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Spinal cord injury cellular

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240948/early-cyclical-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-improves-strength-and-trophism-by-akt-pathway-signaling-in-partially-paralyzed-biceps-muscle-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#1
Gabriel R de Freitas, Caroline C do Espírito Santo, Nicolas A M M de Machado-Pereira, Franciane Bobinski, Adair R S Dos Santos, Jocemar Ilha
Background: Electrical stimulation is often used to treat weakness in people with spinal cord injury (SCI), however its efficacy to increase strength and trophism are weak and the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefits are unknown. Objective: The purpose of the study was to analyze the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle function, trophism and the Akt pathway signaling involved in muscular plasticity after incomplete-SCI in rats...
December 12, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239336/neural-progenitor-cells-but-not-astrocytes-respond-distally-to-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat-models
#2
Tara Nguyen, Yilin Mao, Theresa Sutherland, Catherine Anne Gorrie
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a detrimental condition that causes loss of sensory and motor function in an individual. Many complex secondary injury cascades occur after SCI and they offer great potential for therapeutic targeting. In this study, we investigated the response of endogenous neural progenitor cells, astrocytes, and microglia to a localized thoracic SCI throughout the neuroaxis. Twenty-five adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent mild-contusion thoracic SCI (n = 9), sham surgery (n = 8), or no surgery (n = 8)...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238462/mechanisms-of-spinal-cord-injury-regeneration-in-zebrafish-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Zeynab Noorimotlagh, Mahla Babaie, Mahdi Safdarian, Tahereh Ghadiri, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
Objectives: To determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish. Materials and Methods: Medical databases of PubMed and Scopus were searched with following key words: Zebrafish; spinal cord injuries; regeneration; recovery of function. The map of mechanisms was performed using Xmind software. Results: Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, L1.1, L1.2, Major vault protein (MVP), contactin-2 and High mobility group box1 (HMGB1) had positive promoting effects on axonal re-growth while Ptena had an inhibitory effect...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231515/-reviews-on-acupuncture-for-cellular-signal-transduction-in-spinal-cord-injury
#4
REVIEW
Jisheng Liu, Hong Zhang, Guilan Huang, Ming Xu, Jian Zhang, Xiuting Yin
Investigating the influence of acupuncture on cellular signal transduction is an efficient pathway to reveal the action mechanism of acupuncture on spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, the experiment research literature regarding acupuncture for SCI during past 10 years was reviewed and analyzed. As a result, it was found that acupuncture could regulate the expression of the first intercellular messenger as well as the second signal molecules including cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Ca2+, nitric oxide to intervene the apoptotic signaling pathway, Rho/Rock signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway, etc...
June 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208511/identification-of-potent-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-5-lpa5-antagonists-as-potential-analgesic-agents
#5
Yuichiro Kawamoto, Ryushi Seo, Nobuhito Murai, Hideki Hiyama, Hiromasa Oka
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions. In particular, LPA5 receptor is highly expressed in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion, which are associated with pain. This fact prompted us to hypothesize that LPA5 antagonists show analgesic effects. To search for potent LPA5 antagonists with blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, we conducted high throughput screening (HTS). In HTS campaign, we found a 2H-isoquinoline-1-one scaffold showing antagonistic activity against LPA5 and synthesized a series of 2H-isoquinoline-1-one derivatives and evaluated their LPA5 activities...
November 26, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180963/spinal-cord-molecular-and-cellular-changes-induced-by-adenoviral-vector-and-cell-mediated-triple-gene-therapy-after-severe-contusion
#6
Andrei A Izmailov, Tatyana V Povysheva, Farid V Bashirov, Mikhail E Sokolov, Filip O Fadeev, Ravil R Garifulin, Boris S Naroditsky, Denis Y Logunov, Ilnur I Salafutdinov, Yuri A Chelyshev, Rustem R Islamov, Igor A Lavrov
The gene therapy has been successful in treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) in several animal models, although it still remains unavailable for clinical practice. Surprisingly, regardless the fact that multiple reports showed motor recovery with gene therapy, little is known about molecular and cellular changes in the post-traumatic spinal cord following viral vector- or cell-mediated gene therapy. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy and changes in spinal cord after treatment with the genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), angiogenin (ANG), and neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) applied using both approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178911/inhibition-of-hmgb1-reduces-rat-spinal-cord-astrocytic-swelling-and-aqp4-expression-after-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation-via-tlr4-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-an-il-6-dependent-manner
#7
Lin Sun, Man Li, Xun Ma, Haoyu Feng, Junlai Song, Cong Lv, Yajun He
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord astrocyte swelling is an important component to spinal cord edema and is associated with poor functional recovery as well as therapeutic resistance after spinal cord injury (SCI). High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a mediator of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system and plays a critical role after SCI. Given this, we sought to identify both the role and underlying mechanisms of HMGB1 in cellular swelling and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression in cultured rat spinal cord astrocytes after oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175543/high-mobility-group-box-1-hmgb1-is-increased-in-injured-mouse-spinal-cord-and-can-elicit-neurotoxic-inflammation
#8
Kristina A Kigerl, Wenmin Lai, Lindsay M Wallace, Huan Yang, Phillip G Popovich
Inflammation is a ubiquitous but poorly understood consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI). The mechanisms controlling this response are unclear but culminate in the sequential activation of resident and recruited immune cells. Collectively, these cells can exert divergent effects on cell survival and tissue repair. HMGB1 is a ubiquitously expressed DNA binding protein and also a potent inflammatory stimulus. Necrotic cells release HGMB1, but HMGB1 also is actively secreted by inflammatory macrophages. A goal of this study was to quantify spatio-temporal patterns of cellular HMGB1 expression in a controlled mouse model of experimental SCI then determine the effects of HMGB1 on post-SCI neuroinflammation and recovery of function...
November 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170823/engineering-new-neurons-in-vivo-reprogramming-in-mammalian-brain-and-spinal-cord
#9
REVIEW
Lei-Lei Wang, Chun-Li Zhang
Neurons are postmitotic. Once lost because of injury or degeneration, they do not regenerate in most regions of the mammalian central nervous system. Recent advancements nevertheless clearly reveal that new neurons can be reprogrammed from non-neuronal cells, especially glial cells, in the adult mammalian brain and spinal cord. Here, we give a brief overview concerning cell fate reprogramming in vivo and then focus on the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. Specifically, we critically review the cellular sources and the reprogramming factors for in vivo neuronal conversion...
November 23, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163065/the-lesioned-spinal-cord-is-a-new-spinal-cord-evidence-from-functional-changes-after-spinal-injury-in-lamprey
#10
REVIEW
David Parker
Finding a treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) focuses on reconnecting the spinal cord by promoting regeneration across the lesion site. However, while regeneration is necessary for recovery, on its own it may not be sufficient. This presumably reflects the requirement for regenerated inputs to interact appropriately with the spinal cord, making sub-lesion network properties an additional influence on recovery. This review summarizes work we have done in the lamprey, a model system for SCI research. We have compared locomotor behavior (swimming) and the properties of descending inputs, locomotor networks, and sensory inputs in unlesioned animals and animals that have received complete spinal cord lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131367/influence-of-the-neural-microenvironment-on-prostate-cancer
#11
Christian Coarfa, Diego Florentin, NagiReddy Putluri, Yi Ding, Jason Au, Dandan He, Ahmed Ragheb, Anna Frolov, George Michailidis, MinJae Lee, Dov Kadmon, Brian Miles, Christopher Smith, Michael Ittmann, David Rowley, Arun Sreekumar, Chad J Creighton, Gustavo Ayala
BACKGROUND: Nerves are key factors in prostate cancer (PCa), but the functional role of innervation in prostate cancer is poorly understood. PCa induced neurogenesis and perineural invasion (PNI), are associated with aggressive disease. METHOD: We denervated rodent prostates chemically and physically, before orthotopically implanting cancer cells. We also performed a human neoadjuvant clinical trial using botulinum toxin type A (Botox) and saline in the same patient, before prostatectomy...
November 13, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121057/trafficking-and-processing-of-bacterial-proteins-by-mammalian-cells-insights-from-chondroitinase-abc
#12
Elizabeth Muir, Mansoor Raza, Clare Ellis, Emily Burnside, Fiona Love, Simon Heller, Matthew Elliot, Esther Daniell, Debayan Dasgupta, Nuno Alves, Priscilla Day, James Fawcett, Roger Keynes
BACKGROUND: There is very little reported in the literature about the relationship between modifications of bacterial proteins and their secretion by mammalian cells that synthesize them. We previously reported that the secretion of the bacterial enzyme Chondroitinase ABC by mammalian cells requires the strategic removal of at least three N-glycosylation sites. The aim of this study was to determine if it is possible to enhance the efficacy of the enzyme as a treatment for spinal cord injury by increasing the quantity of enzyme secreted or by altering its cellular location...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118209/in-vivo-imaging-of-cns-injury-and-disease
#13
Katerina Akassoglou, Mario Merlini, Victoria A Rafalski, Raquel Real, Liang Liang, Yunju Jin, Sarah E Dougherty, Vincenzo De Paola, David J Linden, Thomas Misgeld, Binhai Zheng
In vivo optical imaging has emerged as a powerful tool with which to study cellular responses to injury and disease in the mammalian CNS. Important new insights have emerged regarding axonal degeneration and regeneration, glial responses and neuroinflammation, changes in the neurovascular unit, and, more recently, neural transplantations. Accompanying a 2017 SfN Mini-Symposium, here, we discuss selected recent advances in understanding the neuronal, glial, and other cellular responses to CNS injury and disease with in vivo imaging of the rodent brain or spinal cord...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111100/systemic-cell-cycle-activation-is-induced-following-complex-tissue-injury-in-axolotl
#14
Kimberly Johnson, Joel Bateman, Tia DiTommaso, Alan Y Wong, Jessica L Whited
Activation of progenitor cells is crucial to promote tissue repair following injury in adult animals. In the context of successful limb regeneration following amputation, progenitor cells residing within the stump must re-enter the cell cycle to promote regrowth of the missing limb. We demonstrate that in axolotls, amputation is sufficient to induce cell-cycle activation in both the amputated limb and the intact, uninjured contralateral limb. Activated cells were found throughout all major tissue populations of the intact contralateral limb, with internal cellular populations (bone and soft tissue) the most affected...
October 27, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107625/activation-of-erk-creb-pathway-in-noradrenergic-neurons-contributes-to-hypernociceptive-phenotype-in-h4-receptor-knockout-mice-after-nerve-injury
#15
Maria Domenica Sanna, Tommaso Mello, Emanuela Masini, Nicoletta Galeotti
G-protein coupled receptor H4 (H4R) is a histamine receptor subtype that is involved in a condition of pathological chronic pain, but its pathophysiological function is unknown. Here, we investigate the role of H4R in a model of traumatic nerve injury. H4R knockout (H4R(-)/(-)) mice exposed to spared nerve injury (SNI) developed a more prominent mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity than wild type mice. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to characterize the cellular mechanisms. Nerve injury increased phosphorylated pERK MAPK expression in the spinal cord that was further promoted in H4R(-)/(-) genotype...
October 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093636/agmatine-modulates-the-phenotype-of-macrophage-acute-phase-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#16
Jae Hwan Kim, Jae Young Kim, Chin Hee Mun, Minah Suh, Jong Eun Lee
Agmatine is a decarboxylated arginine by arginine decarboxylase. Agmatine is known to be a neuroprotective agent. It has been reported that agmatine works as a NMDA receptor blocker or a competitive nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in CNS injuries. In spinal cord injury, agmatine showed reduction of neuropathic pain, improvement of locomotor function, and neuroprotection. Macrophage is a key cellular component in neuroinflammation, a major cause of impairment after spinal cord injury. Macrophage has subtypes, M1 and M2 macrophages...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092800/in-vivo-imaging-of-mauthner-axon-regeneration-remyelination-and-synapses-re-establishment-after-laser-axotomy-in-zebrafish-larvae
#17
Bing-Bing Hu, Min Chen, Rong-Chen Huang, Yu-Bin Huang, Yang Xu, Wu Yin, Lei Li, Bing Hu
Zebrafish is an excellent model to study central nervous system (CNS) axonal degeneration and regeneration since we can observe these processes in vivo and in real time in transparent larvae. Previous studies have shown that Mauthner cell (M-cell) axon regenerates poorly after mechanical spinal cord injury. Inconsistent with this result, however, we have found that M-cell possesses a great capacity for axon regeneration after two-photon laser ablation. By using ZEISS LSM 710 two-photon microscope, we performed specific unilateral axotomy of GFP labeled M-cells in the Tol-056 enhancer trap line larvae...
October 29, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080456/cytotherapy-using-stromal-cells-current-and-advance-multi-treatment-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Pravin Shende, Hunny Gupta, R S Gaud
The research in stem cells gives a proper information about basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation. The use of stem cells in new medicinal therapies includes treatment of different conditions such as spinal cord injury, diabetes mellitus, Parkinsonism, and cardiac disorders. These cells exhibit two unique properties: self-renewal and differentiation. The major stem cells been used for approximately about 10-14 years for cellular therapy are mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells can individualize into many lineage, i...
October 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063730/fibroblast-growth-factors-in-the-management-of-spinal-cord-injury
#19
REVIEW
Yulong Zhou, Zhouguang Wang, Jiawei Li, Xiaokun Li, Jian Xiao
Spinal cord injury (SCI) possesses a significant health and economic burden worldwide. Traumatic SCI is a devastating condition that evolves through two successive stages. Throughout each of these stages, disturbances in ionic homeostasis, local oedema, ischaemia, focal haemorrhage, free radicals stress and inflammatory response were observed. Although there are no fully restorative cures available for SCI patients, various molecular, cellular and rehabilitative therapies, such as limiting local inflammation, preventing secondary cell death and enhancing the plasticity of local circuits in the spinal cord, were described...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061187/elevated-microrna-129-5p-level-ameliorates-neuroinflammation-and-blood-spinal-cord-barrier-damage-after-ischemia-reperfusion-by-inhibiting-hmgb1-and-the-tlr3-cytokine-pathway
#20
Xiao-Qian Li, Feng-Shou Chen, Wen-Fei Tan, Bo Fang, Zai-Li Zhang, Hong Ma
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) affects microRNA (miR) expression and causes substantial inflammation. Multiple roles of the tumor suppressor miR-129-5p in cerebral IR have recently been reported, but its functions in the spinal cord are unclear. Here, we investigated the role of miR-129-5p after spinal cord IR, particularly in regulating high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 pathway. METHODS: Ischemia was induced via 5-min occlusion of the aortic arch...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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