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Suresh Kumar Yadav, Sudhir Singh, Shalini Gupta, Madan Lal Brahma Bhatt, Durga P Mishra, D Roy, Somali Sanyal
Background: Genetic variations in nucleotide excision repair genes can alter the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN). Materials and Methods: The present study has genotyped 334 subjects from North Indian population for xeroderma pigmentosum complementation Group C (XPC) rs2228001A>C, XPC rs77907221 polyadenylate (PAT) deletion/insertion (D/I), xeroderma pigmentosum complementation Group D - rs13181A>C, and xeroderma pigmentosum complementation Type G rs17655 G>C polymorphisms with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction-fragment length polymorphism or allele-specific PCR methods...
April 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Niraj M Shanbhag, Michael D Geschwind, John J DiGiovanna, Catherine Groden, Rena Godfrey, Matthew J Yousefzadeh, Erin A Wade, Laura J Niedernhofer, May Christine V Malicdan, Kenneth H Kraemer, William A Gahl, Camilo Toro
Objective: To describe the features of 2 unrelated adults with xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XP-F) ascertained in a neurology care setting. Methods: We report the clinical, imaging, molecular, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity of 2 middle-aged women with progressive neurodegeneration ultimately diagnosed with XP-F. Results: Both patients presented with adult-onset progressive neurologic deterioration involving chorea, ataxia, hearing loss, cognitive deficits, profound brain atrophy, and a history of skin photosensitivity, skin freckling, and/or skin neoplasms...
June 2018: Neurology. Genetics
Yuki Tanoue, Takeshi Toyoda, Jinghua Sun, Md Kawsar Mustofa, Chie Tateishi, Shinya Endo, Noboru Motoyama, Kimi Araki, Di Wu, Yutaka Okuno, Tetsuya Tsukamoto, Motohiro Takeya, Hironobu Ihn, Cyrus Vaziri, Satoshi Tateishi
Defects in DNA polymerase Eta (Polη) cause the sunlight-sensitivity and skin cancer-propensity disorder xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V). The extent to which Polη function depends on the upstream E3 ubiquitin ligase Rad18 is controversial and has not been investigated using mouse models. Therefore, we tested the role of Rad18 in UV-inducible skin tumorigenesis. Because Rad18-deficiency leads to compensatory DNA damage signaling by Chk2, we also investigated genetic interactions between Rad18 and Chk2 in vivo...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Bartosz Mucha, Dariusz Pytel, Lukasz Markiewicz, Magda Cuchra, Izabela Szymczak, Karolina Przybylowska-Sygut, Adam Dziki, Ireneusz Majsterek, Lukasz Dziki
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is leading malignant tumors to occur mainly in industrialized countries, where it exhibits one of the highest mortality rates. Up to 80% of all CRCs characterize a chromosomal instability (CIN) phenotype. The main challenge faced by scientist is to reveal the mechanism of CIN development. An often proposed model is defects in DNA repair in terms of efficiency and genetic variations that modulate the response to stimuli from the environment. The objectives of this research were to determine whether nucleotide excision repair (NER) might affect CRC risk...
June 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
K H Kraemer, D Tamura, S G Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Jie Zhao, Shanshan Chen, Haixia Zhou, Ting Zhang, Yang Liu, Jing He, Jinhong Zhu, Jichen Ruan
Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG), a key component in nucleotide excision repair pathway, functions to cut DNA lesions during DNA repair. Genetic variations that alter DNA repair gene expression or function may decrease DNA repair ability and impair genome integrity, thereby predisposing to cancer. The association between XPG rs17655 G>C polymorphism and cancer risk has been investigated extensively, but the results remain contradictory. To get a more accurate conclusion, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 60 case-control studies, involving 27,098 cancer cases and 30,535 healthy controls...
May 20, 2018: Aging
S Lemaître, C Lévy-Gabriel, L Desjardins, M González-Candial, S Gardrat, R Dendale, N Cassoux, B Couturaud
INTRODUCTION: Surgical excision of large malignant lower eyelid tumors may cause important full-thickness eyelid defects. The reconstruction of such defects must restore the physiologic function of the eyelid and also re-establish an acceptable aesthetic result. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report the outcomes of full-thickness excision of tumors extending over half of the horizontal lid length, followed by reconstruction using a nasal chondromucosal graft (coming from the ipsilateral ala of the nose) and an upper eyelid myocutaneous flap...
May 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Junko Oshima, Hisaya Kato, Yoshiro Maezawa, Koutaro Yokote
Progeroid syndrome is a group of disorders characterized by the early onset of diseases that are associated with aging. Best known examples are Werner syndrome, which is adult onset and results from disease-causing DNA sequence variants in the RecQ helicase gene WRN, and Hutchison-Gilford progeria syndrome, which is childhood-onset and results from unique, recurrent disease-causing DNA sequence variants of the gene LMNA that encodes nuclear intermediate filaments. Related single gene RecQ disorders are Bloom syndrome and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome...
July 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Zhe Zhang, Jiefeng Yin, Qi Xu, Jianfeng Shi
BACKGROUND: Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) plays an important role in maintaining the stability and integrity of genomic DNA. Previous studies demonstrate some XPG gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: The association between XPG rs2094258 polymorphism and GC risk was investigated first by a hospital-based case-control study involving 386 patients and 439 controls and then by a meta-analysis. The polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLR)...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Andy Perloy, Leo J Schouten, Piet A van den Brandt, Roger Godschalk, Frederik-Jan van Schooten, Janneke G F Hogervorst
To investigate the association between dietary acrylanide and advanced prostate cancer, we examined acrylamide-gene interactions for advanced prostate cancer risk by using data from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Participants (n = 58,279 men) completed a baseline food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which daily acrylamide intake was calculated. At baseline, 2,411 men were randomly selected from the full cohort for case-cohort analysis. Fifty eight selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two gene deletions in genes in acrylamide metabolism, DNA repair, sex steroid systems, and oxidative stress were analyzed...
April 26, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Adrián E Cambindo Botto, Juan C Muñoz, Manuel J Muñoz
Gene expression and DNA repair are fundamental processes for life. During the last decade, accumulating experimental evidence point towards different modes of coupling between these processes. Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which RNAPII-dependent transcription affects repair by the Nucleotide Excision Repair system (NER) and how NER activity, through the generation of single stranded DNA intermediates and activation of the DNA damage response kinase ATR, drives gene expression in a genotoxic scenario...
May 17, 2018: RNA Biology
Yang Yang, Yanzhe Gao, Anastasia Zlatanou, Satoshi Tateishi, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Igor B Rogozin, Cyrus Vaziri
Mutagenesis is a hallmark and enabling characteristic of cancer cells. The E3 ubiquitin ligase RAD18 and its downstream effectors, the 'Y-family' Trans-Lesion Synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases, confer DNA damage tolerance at the expense of DNA replication fidelity. Thus, RAD18 and TLS polymerases are attractive candidate mediators of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. The skin cancer-propensity disorder xeroderma pigmentosum-variant (XPV) is caused by defects in the Y-family DNA polymerase Pol eta (Polη). However it is unknown whether TLS dysfunction contributes more generally to other human cancers...
May 8, 2018: Cell Cycle
Palak Shah, Baozhong Zhao, Lei Qiang, Yu-Ying He
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the most versatile DNA repair system that removes bulky DNA damage induced by various endogenous and exogenous factors, including UV radiation. Defects in NER can lead to the xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) syndrome, mainly characterized by increased carcinogenesis in the skin. The function of NER factors, including xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC), can be regulated by post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination. However, the role of phosphorylation in XPC function remains unknown...
June 1, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Aga Syed Sameer, Saniya Nissar
In mammals the bulky DNA adduct lesions known to result in deleterious phenotypes are acted upon and removed from the genomic DNA by nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. TFIIH multi-protein complex with its important helicase-Xeroderma Pigmentosum Protein (XPD) serves as the pivotal factor for opening up of the damaged lesion DNA site and carry out the repair process. The initial damage verification step of the TFIIH is in part dependent upon the helicase activity of XPD. Besides, XPD is also actively involved in the initiation steps of transcription and in the regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Yi Zhang, Jia Cao, Yanni Meng, Chunying Qu, Feng Shen, Leiming Xu
Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) is a DNA-damage-recognition gene active at the early stage of DNA repair. XPC also participates in regulation of cell-cycle checkpoint and DNA-damage-induced apoptosis. In the present study, the expression levels of genes involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) were assessed in human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue. This analysis revealed that expression of XPC mRNA significantly increased in colorectal carcinoma tissues compared with matched normal controls. Expression of XPC gradually increased along with the degree of progression of CRC...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
S M Müller, H Finke, F Ebert, J F Kopp, F Schumacher, B Kleuser, K A Francesconi, G Raber, T Schwerdtle
Arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs), a subgroup of arsenolipids found in fish and algae, elicit substantial toxic effects in various human cell lines and have a considerable impact on cellular energy levels. The underlying mode of action, however, is still unknown. The present study analyzes the effects of two AsHCs (AsHC 332 and AsHC 360) on the expression of 44 genes covering DNA repair, stress response, cell death, autophagy, and epigenetics via RT-qPCR in human liver (HepG2) cells. Both AsHCs affected the gene expression, but to different extents...
May 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Ambreen Ijaz, Sulman Basit, Ajab Gul, Lilas Batool, Abrar Hussain, Sibtain Afzal, Khushnooda Ramzan, Jamil Ahmad, Abdul Wali
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by hyperpigmentation, premature skin aging, ocular and cutaneous photosensitivity, and increased risk of skin carcinoma. We investigated seven consanguineous XP families with nine patients from Pakistan. All the Patients exhibited typical clinical symptoms of XP since first year of life. Whole genome SNP genotyping identified a 14 Mb autozygous region segregating with the disease phenotype on chromosome 3p25.1. DNA sequencing of XPC gene revealed a founder homozygous splice site mutation (c...
March 23, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
Takuma Wada, Takeshi Fukuda, Masahiro Shimomura, Yuta Inoue, Masaru Kawanishi, Reiko Tasaka, Tomoyo Yasui, Kazuo Ikeda, Toshiyuki Sumi
The standard treatment for locally advanced uterine cervical cancer is concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Successful neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may reduce tumor size and facilitate a hysterectomy, thereby improving the prognosis for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. In contrast, unsuccessful NAC may worsen the prognosis because if a hysterectomy is not possible, the change in treatment plan may delay the initiation of core treatment. Therefore, there is a need to identify biomarkers that predict the efficacy of NAC in patients with uterine cervical cancer...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Shweta Lawania, Navneet Singh, Digambar Behera, Siddharth Sharma
The present study investigated the role of Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) polymorphism (A23G and G709A) with lung cancer risk and its association with overall survival in North Indians. 370 cases and 370 controls were investigated to evaluate association between XPA polymorphism (A23G and G709A) with lung cancer risk using logistic regression analysis. A follow-up study was also conducted for 291 lung cancer cases illustrating correlation between overall survival in lung cancer patients and XPA variants...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
Kartheek Pitta, Marimuthu Krishnan
DNA damage alters genetic information and adversely affects gene expression pathways leading to various complex genetic disorders and cancers. DNA repair proteins recognize and rectify DNA damage and mismatches with high fidelity. A critical molecular event that occurs during most protein-mediated DNA repair processes is the extrusion of orphaned bases at the damaged site facilitated by specific repairing enzymes. The molecular-level understanding of the mechanism, dynamics, and energetics of base extrusion is necessary to elucidate the molecular basis of protein-mediated DNA damage repair...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
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