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Adaptive immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922374/fractional-laser-exposure-induces-neutrophil-infiltration-n1-phenotype-into-the-tumor-and-stimulates-systemic-anti-tumor-immune-response
#1
Masayoshi Kawakubo, Shadmehr Demehri, Dieter Manstein
BACKGROUND: Ablative fractional photothermolysis (aFP) using a CO2 laser generates multiple small diameter tissue lesions within the irradiation field. aFP is commonly used for a wide variety of dermatological indications, including treatment of photodamaged skin and dyschromia, drug delivery and modification of scars due to acne, surgical procedures and burns. In this study we explore the utility of aFP for treating oncological indications, including induction of local tumor regression and inducing anti-tumor immunity, which is in marked contrast to current indications of aFP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921467/mir-155-dysregulation-and-therapeutic-intervention-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Claire E McCoy
microRNAs play a fundamental role in the immune system. One particular microRNA, miR-155 plays a critical role in hematopoietic cell development and tightly regulates innate and adaptive immune responses in response to infection. However, its dysregulation, more specifically its overexpression, is closely associated with various inflammatory disorders. The purpose of this review is to consolidate how miR-155 underpins a variety of processes that contribute to the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). In particular, the impact of miR-155 is discussed with respect to human pathology and animal models...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919998/reciprocal-influence-of-b-cells-and-tumor-macro-and-microenvironments-in-the-apc-min-model-of-colorectal-cancer
#3
Francesca Mion, Stefania Vetrano, Silvia Tonon, Viviana Valeri, Andrea Piontini, Alessia Burocchi, Luciana Petti, Barbara Frossi, Alessandro Gulino, Claudio Tripodo, Mario P Colombo, Carlo E Pucillo
One of the most fascinating aspects of the immune system is its dynamism, meant as the ability to change and readapt according to the organism needs. Following an insult, we assist to the spontaneous organization of different immune cells which cooperate, locally and at distance, to build up an appropriate response. Throughout tumor progression, adaptations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion and metastasis to distal organs, but also to dramatic changes in the activity and composition of the immune system...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919894/potentiation-of-natural-killer-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy-a-review-of-literature
#4
REVIEW
Lacy E Lowry, William A Zehring
It is widely acknowledged that the human immune system plays a crucial role in preventing the formation and progression of innumerable types of cancer (1). The mechanisms by which this occurs are numerous, including contributions from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. As such, immunotherapy has long been believed to be an auspicious solution in the treatment of malignancy (2). Recent research has highlighted the promise of natural killer (NK) cells as a more directed immunotherapy approach. This paper will focus on the methods of potentiation of NK cells for their use in cancer therapy...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919635/aspergillus-fumigatus-morphology-and-dynamic-host-interactions
#5
REVIEW
Frank L van de Veerdonk, Mark S Gresnigt, Luigina Romani, Mihai G Netea, Jean-Paul Latgé
Aspergillus fumigatus is an environmental filamentous fungus that can cause life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. The interactions between A. fumigatus and the host environment are dynamic and complex. The host immune system needs to recognize the distinct morphological forms of A. fumigatus to control fungal growth and prevent tissue invasion, whereas the fungus requires nutrients and needs to adapt to the hostile environment by escaping immune recognition and counteracting host responses...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918137/reticulo-rumen-mass-epithelium-gene-expression-and-systemic-biomarkers-of-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-holstein-dairy-cows-fed-a-high-energy-diet
#6
J M Arroyo, A Hosseini, Z Zhou, A Alharthi, E Trevisi, J S Osorio, J J Loor
Feeding a higher-energy diet by increasing cereal grains at the expense of forage during the last 3 to 4 wk prepartum is a traditional approach to help the rumen "adapt" to the traditional diets fed at the onset of lactation. Increasing grain/concentrate in the diet changes ruminal fermentation and in sheep and goats elicits marked changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes in ruminal epithelium. Whether such changes at the epithelial and systemic levels occur in dairy cows when the dietary energy content increases at a fixed level of concentrate is unknown...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918114/netrins-semaphorins-novel-regulators-of-the-immune-response
#7
REVIEW
Jordyn Feinstein, Bhama Ramkhelawon
Netrins and semaphorins, members of the neuronal guidance cue family, exhibit a rich biology with significant roles that extend beyond chemotactic guidance of the axons to build the neuronal patterns of the body. Screening of adult tissues and specific cellular subsets have illuminated that these proteins are also abundantly expressed under both steady state and pathological scenarios. This observation suggests that, in addition to their role in the development of the axonal tree, these proteins possess additional novel functions in adult physiopathology...
September 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917247/the-optimism-surrounding-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-and-immunomodulation
#8
Hannah Tharmalingam, Peter J Hoskin
In recent years, rapidly evolving radiation techniques have enabled the precise delivery of very high doses of radiation to local targets with stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR). In addition to its direct cytotoxicity, radiation and in particular SABR has powerful immunomodulatory effects resulting in immunogenic cell death and potentiation of the anti-tumour immune response. However, due to the immunosuppressive nature of non-irradiated sites of metastases, radiotherapy alone is seldom sufficient to induce the systemic response required for distant tumour rejection...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915326/adaptive-immunity-and-metabolic-health-harmony-becomes-dissonant-in-obesity-and-aging
#9
Leena P Bharath, Blanche C Ip, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
Adipose tissue (AT) is the primary energy reservoir organ, and thereby plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and regulation of metabolism. AT expands in response to chronic overnutrition or aging and becomes a major source of inflammation that has marked influence on systemic metabolism. The chronic, sterile inflammation that occurs in the AT during the development of obesity or in aging contributes to onset of devastating diseases such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular pathologies. Numerous studies have shown that inflammation in the visceral AT of humans and animals is a critical trigger for the development of metabolic syndrome...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#10
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913366/the-differential-contribution-of-the-innate-immune-system-to-a-good-pathological-response-in-the-breast-and-axillary-lymph-nodes-induced-by-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-women-with-large-and-locally-advanced-breast-cancers
#11
Viriya Kaewkangsadan, Chandan Verma, Jennifer M Eremin, Gerard Cowley, Mohammad Ilyas, Sukchai Satthaporn, Oleg Eremin
The tumour microenvironment consists of malignant cells, stroma, and immune cells. The role of adaptive immunity in inducing a pathological complete response (pCR) in breast cancer with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is well studied. The contribution of innate immunity, however, is poorly documented. Breast tumours and axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) from 33 women with large and locally advanced breast cancers (LLABCs) undergoing NAC were immunohistochemically assessed for tumour-infiltrating macrophages (TIMs: M1 and M2), neutrophils (TINs), and dendritic cells (TIDCs) using labelled antibodies and semiquantitative methods...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912781/microrna-dynamic-regulators-of-macrophage-polarization-and-plasticity
#12
REVIEW
Jezrom Bokcaerin Self-Fordham, Afsar Raza Naqvi, Juhi Raju Uttamani, Varun Kulkarni, Salvador Nares
The ability of a healthy immune system to clear the plethora of antigens it encounters incessantly relies on the enormous plasticity displayed by the comprising cell types. Macrophages (MΦs) are crucial member of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) that constantly patrol the peripheral tissues and are actively recruited to the sites of injury and infection. In tissues, infiltrating monocytes replenish MΦ. Under the guidance of the local micro-milieu, MΦ can be activated to acquire specialized functional phenotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911805/delivery-strategies-of-the-crispr-cas9-gene-editing-system-for-therapeutic-applications
#13
REVIEW
Chang Liu, Li Zhang, Hao Liu, Kun Cheng
The CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system is a part of the adaptive immune system in archaea and bacteria to defend against invasive nucleic acids from phages and plasmids. The single guide RNA (sgRNA) of the system recognizes its target sequence in the genome, and the Cas9 nuclease of the system acts as a pair of scissors to cleave the double strands of DNA. Since its discovery, CRISPR-Cas9 has become the most robust platform for genome engineering in eukaryotic cells. Recently, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has triggered enormous interest in therapeutic applications...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911114/coupling-transcriptional-activation-of-crispr-cas-system-and-dna-repair-genes-by-csa3a-in-sulfolobus-islandicus
#14
Tao Liu, Zhenzhen Liu, Qing Ye, Saifu Pan, Xiaodi Wang, Yingjun Li, Wenfang Peng, Yunxiang Liang, Qunxin She, Nan Peng
CRISPR-Cas system provides the adaptive immunity against invading genetic elements in prokaryotes. Recently, we demonstrated that Csa3a regulator mediates spacer acquisition in Sulfolobus islandicus by activating the expression of Type I-A adaptation cas genes. However, links between the activation of spacer adaptation and CRISPR transcription/processing, and the requirement for DNA repair genes during spacer acquisition remained poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that de novo spacer acquisition required Csa1, Cas1, Cas2 and Cas4 proteins of the Sulfolobus Type I-A system...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904691/il-21-augments-rapamycin-in-expansion-of-alpha-fetoprotein-antigen-specific-stem-cell-like-memory-t-cells-in-vitro
#15
Victor Tunje Jeza, Xiaoyi Li, Jun Chen, Zhihui Liang, Adem Onago Aggrey, Xiongwen Wu
INTRODUCTION: Alloreactive tumor specific T cells are important arsenals of the adaptive immune system in the fight against tumors. However, stem cell-like memory T cells (Tscm) provide the key to effective elimination of tumor cells. Methods for generating these T cell subsets already exist. However, they could be made more efficient. Further, they are expensive and unattainable to the resource poor laboratories. In this regard, we are hereby describing a novel in vitro allogeneic co-culture method for raising allo-restricted tumor specific Tscm cells that we developed...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904123/unveiling-the-peptide-motifs-of-hla-c-and-hla-g-from-naturally-presented-peptides-and-generation-of-binding-prediction-matrices
#16
Moreno Di Marco, Heiko Schuster, Linus Backert, Michael Ghosh, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Stefan Stevanović
The classical HLA-C and the nonclassical HLA-E and HLA-G molecules play important roles both in the innate and adaptive immune system. Starting already during embryogenesis and continuing throughout our lives, these three Ags exert major functions in immune tolerance, defense against infections, and anticancer immune responses. Despite these important roles, identification and characterization of the peptides presented by these molecules has been lacking behind the more abundant HLA-A and HLA-B gene products...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903573/crispr-in-research-and-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#17
M M Simicek, K Growkova, R Hájek
In the recent years, there was a remarkable advance in research and clinical implementation of the genome editing technologies. The most remarkable was a discovery of the bacterial adaptive immune system called CRISPR and its rapid transformation into a robust and broadly applicable technology that completely revolutionized both basic and applied biomedical research. Implementation of CRISPR makes genome modification easier, faster and significantly cheaper compare to any other currently available technology...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903536/an-alternative-strategy-for-trypanosome-survival-in-the-mammalian-bloodstream-revealed-through-genome-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-ubiquitous-bovine-parasite-trypanosoma-megatrypanum-theileri
#18
Steven Kelly, Alasdair Ivens, G Adam Mott, Ellis O'Neill, David Emms, Olivia Macleod, Paul Voorheis, Kevin Tyler, Matthew Clark, Jacqueline Matthews, Keith Matthews, Mark Carrington
There are hundreds of Trypanosoma species that live in the blood and tissue spaces of their vertebrate hosts. The vast majority of these do not have the ornate system of antigenic variation that has evolved in the small number of African trypanosome species, but can still maintain long-term infections in the face of the vertebrate adaptive immune system. Trypanosoma theileri is a typical example, has a restricted host range of cattle and other Bovinae, and is only occasionally reported to cause patent disease although no systematic survey of the effect of infection on agricultural productivity has been performed...
August 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902417/genetic-variants-related-to-disease-susceptibility-and-immunotolerance-in-the-duffy-antigen-receptor-for-chemokines-darc-fy-gene-in-the-black-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-chrysopygus-primates
#19
Ashley Ansel, James D Lewis, Don J Melnick, Cristiana Martins, Claudio Valladares-Padua, Beatriz Perez-Sweeney
The DARC (Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines) gene encodes the DARC protein, which serves multiple roles in the immune system, as a binding site for the malarial parasites Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, a promiscuous chemokine receptor and a blood group antigen. Variation in DARC may play particularly significant roles in innate immunity, immunotolerance and pathogen entry in callitrichines, such as the black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus). We compared amino acid sequences of DARC in the black lion tamarin (BLT) to non-human Haplorhine primates and Homo sapiens...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900683/microrna-in-immune-regulation
#20
Cheng-Jang Wu, Li-Fan Lu
The immune system protects us from enormously diverse microbial pathogens but needs to be tightly regulated to avoid deleterious immune-mediated inflammation and tissue damage. A wide range of molecular determinants and cellular components work in concert to control the magnitude and duration of a given immune response. In the past decade, microRNAs (miRNAs), a major class of small non-coding RNA species, have been extensively studied as key molecular players in immune regulation. In this chapter, we will discuss how miRNAs function as negative regulators to restrict innate and adaptive immune responses...
September 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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