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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627054/effect-of-moringa-oleifera-leaf-powder-supplementation-on-growth-performance-and-intestinal-morphology-in-broiler-chickens
#1
I Khan, H Zaneb, S Masood, M S Yousaf, H F Rehman, H Rehman
Due to public health hazards of subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in poultry feed, there is a need for alternatives. Moringa oleifera is a phytobiotic, which is reported to possess antimicrobial and immuno-modulatory properties. This study aimed to investigate effects of M. oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) supplementation on growth performance and intestinal microarchitecture of broiler chickens. Day-old broiler chicks (n = 100) were randomly divided into five groups with four replicates each having five birds...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595109/effects-of-nonglycosylated-and-glycosylated-prolactin-on-basal-and-gonadotropin-stimulated-steroidogenesis-in-chicken-ovarian-follicles
#2
S Q Hu, D Zadworny
In galliformes, the circulating isoform of prolactin (PRL) significantly changes during different reproductive states. However, the role of the major isoform (glycosylated PRL [G-PRL]) in ovarian steroidogenesis is unknown. The present study aimed to compare the effects of nonglycosylated (NG-) and G-PRL on basal and gonadotropin-stimulated estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) production in granulosa cells or follicular walls of chicken of different size class follicles. In the initial experiment, granulosa cells of preovulatory F3-F1 and prehierarchical 6- to 8-mm follicles were incubated for 24 h with different concentrations of NG- or G-PRL (0, 1, 10, 100, or 1,000 ng/mL)...
May 10, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532517/expression-of-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-in-hen-ovary
#3
Pengfei Li, Xuejing Yu, Jianshan Xie, Xiaolei Yao, Wenzhong Liu, Jianbo Yao, Zhiwei Zhu, Lihua Lyu
BACKGROUND: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), discovered initially by via differential display RT-PCR analysis of brains of rats administered cocaine, is expressed mainly in central nervous system or neuronal origin cells, and is involved in a wide range of behaviors, such as regulation of food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction. The hens egg-laying rate mainly depends on the developmental status of follicles, expression of CART have not been identified from hen follicles, the regulatory mechanisms of CART biological activities are still unknown...
May 22, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512792/expression-of-aquaporin-4-in-the-chicken-ovary-in-relation-to-follicle-development
#4
M Nowak, M Grzesiak, N Saito, M Kwaśniewska, A Sechman, A Hrabia
In the mammalian ovary, aquaporins (AQPs) are thought to be involved in the regulation of fluid transport within the follicular wall and antrum formation. Data concerning the AQPs in the avian ovary is very limited. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine whether the AQP4 is present in the chicken ovary, and if so, what is its distribution in the ovarian compartment of the laying hen. Localization of AQP4 in the ovarian follicles at different stage of development was also investigated. After decapitation of hens the stroma with primordial follicles and white (1-4 mm), yellowish (4-8 mm), small yellow and the three largest yellow pre-ovulatory follicles F3-F1 (F3 < F2 < F1; 20-36 mm) were isolated from the ovary...
May 16, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355309/the-differential-expression-of-mc1r-regulators-in-dorsal-and-ventral-quail-plumages-during-embryogenesis-implications-for-plumage-pattern-formation
#5
Thanh-Lan Gluckman, Nicholas I Mundy
Melanin pigmentation patterns are ubiquitous in animals and function in crypsis, physical protection, thermoregulation and signalling. In vertebrates, pigmentation patterns formed over large body regions as well as within appendages (hair/feathers) may be due to the differential distribution of pigment producing cells (melanocytes) and/or regulation of the melanin synthesis pathway. We took advantage of the pigmentation patterns of Japanese quail embryos (pale ventrum and patterned feathers dorsally) to explore the role of genes and their transcripts in regulating the function of the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) via 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347743/transcription-of-cyp19a1-is-directly-regulated-by-sf-1-in-the-theca-cells-of-ovary-follicles-in-chicken
#6
Jing Wang, Yanzhang Gong
Many studies have suggested the important role of estrogen in ovarian differentiation and development of vertebrates including chicken. Cytochrome P450 aromatase, encoded by CYP19A1, is a key enzyme in estrogen synthesis, but the mechanism of CYP19A1 regulation in chicken remains unknown. Here, we found that CYP19A1 was only expressed in the theca cell layers of chicken ovary follicles. Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1, also named as nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 1, NR5A1), a potential regulators, was expressed in both the theca cell layers and granulosa cell layers...
June 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328180/effect-of-estrogen-on-chick-primordial-follicle-development-and-activation
#7
Dan Zhao, Caifeng Lv, Guang Liu, Yuling Mi, Caiqiao Zhang
Steroid hormones and their receptors play pivotal roles in avian reproduction and development. 17β-estradiol (E2 ) is an essential mediator in ovarian development. In this study, Day 3 (D3) chicks were injected with E2 (0.025, 0.25 or 2.5 mg/kg body weight) for 4 days to assess the effects of estrogen on avian follicle development. Morphological analysis showed that treatment of E2 at 2.5 mg/kg increased the number of growing follicles by 28. 5% and activated follicles by 8.9%, compared with the group...
March 22, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301236/coinfection-of-avibacterium-paragallinarum-and-gallibacterium-anatis-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens-complicates-clinical-signs-of-infectious-coryza-which-can-be-prevented-by-vaccination
#8
Surya Paudel, Michael Hess, Claudia Hess
Avibacterium paragallinarum and Gallibacterium anatis are recognized bacterial pathogens both infecting the respiratory tract of chickens. The present study investigated outcomes of their coinfection by elucidating clinical signs, pathologic lesions, and bacteriologic findings. Additionally, the efficacy of a commercially available vaccine to prevent diseases caused by A. paragallinarum and G. anatis was evaluated. Birds inoculated with G. anatis alone did not present any clinical signs and gross pathologic lesions in the respiratory tract...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231696/performance-differences-of-rhode-island-red-bashang-long-tail-chicken-and-their-reciprocal-crossbreds-under-natural-cold-stress
#9
Shanshan Xie, Xukai Yang, Yahui Gao, Wenjie Jiao, Xinghua Li, Yajie Li, Zhonghua Ning
Objective: The Bashang Long-tail chicken (BS), an indigenous Chinese breed, is considered cold tolerant. We selected BS, the Rhode Island Red (RIR), and their reciprocal crossbreds for the present study. The objectives were: 1) to validate whether BS is cold tolerant and whether egg production and cold tolerance of crossbreds could be improved; and 2) to determine the physiological characteristics that underlie cold tolerance and favorable egg production performance in cold environments...
February 23, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203567/identification-of-three-novel-splicing-variants-and-expression-analysis-of-chicken-gpr1-gene
#10
Xueyou Zhang, Qihai Xiao, Kai Tian, Yan Wang, Xiaoling Zhao, Huadong Yin, Diyan Li, Qing Zhu
GPR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays critical roles in eukaryotic cells: typically, response to glucose stimulation, lipid accumulation, and transmitting nutrition signals to cAMP pathway. However, the alternative splicing of the GPR1 gene and its expression pattern in chicken tissues and ovarian follicles were unknown. In our current study, we used RACE-PCR to identify three GPR1 variants, including the full-length variant (GPR1-va1) and two alternatively spliced variants (GPR1-va2, GPR1-vb). Quantitative real-time PCR examined the expression pattern of GPR1 mRNA in chicken tissues and ovarian follicles...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107515/regulatory-mechanisms-underlying-the-expression-of-prolactin-receptor-in-chicken-granulosa-cells
#11
Shenqiang Hu, Raj Duggavathi, David Zadworny
Prolactin (PRL) has both pro- and anti-gonadal roles in the regulation of avian ovarian functions through its interaction with the receptor (PRLR). However, neither the pattern of expression of PRLR nor its regulatory mechanisms during follicle development have been clearly defined. The objective of the present study was to investigate mechanisms of PRLR expression in chicken granulosa cells. Levels of PRLR transcript were highest in the stroma and walls of follicles < 2 mm in diameter and progressively declined with the maturation of follicles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076754/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-potential-roles-of-foxl2-in-chicken-pre-hierarchical-and-pre-ovulatory-granulosa-cells
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jing Wang, Chengcheng Zhao, Jinqiu Li, Yanping Feng, Yanzhang Gong
Forkheadbox L2 (FOXL2) is a transcription factor involved in mammalian ovarian development, especially in granulosa cell differentiation. However, this factor's function in mature chicken ovary is unclear. To explore the function of FOXL2 in chicken granulosa cells, we performed RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of pre-hierarchical (phGCs) and pre-ovulatory granulosa cells (poGCs) by FOXL2 overexpression. We observed that focal adhesion might be one of the key pathways activated during the differentiation of granulosa cells, and FOXL2 might be involved in follicle selection by regulating the expression of cytokines and the concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)...
March 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975190/investigation-of-marek-s-disease-virus-from-chickens-in-central-ethiopia
#13
Berhan Demeke, Shiferaw Jenberie, Biruk Tesfaye, Gelagay Ayelet, Martha Yami, Charles Euloge Lamien, Esayas Gelaye
Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative and neuropathic disease of domestic chickens and less commonly, turkeys and quails, caused by a highly contagious, cell-associated, oncogenic herpesvirus. In Ethiopia, MD is believed to be introduced with importation of exotic and crossbred to improve the poultry production and has been reported to be a potential threat to the poultry sector both in backyard and commercial farming systems. This study was aimed at isolation and molecular analysis of MD virus isolates circulating in chicken population in the central part of Ethiopia where commercial farms are populated...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936131/immunolocalization-of-a-histidine-rich-epidermal-differentiation-protein-in-the-chicken-supports-the-hypothesis-of-an-evolutionary-developmental-link-between-the-embryonic-subperiderm-and-feather-barbs-and-barbules
#14
Lorenzo Alibardi, Karin Brigit Holthaus, Supawadee Sukseree, Marcela Hermann, Erwin Tschachler, Leopold Eckhart
The morphogenesis of feathers is a complex process that depends on a tight spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression and assembly of the protein components of mature feathers. Recent comparative genomics and gene transcription studies have indicated that genes within the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) encode numerous structural proteins of cornifying skin cells in amniotes including birds. Here, we determined the localization of one of these proteins, termed EDMTFH (Epidermal Differentiation Protein starting with a MTF motif and rich in Histidine), which belongs to a group of EDC-encoded proteins rich in aromatic amino acid residues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832956/effects-of-pcb-126-and-pcb-153-on-secretion-of-steroid-hormones-and-mrna-expression-of-steroidogenic-genes-star-hsd3b-cyp19a1-and-estrogen-receptors-er%C3%AE-er%C3%AE-in-prehierarchical-chicken-ovarian-follicles
#15
Andrzej Sechman, Marta Batoryna, Piotr A Antos, Anna Hrabia
The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of dioxin-like PCB 126 and non-dioxin-like PCB 153 on basal and ovine LH (oLH)-stimulated testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) secretion and expression of steroidogenic genes (STAR, HSD3B and CYP19A1) and estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) in white (WF) and yellowish (YF) prehierarchical follicles of the hen ovary. Steroid concentrations in a medium and gene expression in follicles following 6h of exposition were determined by RIA and real-time qPCR, respectively...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815160/expression-and-regulation-of-prolactin-like-protein-messenger-rna-in-undifferentiated-chicken-granulosa-cells
#16
Shenqiang Hu, Raj Duggavathi, David Zadworny
Prolactin-like protein (PRL-L; LOC417800) is a homolog of PRL in non-mammalian vertebrates and can act as a functional ligand of PRL receptor (PRLR). Despite its widespread expression in extrapituitary tissues, mechanisms of regulation of PRL-L in the chicken ovary remain unknown. In this study, we first examined PRL-L expression in chicken ovarian developing follicles. PRL-L transcript levels were highest (P<0.05) in follicular walls of <2mm follicles and progressively declined during follicle maturation...
January 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781291/expressed-microrna-associated-with-high-rate-of-egg-production-in-chicken-ovarian-follicles
#17
N Wu, U Gaur, Q Zhu, B Chen, Z Xu, X Zhao, M Yang, D Li
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a highly conserved class of small noncoding RNA about 19-24 nucleotides in length that function in a specific manner to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in organisms. Tissue miRNA expression studies have discovered a myriad of functions for miRNAs in various aspects, but a role for miRNAs in chicken ovarian tissue at 300 days of age has not hitherto been reported. In this study, we performed the first miRNA analysis of ovarian tissues in chickens with low and high rates of egg production using high-throughput sequencing...
April 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744051/stephanoprora-chasanensis-n-sp-digenea-echinochasmidae-morphology-life-cycle-and-molecular-data
#18
Vladimir V Besprozvannykh, Konstantin V Rozhkovan, Alexey V Ermolenko
Echinostomatoidea is a large, globally distributed and heterogeneous group of hermaphroditic digeneans that parasite, as adults, vertebrate hosts of all classes. Species of this group have received attention from researchers as they can cause diseases in wildlife and humans. Here we describe the biological and molecular phylogenetic characteristics of Stephanoprora chasanensis n. sp. (Digenea: Echinochasmidae). The life cycle of this fluke was experimentally completed by the use of hosts, i.e. Stenothyra recondite Lindholm, 1929 snail (the 1st intermediate), Rhynchocypris percnurus mantschuricus (Berg, 1907) freshwater fish (the 2nd intermediate) and Gallus gallus chicken (the definitive host)...
February 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692091/marek-s-disease-virus-immunosuppression-alters-host-cellular-responses-and-immune-gene-expression-in-the-skin-of-infected-chickens
#19
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Phillip Delekta, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. The latently infected CD4(+) T cells carry the virus to visceral organs, peripheral nerves, and feather follicle epithelium (FFE). FFE is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virus particles are produced and disseminated into the environment...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610735/concurrent-fowlpox-and-candidiasis-diseases-in-backyard-chickens-with-unusual-pox-lesions-in-the-bursa-of-fabricius
#20
Fusae Ogasawara, Yu Yamamoto, Yasuo Sato, Kazuhiro Fukunari, Ken-Ichi Murata, Gakuji Yaegashi, Makiko Goto, Ryukoh Murakami
Concurrent fowlpox and candidiasis diseases occurred in a backyard chicken flock. Four deceased chickens (one Nagoya breed and three white silkie chickens) were examined for diagnosis. At necropsy, white curd-like plaques were observed in the crop. Fungal elements that stained positive for Candida albicans with immunohistochemistry were distributed throughout the tongue, choanal mucosa, esophagus, and crop. Typical fowlpox lesions, composed of proliferating epithelial cells with ballooning degeneration and viral intracytoplasmic inclusions, were observed in the conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and skin around the cloaca...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
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