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Spinal cord injury cellular

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671028/biochemical-profiling-of-rat-embryonic-stem-cells-grown-on-electrospun-polyester-fibers-using-synchrotron-infrared-microspectroscopy
#1
Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Gary Ellis, Christophe Sandt, Peter S Shuttleworth, Agatha Bastida, Julia Revuelta, Eduardo García-Junceda, Alfonso Fernández-Mayoralas, Leoncio Garrido
Therapeutic options for spinal cord injuries are severely limited; current treatments only offer symptomatic relief and rehabilitation focused on educating the individual on how to adapt to their new situation to make best possible use of their remaining function. Thus, new approaches are needed, and interest in the development of effective strategies to promote the repair of neural tracts in the central nervous system inspired us to prepare functional and highly anisotropic polymer scaffolds. In this work, an initial assessment of the behavior of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) seeded on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) fiber scaffolds using synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS) is described...
April 18, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665503/zebrafish-extracellular-matrix-improves-neuronal-viability-and-network-formation-in-a-3-dimensional-culture
#2
Sung-Min Kim, Daniel Ward Long, Michael Wai Kok Tsang, Yadong Wang
Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has limited capacity for regeneration. CNS injuries cause life-long debilitation and lead to $50 billion in healthcare costs in U.S. alone each year. Despite numerous efforts in the last few decades, CNS-related injuries remain as detrimental as they were 50 years ago. Some functional recovery can occur, but most regeneration are limited by an extracellular matrix (ECM) that actively inhibits axonal repair and promotes glial scarring. In most tissues, the ECM is an architectural foundation that plays an active role in supporting cellular development and regenerative response after injury...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651947/transplantation-of-bdnf-gene-recombinant-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-adhesive-peptide-modified-hydrogel-scaffold-for-spinal-cord-repair
#3
Li-Ming Li, Ling-Ling Huang, Xin-Chi Jiang, Jia-Chen Chen, Hong-Wei OuYang, Jian-Qing Gao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for nerve tissue engineering. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) secreted by MSCs can function to increase neural differentiation and relieve inflammation response. Gene transfection technology is an efficient strategy to increase the secretion levels of cytokines and enhance cellular functions. However, transfection and in vivo gene expression of environmentally sensitive stem cells have been one of the most challenging subjects due to the requirement in both safety and transfection efficiency...
April 13, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649499/the-spinal-ependymal-zone-as-a-source-of-endogenous-repair-cells-across-vertebrates
#4
REVIEW
Catherina G Becker, Thomas Becker, Jean-Philippe Hugnot
Spinal cord injury results in the loss of neurons and axonal connections. In mammals, including humans, this loss is permanent, but is repaired in other vertebrates, such as salamanders and fishes. Cells in the ependymal niche play a pivotal role for the outcome after injury. These cells initiate proliferation and generate new neurons of different types in regenerating species, but only glial cells, contributing to the glial scar, in mammals. Here we compare the cellular and molecular properties of ependymal zone cells and their environment across vertebrate classes...
April 9, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648982/effects-of-mitochondrial-transplantation-on-bioenergetics-cellular-incorporation-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Jenna L Gollihue, Samir P Patel, Khalid C Eldahan, David H Cox, Renee R Donahue, Brad Taylor, Pat Sulllivan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Our previous studies reported that pharmacological maintenance of mitochondrial bioenergetics after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) provided functional neuroprotection. Recent evidence indicates that endogenous mitochondrial transfer is neuroprotective as well, and so we extended these studies with a novel approach to transplant exogenous mitochondria into the injured rat spinal cord. Using a rat model of L1/L2 contusion SCI, we herein report that transplantation of exogenous mitochondria derived from either cell culture or syngeneic leg muscle maintain acute bioenergetics of the injured spinal cord in a concentration-dependent manner...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608857/stretchable-transparent-electrode-array-for-simultaneous-electrical-and-optical-interrogation-of-neural-circuits-in-vivo
#6
Jing Zhang, Xiaojun Liu, Wenjing Xu, Wenhan Luo, Ming Li, Fangbing Chu, Lu Xu, Anyuan Cao, Ji-Song Guan, Shiming Tang, Xiaojie Duan
Recent developments of transparent electrode arrays provide unique capability for simultaneous optical and electrical interrogation of neural circuits in brain. However, none of these electrode arrays possess the stretchability highly desired to interface with mechanically active neural systems, such as brain under injury, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Here we report a stretchable transparent electrode array from carbon nanotube (CNT) web-like thin films that retain excellent electrochemical performance and broad-band optical transparency under stretching, and are highly durable under cyclic stretching deformation...
April 2, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580899/investigation-of-candidate-long-noncoding-rnas-and-messenger-rnas-in-the-immediate-phase-of-spinal-cord-injury-based-on-gene-expression-profiles
#7
Hengxing Zhou, Zhongju Shi, Yi Kang, Yao Wang, Lu Lu, Bin Pan, Jun Liu, Xueying Li, Lu Liu, Zhijian Wei, Xiaohong Kong, Shiqing Feng
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious devastating condition and it has a high mortality rate and morbidity rate. The early pathological changes in the immediate phase of SCI may play a major part in the development of secondary injury. Alterations in the expression of many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play fundamental roles in the diseases of the central nervous system. However, the roles of lncRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the immediate phase of SCI are not clear. We examined the expression of mRNAs and lncRNAs in a rat model at 2 h after SCI and identified the differentially expressed lncRNAs (DE lncRNAs) and differentially expressed mRNAs (DE mRNAs) using microarray analysis...
March 23, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559895/limitations-and-challenges-in-modeling-diseases-involving-spinal-motor-neuron-degeneration-in-vitro
#8
Monica Bucchia, Samantha J Merwin, Diane B Re, Shingo Kariya
Pathogenic conditions involving degeneration of spinal motor neurons (MNs), such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, sarcopenia, and spinal cord injury, mostly occur in individuals whose spinal MNs are fully mature. There is currently no effective treatment to prevent death or promote axonal regeneration of the spinal MNs affected in these patients. To increase our understanding and find a cure for such conditions, easily controllable and monitorable cell culture models allow for a better dissection of certain molecular and cellular events that cannot be teased apart in whole organism models...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558941/perturbing-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycan-signaling-through-lar-and-ptp%C3%AF-receptors-promotes-a-beneficial-inflammatory-response-following-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Scott Dyck, Hardeep Kataria, Arsalan Alizadeh, Kallivalappil T Santhosh, Bradley Lang, Jerry Silver, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in upregulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) by reactive glia that impedes repair and regeneration in the spinal cord. Degradation of CSPGs is known to be beneficial in promoting endogenous repair mechanisms including axonal sprouting/regeneration, oligodendrocyte replacement, and remyelination, and is associated with improvements in functional outcomes after SCI. Recent evidence suggests that CSPGs may regulate secondary injury mechanisms by modulating neuroinflammation after SCI...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551667/microtubules-and-axon-regeneration-in-c-elegans
#10
REVIEW
Lizhen Chen
Axon regeneration is a fundamental and conserved process that allows the nervous system to repair circuits after trauma. Due to its conserved genome, transparent body, and relatively simple neuroanatomy, C. elegans has become a powerful model organism for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying axon regeneration. Various studies from different model organisms have found microtubule dynamics to be pivotal to axon regrowth. In this review, we will discuss the latest findings on how microtubule dynamics are regulated during axon regeneration in C...
March 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543752/stress-activated-protein-kinases-in-spinal-cord-injury-focus-on-roles-of-p38
#11
REVIEW
Yoshitoshi Kasuya, Hiroki Umezawa, Masahiko Hatano
Spinal cord injury (SCI) consists of three phases-acute, secondary, and chronic damages-and limiting the development of secondary damage possibly improves functional recovery after SCI. A major component of the secondary phase of SCI is regarded as inflammation-triggered events: induction of cytokines, edema, microglial activation, apoptosis of cells including oligodendrocytes and neurons, demyelination, formation of the astrocytic scar, and so on. Two major stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs)-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)-are activated in various types of cells in response to cellular stresses such as apoptotic stimuli and inflammatory waves...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513146/the-biology-of-regeneration-failure-and-success-after-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Amanda Phuong Tran, Philippa Mary Warren, Jerry Silver
Since no approved therapies to restore mobility and sensation following spinal cord injury (SCI) currently exist, a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms following SCI that compromise regeneration or neuroplasticity is needed to develop new strategies to promote axonal regrowth and restore function. Physical trauma to the spinal cord results in vascular disruption that, in turn, causes blood-spinal cord barrier rupture leading to hemorrhage and ischemia, followed by rampant local cell death...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502344/the-vulnerability-of-spinal-motoneurons-and-soma-size-plasticity-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
S Shekar Dukkipati, Teresa L Garrett, Sherif M Elbasiouny
Alpha-motoneuron soma size is correlated with the cell's excitability and function, and has been posited as a plastic property that changes during cellular maturation, injury, and disease. This study examined whether alpha-motoneuron somas change in size over disease progression in the G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterized by progressive motoneuron death. We used 2D- and 3D-morphometric analysis of motoneuron size and measures of cell density at four key disease stages: Neonatal, P10 - with earliest known disease changes; young adult, P30 - presymptomatic with early motoneuron death; symptom onset, P90 - with death of 70-80% of motoneurons; and end-stage, P120+ - with full paralysis of hindlimbs...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500312/etiology-and-pharmacology-of-neuropathic-pain
#14
REVIEW
Sascha R A Alles, Peter A Smith
Injury to or disease of the nervous system can invoke chronic and sometimes intractable neuropathic pain. Many parallel, interdependent, and time-dependent processes, including neuroimmune interactions at the peripheral, supraspinal, and spinal levels, contribute to the etiology of this "disease of pain." Recent work emphasizes the roles of colony-stimulating factor 1, ATP, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Excitatory processes are enhanced, and inhibitory processes are attenuated in the spinal dorsal horn and throughout the somatosensory system...
April 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495419/effects-of-dietary-vitamin-e-supplementation-in-bladder-function-and-spasticity-during-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Kathia Cordero, Gemma G Coronel, Miguel Serrano-Illán, Jennifer Cruz-Bracero, Johnny D Figueroa, Marino De León
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in debilitating autonomic dysfunctions, paralysis and significant sensorimotor impairments. A key component of SCI is the generation of free radicals that contributes to the high levels of oxidative stress observed. This study investigates whether dietary supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) improves functional recovery after SCI. Female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either with a normal diet or a dietary regiment supplemented with vitamin E (51 IU/g) for eight weeks...
February 26, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476055/sub-cellular-in-situ-characterization-of-ferritin-iron-in-a-rodent-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#16
A R Blissett, B Deng, P Wei, K J Walsh, B Ollander, J Sifford, A D Sauerbeck, D W McComb, D M McTigue, G Agarwal
Iron (Fe) is an essential metal involved in a wide spectrum of physiological functions. Sub-cellular characterization of the size, composition, and distribution of ferritin(iron) can provide valuable information on iron storage and transport in health and disease. In this study we employ magnetic force microscopy (MFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to characterize differences in ferritin(iron) distribution and composition across injured and non-injured tissues by employing a rodent model of spinal cord injury (SCI)...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466745/massively-parallel-single-nucleus-transcriptional-profiling-defines-spinal-cord-neurons-and-their-activity-during-behavior
#17
Anupama Sathyamurthy, Kory R Johnson, Kaya J E Matson, Courtney I Dobrott, Li Li, Anna R Ryba, Tzipporah B Bergman, Michael C Kelly, Matthew W Kelley, Ariel J Levine
To understand the cellular basis of behavior, it is necessary to know the cell types that exist in the nervous system and their contributions to function. Spinal networks are essential for sensory processing and motor behavior and provide a powerful system for identifying the cellular correlates of behavior. Here, we used massively parallel single nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) to create an atlas of the adult mouse lumbar spinal cord. We identified and molecularly characterized 43 neuronal populations. Next, we leveraged the snRNA-seq approach to provide unbiased identification of neuronal populations that were active following a sensory and a motor behavior, using a transcriptional signature of neuronal activity...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466494/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-combined-with-methylprednisolone-improves-functional-outcomes-in-rats-with-experimental-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#18
William Gemio Jacobsen Teixeira, Alexandre Fogaça Cristante, Raphael Martus Marcon, Gustavo Bispo, Ricardo Ferreira, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de Barros-Filho
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of combined treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and methylprednisolone in rats subjected to experimental spinal cord injury. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats received a moderate spinal cord injury and were divided into four groups: control (no treatment); G-CSF (G-CSF at the time of injury and daily over the next five days); methylprednisolone (methylprednisolone for 24 h); and G-CSF/Methylprednisolone (methylprednisolone for 24 h and G-CSF at the time of injury and daily over the next five days)...
February 19, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445295/the-effect-of-exercise-frequency-on-neuropathic-pain-and-pain-related-cellular-reactions-in-the-spinal-cord-and-midbrain-in-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#19
Megumi Sumizono, Harutoshi Sakakima, Shotaro Otsuka, Takuto Terashi, Kazuki Nakanishi, Koki Ueda, Seiya Takada, Kiyoshi Kikuchi
Background: Exercise regimens are established methods that can relieve neuropathic pain. However, the relationship between frequency and intensity of exercise and multiple cellular responses of exercise-induced alleviation of neuropathic pain is still unclear. We examined the influence of exercise frequency on neuropathic pain and the intracellular responses in a sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Materials and methods: Rats were assigned to four groups as follows: CCI and high-frequency exercise (HFE group), CCI and low-frequency exercise (LFE group), CCI and no exercise (No-Ex group), and naive animals (control group)...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430715/characterization-and-comparison-of-rat-monosodium-iodoacetate-and-medial-meniscal-tear-models-of-osteoarthritic-pain
#20
Jill-Desiree Brederson, Katharine L Chu, Jun Xu, Arthur L Nikkel, Stella Markosyan, Michael F Jarvis, Rebecca Edelmayer, Robert S Bitner, Steve McGaraughty
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative form of arthritis that can result in loss of joint function and chronic pain. The pathological pain state that develops with OA disease involves plastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems, however, the cellular mechanisms underlying OA are not fully understood. We characterized the medial meniscal tear (MMT) surgical model and the intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) chemical model of OA in rats. Both models produced histological changes in the knee joint and associated bones consistent with OA pathology...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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