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Adaptive immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647908/cmv-immune-evasion-and-manipulation-of-the-immune-system-with-aging
#1
REVIEW
Sarah E Jackson, Anke Redeker, Ramon Arens, Debbie van Baarle, Sara P H van den Berg, Chris A Benedict, Luka Čičin-Šain, Ann B Hill, Mark R Wills
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes numerous proteins and microRNAs that function to evade the immune response and allow the virus to replicate and disseminate in the face of a competent innate and acquired immune system. The establishment of a latent infection by CMV, which if completely quiescent at the level of viral gene expression would represent an ultimate in immune evasion strategies, is not sufficient for lifelong persistence and dissemination of the virus. CMV needs to reactivate and replicate in a lytic cycle of infection in order to disseminate further, which occurs in the face of a fully primed secondary immune response...
June 24, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647779/transcriptome-profiling-and-digital-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-skin-of-dybowski-s-frog-rana-dybowskii-exposed-to-aeromonas-hydrophila
#2
Yi-Gang Xu, Long-Hui Chai, Wen Shi, Dan-Dan Wang, Jing-Yu Zhang, Xiang-Hong Xiao
Recently, populations of Rana dybowskii, an important amphibian species in Northeast China, have decreased, mainly owing to the disease caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. However, effective control methods have not yet been developed. In order to explore the immune responses of R. dybowskii upon exposure to A. hydrophila infection, Illumina high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) technology were employed to investigate transcriptomic changes in the skin of R. dybowskii exposed to A...
June 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647517/proteomics-to-study-macrophage-response-to-viral-infection
#3
Tuula A Nyman, Sampsa Matikainen
Viral infections are a major burden to human and animal health. Immune response against viruses consists of innate and adaptive immunity which are both critical for the eradication of the viral infection. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Proper innate immune response is required for the activation of adaptive, humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Macrophages are innate immune cells which have a central role in detecting viral infections including influenza A and human immunodeficiency viruses...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647398/immune-modulatory-effects-of-syncytiotrophoblast-extracellular-vesicles-in-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#4
Claudia Göhner, Torsten Plösch, Marijke M Faas
Unique immunologic adaptations exist to successfully establish and maintain pregnancy and to avoid an immune attack against the semi allogenic fetus. These adaptations occur both locally at the maternofetal interface and in the peripheral circulation and affect the innate as well as the adaptive immune system. Pregnancy is characterized by a general inflammatory state with activation of monocytes and granulocytes, but also with suppressive lymphocytes (regulatory T cells), and skewing towards T helper 2 immunity...
June 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647344/oncogene-expressing-senescent-melanocytes-upregulate-mhc-class-ii-a-candidate-melanoma-suppressor-function
#5
John van Tuyn, Farah Jaber-Hijazi, Douglas MacKenzie, John J Cole, Elizabeth Mann, Jeff S Pawlikowski, Taranjit Singh Rai, David M Nelson, Tony McBryan, Andre Ivanov, Karen Blyth, Hong Wu, Simon Milling, Peter D Adams
On acquisition of an oncogenic mutation, primary human and mouse cells can enter oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). OIS is characterized by a stable proliferation arrest and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Proliferation arrest and the SASP collaborate to enact tumor suppression, the former by blocking cell proliferation and the latter by recruiting immune cells to clear damaged cells. However, the interactions of OIS cells with the immune system are still poorly defined...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646853/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-a-salmonella-enteritidis-sptp-mutant-as-a-live-attenuated-vaccine-candidate
#6
Zhijie Lin, Peipei Tang, Yang Jiao, Xilong Kang, Qiuchun Li, Xiulong Xu, Jun Sun, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a highly adaptive pathogen in both humans and animals. As a Salmonella Type III secretion system (T3SS) effector, Salmonella protein tyrosine phosphatase (SptP) is critical for virulence in this genus. To investigate the feasibility of using C50336ΔsptP as a live attenuated oral vaccine in mice, we generated the sptP gene deletion mutant C50336ΔsptP in S. Enteritidis strain C50336 by λ-Red mediated recombination and evaluated the protective ability of the S...
June 24, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646675/conformational-regulation-of-crispr-associated-nucleases
#7
REVIEW
Ryan N Jackson, Paul Bg van Erp, Samuel H Sternberg, Blake Wiedenheft
Adaptive immune systems in bacteria and archaea rely on small CRISPR-derived RNAs (crRNAs) to guide specialized nucleases to foreign nucleic acids. The activation of these nucleases is controlled by a series of molecular checkpoints that ensure precise cleavage of nucleic acid targets, while minimizing toxic off-target cleavage events. In this review, we highlight recent advances in understanding regulatory mechanisms responsible for controlling the activation of these nucleases and identify emerging regulatory themes conserved across diverse CRISPR systems...
June 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646511/control-of-autoimmune-inflammation-using-liposomes-to-deliver-positive-allosteric-modulators-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors
#8
Joshua M Gammon, Arjun R Adapa, Christopher M Jewell
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease where myelin is incorrectly recognized as foreign and attacked by the adaptive immune system. Dendritic cells (DCs) direct adaptive immunity by presenting antigens to T cells, therefore serving as a target for autoimmune therapies. N-Phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxamide (PHCCC), a positive allosteric modulator of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4), can promote regulatory T cells by altering cytokine secretion to bias T cell differentiation...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645609/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-antimicrobial-protein-from-the-housefly-musca-domestica
#9
Guo Guo, Ruyu Tao, Yan Li, Huiling Ma, Jiangfan Xiu, Ping Fu, Jianwei Wu
Antimicrobial peptides/proteins are immune-related molecules that are widely distributed in bacteria, fungi, plants, invertebrates and higher animals. They have exhibited great potential to be developed into antimicrobial drugs. The housefly, Musca domestica, lives in a highly contaminated environment and has adapted a robust immune system against various pathogens. As an effort to search for new antimicrobial molecules in the housefly, we investigated the function of an uncharacterized gene firstly by confirming that its expression was induced by infection in M...
June 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645512/the-rna-seq-analysis-suggests-a-potential-multi-component-complement-system-in-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#10
Lingling Wang, Huan Zhang, Leilei Wang, Daoxiang Zhang, Zhao Lv, Zhaoqun Liu, Weilin Wang, Zhi Zhou, Limei Qiu, Hao Wang, Jun Li, Linsheng Song
The complement system is one of the major effector mechanisms of immune system, playing essential roles in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, the counterparts of vertebrate complement components were identified by screening the sequenced genome of Crassostrea gigas, resulting in the identification of 792 gene models containing complement-related domains. The transcriptome of haemocytes at 6, 12 and 24 h post lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation showed differential expression of 77 C1q domain containing proteins, 53 C-type lectins and 42 fibrinogen-related proteins...
June 20, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645300/bacterial-ghosts-as-adjuvants-mechanisms-and-potential
#11
REVIEW
Irshad A Hajam, Pervaiz A Dar, Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
Bacterial ghosts (BG) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. They contain many innate immunostimulatory agonists, and are potent activators of a broad range of cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Several considerable studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of BG as adjuvants as well as their ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine production by a range of immune and non-immune cell types. These proinflammatory cytokines trigger a generalized recruitment of T and B lymphocytes to lymph nodes that maximize the chances of encounter with their cognate antigen, and subsequent elicitation of potent immune responses...
June 24, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644872/helicobacter-pylori-gene-silencing-in-vivo-demonstrates-urease-is-essential-for-chronic-infection
#12
Aleksandra W Debowski, Senta M Walton, Eng-Guan Chua, Alfred Chin-Yen Tay, Tingting Liao, Binit Lamichhane, Robyn Himbeck, Keith A Stubbs, Barry J Marshall, Alma Fulurija, Mohammed Benghezal
Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic active gastritis that after many years of infection can develop into peptic ulceration or gastric adenocarcinoma. The bacterium is highly adapted to surviving in the gastric environment and a key adaptation is the virulence factor urease. Although widely postulated, the requirement of urease expression for persistent infection has not been elucidated experimentally as conventional urease knockout mutants are incapable of colonization. To overcome this constraint, conditional H...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643294/-saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-influences-the-gut-associated-immune-system
#13
Heike Stier, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The impact of the intestinal microbiome is increasing steadily with regard to the immune function und the defense against pathogens. The medicinal yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S. boulardii) has been used as probiotic for the prevention and treatment of infectious diarrhea since more than 50 years. Meta-analyses confirm the clinical efficacy of S. boulardii to treat diarrhea of various origins in children and adults. METHOD: This review article summarizes experimental studies on molecular and immunological mechanisms which explain the proven clinical efficacy of S...
June 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642842/the-tick-microbiome-why-non-pathogenic-microorganisms-matter-in-tick-biology-and-pathogen-transmission
#14
REVIEW
Sarah I Bonnet, Florian Binetruy, Angelica M Hernández-Jarguín, Olivier Duron
Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting humans and other animals worldwide. They do not only carry pathogens however, as a diverse group of commensal and symbiotic microorganisms are also present in ticks. Unlike pathogens, their biology and their effect on ticks remain largely unexplored, and are in fact often neglected. Nonetheless, they can confer multiple detrimental, neutral, or beneficial effects to their tick hosts, and can play various roles in fitness, nutritional adaptation, development, reproduction, defense against environmental stress, and immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641119/maternal-progesterone-levels-are-modulated-by-maternal-bmi-and-predict-birth-weight-sex-specifically-in-human-pregnancies
#15
Anke Diemert, Janina Goletzke, Claus Barkmann, Robert Jung, Kurt Hecher, Petra Arck
OBJECTIVE: Successful pregnancy outcome is the result of a tailored adaptation of the maternal endocrine and immune system throughout gestation. We aimed to investigate if maternal endocrine, anthropometric and life style factors assessed longitudinally throughout pregnancy allow prediction of birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: Data on maternal factors and obstetrical characteristics from 220 pregnancies from a German prospective pregnancy cohort were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression models...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639716/expression-of-the-autoantigen-trim33-tif1%C3%AE-in-skin-and-muscle-of-patients-with-dermatomyositis-is-upregulated-together-with-markers-of-cellular-stress
#16
B Scholtissek, S Ferring-Schmitt, J Maier, J Wenzel
Dermatomyositis (DM) is an autoimmune disorder associated with a dysregulation of immune homeostasis of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Earlier data suggested that these two arms of the immune system interconnect in DM. In the current study, we analysed the association of autoantigen expression [adaptive system components: Mi2, transcriptional intermediary factor (TIF)1γ, small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 activating enzyme subunit (SAE)1, melanoma differentiation-associated protein (MDA)5] with markers of cellular stress (innate system components: MxA, p53) in skin and muscle (immunohistology and gene expression data, respectively)...
June 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638743/type-i-interferons-in-infection-and-cancer-unanticipated-dynamics-with-therapeutic-implications
#17
REVIEW
Martina Musella, Gwenola Manic, Ruggero De Maria, Ilio Vitale, Antonella Sistigu
If there is a great new hope in the treatment of cancer, the immune system is it. Innate and adaptive immunity either promote or attenuate tumorigenesis and so can have opposing effects on the therapeutic outcome. Originally described as potent antivirals, Type-I interferons (IFNs) were quickly recognized as central coordinators of tumor-immune system interactions. Type-I-IFNs are produced by, and act on, both tumor and immune cells being either host-protecting or tumor-promoting. Here, we discuss Type-I-IFNs in infectious and cancer diseases highlighting their dichotomous role and raising the importance to deeply understand the underlying mechanisms so to reshape the way we can exploit Type-I-IFNs therapeutically...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637803/protein-malnutrition-alters-tryptophan-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-homeostasis-and-adaptive-immune-responses-in-human-rotavirus-infected-gnotobiotic-pigs-transplanted-with-human-infant-fecal-microbiota
#18
David D Fischer, Sukumar Kandasamy, Francine C Paim, Stephanie N Langel, Moyasar A Alhamo, Lulu Shao, Juliet Chepngeno, Ayako Miyazaki, Huang-Chi Huang, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif, Anastasia N Vlasova
Malnutrition leads to increased morbidity and is evident in almost half of all deaths in children under the age of five. Mortality due to rotavirus diarrhea is common in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent; however, the relationship between malnutrition and rotavirus infection remains unclear. In this study, gnotobiotic pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant were fed protein-sufficient or -deficient diets with infected with virulent human rotavirus. After human rotavirus infection, protein deficient pigs had decreased human rotavirus antibody titers and total IgA concentrations, systemic T helper (CD3+CD4+) and cytotoxic T (CD3+CD8+) lymphocyte frequencies and serum tryptophan and angiotensin I converting enzyme 2...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637489/synaptoimmunology-roles-in-health-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Robert Nisticò, Eric Salter, Celine Nicolas, Marco Feligioni, Dalila Mango, Zuner A Bortolotto, Pierre Gressens, Graham L Collingridge, Stephane Peineau
Mounting evidence suggests that the nervous and immune systems are intricately linked. Many proteins first identified in the immune system have since been detected at synapses, playing different roles in normal and pathological situations. In addition, novel immunological functions are emerging for proteins typically expressed at synapses. Under normal conditions, release of inflammatory mediators generally represents an adaptive and regulated response of the brain to immune signals. On the other hand, when immune challenge becomes prolonged and/or uncontrolled, the consequent inflammatory response leads to maladaptive synaptic plasticity and brain disorders...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636960/mechanisms-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-neuro-immune-communication
#20
REVIEW
Sangeeta S Chavan, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey
Active research at the frontiers of immunology and neuroscience has identified multiple points of interaction and communication between the immune system and the nervous system. Immune cell activation stimulates neuronal circuits that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. Molecular mechanistic insights into the inflammatory reflex and other neuro-immune interactions have greatly advanced our understanding of immunity and identified new therapeutic possibilities in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent successful clinical trials using bioelectronic devices that modulate the inflammatory reflex to significantly ameliorate rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease provide a path for using electrons as a therapeutic modality for targeting molecular mechanisms of immunity...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
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