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Adaptive immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102702/immunomodulating-peptides-for-food-allergy-prevention-and-treatment
#1
Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo, Rosina López-Fandiño
Among the most promising strategies currently assayed against IgE-mediated allergic diseases stands the possibility of using immunomodulating peptides to induce oral tolerance towards offending food allergens or even to prevent allergic sensitization. This review focuses on the beneficial effects of food derived immunomodulating peptides on food allergy, which can be directly exerted in the intestinal tract or once being absorbed through the intestinal epithelial barrier to interact with immune cells. Food peptides influence intestinal homeostasis by maintaining and reinforcing barrier function or affecting intestinal cell-signalling to nearby immune cells and mucus secretion...
January 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102569/human-%C3%AE-defensin-3-increases-the-tlr9-dependent-response-to-bacterial-dna
#2
Sarah L McGlasson, Fiona Semple, Heather MacPherson, Mohini Gray, Donald J Davidson, Julia R Dorin
Human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide with potent bactericidal activity in vitro. HBD3 is produced in response to pathogen challenge and can modulate immune responses. The amplified recognition of self-DNA by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells has been previously reported, but we show here that hBD3 preferentially enhances the response to bacterial DNA in mouse Flt-3 induced dendritic cells (FLDCs) and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We show the effect is mediated through TLR9 and although hBD3 significantly increases the cellular uptake of both E...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102054/extracellular-vesicles-a-key-mediator-to-link-environmental-microbiota-to-airway-immunity
#3
REVIEW
Youngwoo Choi, Hanki Park, Hae Sim Park, Yoon Keun Kim
Asthma is considered the hallmark of chronic airway inflammation, in which several inflammatory cells of the innate and adaptive immune system act together. The disease is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors; however, precise mechanisms for airway inflammation remain unclear. The human microbiota provides an increasingly favored explanation for inflammatory diseases; an altered microbiota composition has been shown to regulate immune responses. However, given the complexity of the microbiota, additional research is needed to elucidate its role in the development of disease...
March 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099084/mechanisms-and-new-strategies-for-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#4
Clio P Mavragani
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a common chronic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of exocrine glands, mainly salivary and lacrimal, resulting in oral and ocular dryness, although virtually any organ system can be affected. SS-related systemic manifestations are classified as either related to the presence of periepithelial infiltrates in exocrine and parenchymal organs or resulting from immunocomplex deposition due to B cell hyperactivity with increased risk for B cell lymphoma development...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098786/retinoic-acid-and-its-role-in-modulating-intestinal-innate-immunity
#5
REVIEW
Paulo Czarnewski, Srustidhar Das, Sara M Parigi, Eduardo J Villablanca
Vitamin A (VA) is amongst the most well characterized food-derived nutrients with diverse immune modulatory roles. Deficiency in dietary VA has not only been associated with immune dysfunctions in the gut, but also with several systemic immune disorders. In particular, VA metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has been shown to be crucial in inducing gut tropism in lymphocytes and modulating T helper differentiation. In addition to the widely recognized role in adaptive immunity, increasing evidence identifies atRA as an important modulator of innate immune cells, such as tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs)...
January 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097204/genomics-implicates-adaptive-and-innate-immunity-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#6
Sarah A Gagliano, Jennie G Pouget, John Hardy, Jo Knight, Michael R Barnes, Mina Ryten, Michael E Weale
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the current genetic evidence for the involvement of various cell types and tissue types in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases, especially in relation to the neuroinflammatory hypothesis of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We obtained large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics from Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We used multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, as a positive control...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096541/the-mucosal-immune-system-master-regulator-of-bidirectional-gut-brain-communications
#7
REVIEW
Nick Powell, Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
Communication between the brain and gut is not one-way, but a bidirectional highway whereby reciprocal signals between the two organ systems are exchanged to coordinate function. The messengers of this complex dialogue include neural, metabolic, endocrine and immune mediators responsive to diverse environmental cues, including nutrients and components of the intestinal microbiota (microbiota-gut-brain axis). We are now starting to understand how perturbation of these systems affects transition between health and disease...
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096329/tissue-dual-rna-seq-allows-fast-discovery-of-infection-specific-functions-and-riboregulators-shaping-host-pathogen-transcriptomes
#8
Aaron M Nuss, Michael Beckstette, Maria Pimenova, Carina Schmühl, Wiebke Opitz, Fabio Pisano, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Petra Dersch
Pathogenic bacteria need to rapidly adjust their virulence and fitness program to prevent eradication by the host. So far, underlying adaptation processes that drive pathogenesis have mostly been studied in vitro, neglecting the true complexity of host-induced stimuli acting on the invading pathogen. In this study, we developed an unbiased experimental approach that allows simultaneous monitoring of genome-wide infection-linked transcriptional alterations of the host and colonizing extracellular pathogens. Using this tool for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-infected lymphatic tissues, we revealed numerous alterations of host transcripts associated with inflammatory and acute-phase responses, coagulative activities, and transition metal ion sequestration, highlighting that the immune response is dominated by infiltrating neutrophils and elicits a mixed TH17/TH1 response...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096261/tuning-collective-cell-migration-by-cell-cell-junction-regulation
#9
Peter Friedl, Roberto Mayor
Collective cell migration critically depends on cell-cell interactions coupled to a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Important cell-cell adhesion receptor systems implicated in controlling collective movements include cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily members (L1CAM, NCAM, ALCAM), Ephrin/Eph receptors, Slit/Robo, connexins and integrins, and an adaptive array of intracellular adapter and signaling proteins. Depending on molecular composition and signaling context, cell-cell junctions adapt their shape and stability, and this gradual junction plasticity enables different types of collective cell movements such as epithelial sheet and cluster migration, branching morphogenesis and sprouting, collective network migration, as well as coordinated individual-cell migration and streaming...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096240/coevolution-of-leukemia-and-host-immune-cells-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#10
Noelia Purroy, C J Wu
Cumulative studies on the dissection of changes in driver genetic lesions in cancer across the course of the disease have provided powerful insights into the adaptive mechanisms of tumors in response to the selective pressures of therapy and environmental changes. In particular, the advent of next-generation-sequencing (NGS)-based technologies and its implementation for the large-scale comprehensive analyses of cancers have greatly advanced our understanding of cancer as a complex dynamic system wherein genetically distinct subclones interact and compete during tumor evolution...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095652/exosomal-trafficking-in-xenopus-development
#11
REVIEW
Michael Danilchik, Tess Tumarkin
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by many cell types in both normal and pathogenic circumstances. Because EVs, particularly exosomes, are known to transfer biologically active proteins, RNAs and lipids between cells, they have recently become the focus of intense interest as potential mediators of cell-cell communication, particularly in long-range and juxtacrine signaling events associated with adaptive immune function and progression of cancer. Among the EVs, exosomes appear particularly adapted for long-range delivery of cargoes between cells...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095348/immune-transcriptome-reveals-the-mincle-c-type-lectin-receptor-acts-as-a-partial-replacement-for-tlr4-in-lipopolysaccharide-mediated-inflammatory-response-in-barramundi-lates-calcarifer
#12
Emmanuelle Zoccola, Stuart Kellie, Andrew C Barnes
Fish represent the most diverse and abundant extant vertebrate infraclass. They are also one of the earliest divergent phyla with adaptive immunity based on antigen recognition by MHC and immunoglobulin. The aquaculture industry, which currently provides more than half of the fish for human consumption globally, has successfully exploited the adaptive immune system of fish through mass vaccination programs. However, vaccination against highly diverse antigens, mostly carbohydrates, such as capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is challenging...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094582/effects-of-arsenic-on-porcine-dendritic-cells-in-vitro
#13
Jalil Mehrzad, Mohamad Hosein Mahmudy Gharaie, Masumeh Taheri
Exposure to arsenic (As) is an ongoing, and in some places increasing, health problem. Still, however, the effects of As exposure on the immune system are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DC) are a critical immune cell that bridges the innate and adaptive immune systems. To determine the impact of inorganic (i)As exposure on DC, the effects of (geo)anthropogenically relevant levels of NaAsO2 on the function of porcine monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) were evaluated in an in vitro model. The results showed a low dose of iAs reduced the phagocytic capacity of MoDC...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093554/tumour-necrosis-factor-mediated-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-in-behavioural-models-testing-a-role-in-maternal-immune-activation
#14
Sarah C Konefal, David Stellwagen
The proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) has long been characterized for its role in the innate immune system, but more recently has been found to have a distinct role in the nervous system that does not overlap with other proinflammatory cytokines. Through regulation of neuronal glutamate and GABA receptor trafficking, TNF mediates a homeostatic form of synaptic plasticity, but plays no direct role in Hebbian forms of plasticity. As yet, there is no evidence to suggest that this adaptive plasticity plays a significant role in normal development, but it does maintain neuronal circuit function in the face of several types of disruption...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093357/are-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-systems-setting-hypertension-on-fire
#15
REVIEW
Gisele F Bomfim, Fernanda Luciano Rodrigues, Fernando S Carneiro
Hypertension is the most common chronic cardiovascular disease and is associated with several pathological states, being an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Low-grade inflammation plays a key role in hypertension and the innate and adaptive immune systems seem to contribute to hypertension development and maintenance. Hypertension is associated with vascular inflammation, increased vascular cytokines levels and infiltration of immune cells in the vasculature, kidneys and heart. However, the mechanisms that trigger inflammation and immune system activation in hypertension are completely unknown...
January 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093320/activation-and-pathogenic-manipulation-of-the-sensors-of-the-innate-immune-system
#16
REVIEW
Charlotte Odendall, Jonathan C Kagan
The innate immune system detects the presence of microbes through different families of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs detect pathogens of all origins and trigger signaling events that activate innate and adaptive immunity. These signaling pathways are initiated by the recruitment of adaptor proteins and enzymes to the site of ligand encounter, in large complexes termed supramolecular organizing centers (SMOCs). These events need to be tightly regulated in order to ensure optimal activation when required, and minimal signaling in the absence of microbial encounters...
January 13, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092660/the-role-of-peripheral-immune-cells-in-the-cns-in-steady-state-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Marco Prinz, Josef Priller
The CNS is protected by the immune system, including cells that reside directly within the CNS and help to ensure proper neural function, as well as cells that traffic into the CNS with disease. The CNS-resident immune system is comprised mainly of innate immune cells and operates under homeostatic conditions. These myeloid cells in the CNS parenchyma and at CNS-periphery interfaces are highly specialized but also extremely plastic cells that immediately react to any changes in CNS homeostasis and become reactive in the context of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092606/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-the-nlr-family-card-containing-five-transcripts-in-the-pig
#18
Q Y Yang, T Chen, Y B Chen, D L Lan
The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family caspase recruitment domain-containing 5 (NLRC5) is one of the newly discovered and largest NLR family members. The NLRC5 has recently received extensive attention because of its important role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. The NLRC5 in many vertebrates, such as humans, mice, cattle, and horses, has already been proven and studied. However, the NLRC5 gene characteristics of pigs remain unclear. Thus, we completely cloned the NLRC5 cDNA sequence of the pig using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends(RACE) technology...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090081/metabolic-reprogramming-and-tolerance-during-sepsis-induced-aki
#19
REVIEW
Hernando Gómez, John A Kellum, Claudio Ronco
The host defence against infection is an adaptive response in which several mechanisms are deployed to decrease the pathogen load, limit tissue injury and restore homeostasis. In the past few years new evidence has suggested that the ability of the immune system to limit the microbial burden - termed resistance - might not be the only defence mechanism. In fact, the capacity of the host to decrease its own susceptibility to inflammation- induced tissue damage - termed tolerance - might be as important as resistance in determining the outcome of the infection...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088985/lymphocyte-generation-and-population-homeostasis-throughout-life
#20
REVIEW
Rolando E Yanes, Claire E Gustafson, Cornelia M Weyand, Jörg J Goronzy
Immune aging is a multi-faceted process that manifests as reduced competence to fight infections and malignant cells, as well as diminished tissue repair, unprovoked inflammation, and increased autoreactivity. The aging adaptive immune system, with its high complexity in functional cell subpopulations and diversity of B- and T-cell receptors, has to cope with the challenge of maintaining homeostasis while responding to exogenous stimuli and compensating for reduced generative capacity. With thymic involution, naïve T cells begin to function as quasi-stem cells and maintain the compartment through peripheral homeostatic proliferation that shapes the T-cell repertoire through peripheral selection and the activation of differentiation pathways...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
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