014: Biomedical Reports
Yan Cao, Ruiyong Wu, Fadao Tai, Xia Zhang, Peng Yu, Xiaolei An, Xufeng Qiao, Ping Hao
Paternal care is necessary for the healthy development of social behavior in monogamous rodents and social recognition underpins social behavior in these animals. The effects of paternal care on the development of social recognition and underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms, especially the involvement of oxytocin and estrogen pathways, remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of paternal deprivation (PD: father was removed from neonatal pups and mother alone raised the offspring) on social recognition in mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), a socially monogamous rodent...
January 2014: Hormones and Behavior
Huda Elshershari, Catharine Harris
We describe a case of neonatal Marfan syndrome diagnosed because of a family history, dysmorphic features, and cardiac abnormality. The echocardiogram showed aortic root dilatation. Molecular genetic studies showed a mutation in exon 31 of the FBN1 gene in the infant and father. The infant was treated with losartan, which significantly slowed the rate of enlargement of the aorta.
August 2014: Cardiology in the Young
Tamara Tilburgs, Jack L Strominger
During pregnancy CD8+ effector T cells need optimal immune regulation to prevent a detrimental response to allogeneic fetal cells while providing immune protection to infections. A significant proportion of (prospective) mothers carry naïve or memory CD8+ T cells with a TCR that can directly bind to paternal MHC molecules. In addition, a high percentage of pregnant women develop specific T cell responses to fetal minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags). Under normal conditions, fetal-maternal MHC and mHag mismatches lead to elevated lymphocyte activation but do not induce pregnancy failure...
April 2013: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Wen-Xing Ding, Xiao-Ming Yin
Abstract Mitochondria are essential organelles that regulate cellular energy homeostasis and cell death. The removal of damaged mitochondria through autophagy, a process called mitophagy, is thus critical for maintaining proper cellular functions. Indeed, mitophagy has been recently proposed to play critical roles in terminal differentiation of red blood cells, paternal mitochondrial degradation, neurodegenerative diseases, and ischemia or drug-induced tissue injury. Removal of damaged mitochondria through autophagy requires two steps: induction of general autophagy and priming of damaged mitochondria for selective autophagic recognition...
July 2012: Biological Chemistry
Atsuko Saito, Katsuki Nakamura
Oxytocin facilitates social recognition in rats and mice, onset of maternal behavior in virgin mice and formation of pair bonds without copulation in prairie voles. However, the relationship between this peptide and paternal behavior in primates remains largely unknown. We investigated whether oxytocin affects paternal behavior in common marmosets. In these primates, fathers as well as mothers take care of their infants, and transferring food to the infants is one of their more obvious caretaking behaviors...
April 2011: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Julia Szekeres-Bartho
Progesterone is crucial for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Progesterone-regulated genes in the pregnant uterus control the development of endometrial receptivity as well as recruitment and differentiation of decidual NK cells, which in turn act on angiogenesis and trophoblast invasion. The link between progesterone and the immune system is established by lymphocyte progesterone receptors expressed in peripheral blood gammadelta T cells of pregnant women and in peripheral NK cells. Regulation of lymphocyte progesterone receptors is activation related, thus efficient recognition of fetal antigens is a requirement for the initiation of progesterone-dependent immunoregulatory mechanisms...
September 2009: Immunotherapy
Margaret M McCarthy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2010: Nature Neuroscience
Anna Piesta, Tomasz Maj, Anna Chełmońska-Soyta
Macrophages are antigen-presenting cells that have a key role in the regulation of immune phenomena and are responsible for the recognition of paternal antigens during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) protein level in splenic and uterine mature (F4/80(+)MHC II(+)) and immature (F4/80(+)MHC II(-) ) macrophages in female mice during time corresponding to the preimplantation period. C57BL/6J females in estrus were mated with Balb/c male mice or were mechanically stimulated through the vagina to achieve pseudopregnancy...
November 2009: Reproductive Biology
Barry Keverne
Monoallelic gene expression has played a significant role in the evolution of mammals enabling the expansion of a vast repertoire of olfactory receptor types and providing increased sensitivity and diversity. Monoallelic expression of immune receptor genes has also increased diversity for antigen recognition, while the same mechanism that marks a single allele for preferential rearrangement also provides a distinguishing feature for directing hypermutations. Random monoallelic expression of the X chromosome is necessary to balance gene dosage across sexes...
December 2009: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
G J Hunt
Honey bee nest defense involves guard bees that specialize in olfaction-based nestmate recognition and alarm-pheromone-mediated recruitment of nestmates to sting. Stinging is influenced by visual, tactile and olfactory stimuli. Both quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and behavioral studies point to guarding behavior as a key factor in colony stinging response. Results of reciprocal F1 crosses show that paternally inherited genes have a greater influence on colony stinging response than maternally inherited genes...
May 2007: Journal of Insect Physiology
Timothy W Bredy, Richard E Brown, Michael J Meaney
Maternal care influences cognitive function in humans, primates and rodents; however, little is known about the effect of biparental care. Environmental factors such as resource availability play an important role in modulating parental investment strategies with subsequent effects on the offspring. Thus, we examined the interaction between foraging demand and biparental care on hippocampal development and novel object recognition in the monogamous, biparental California mouse. We characterized biparental behavior for 15 days in families exposed to either control (ad libitum feeding) or a high-foraging demand across the weaning period...
January 2007: European Journal of Neuroscience
Varuna R Aluvihare, Alexander G Betz
The diversification mechanism used by the adaptive immune system to maximize the recognition of foreign antigens has the side effect of generating autoreactivity. This effect is counteracted by deletion of cells expressing receptors with high affinity to self (central tolerance) and suppression of autoreactive cells by regulatory T cells (Tregs; peripheral tolerance). This understanding led to the notion that Tregs represent a specialized subset of autoreactive T cells with inhibitory function. The process of generating a diverse repertoire of receptors recognizing antigen presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) intrinsically leads to the generation of cells recognizing foreign MHC (alloantigen)...
August 2006: Immunological Reviews
Vikki M Abrahams, Irene Visintin, Paulomi B Aldo, Seth Guller, Roberto Romero, Gil Mor
Normal pregnancy is characterized by the presence of innate immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface. Originally, it was postulated that the presence of these leukocytes was due to an immune response toward paternal Ags expressed by the invading trophoblasts. Instead, we and others postulate that these innate immune cells are necessary for successful implantation and pregnancy. However, elevated leukocyte infiltration may be an underlying cause of pregnancy complications, such as preterm labor or preeclampsia...
December 15, 2005: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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