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Spinal cord injury cellular

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445295/the-effect-of-exercise-frequency-on-neuropathic-pain-and-pain-related-cellular-reactions-in-the-spinal-cord-and-midbrain-in-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#1
Megumi Sumizono, Harutoshi Sakakima, Shotaro Otsuka, Takuto Terashi, Kazuki Nakanishi, Koki Ueda, Seiya Takada, Kiyoshi Kikuchi
Background: Exercise regimens are established methods that can relieve neuropathic pain. However, the relationship between frequency and intensity of exercise and multiple cellular responses of exercise-induced alleviation of neuropathic pain is still unclear. We examined the influence of exercise frequency on neuropathic pain and the intracellular responses in a sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Materials and methods: Rats were assigned to four groups as follows: CCI and high-frequency exercise (HFE group), CCI and low-frequency exercise (LFE group), CCI and no exercise (No-Ex group), and naive animals (control group)...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430715/characterization-and-comparison-of-rat-monosodium-iodoacetate-and-medial-meniscal-tear-models-of-osteoarthritic-pain
#2
Jill-Desiree Brederson, Katharine L Chu, Jun Xu, Arthur L Nikkel, Stella Markosyan, Michael F Jarvis, Rebecca Edelmayer, Robert S Bitner, Steve McGaraughty
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative form of arthritis that can result in loss of joint function and chronic pain. The pathological pain state that develops with OA disease involves plastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems, however, the cellular mechanisms underlying OA are not fully understood. We characterized the medial meniscal tear (MMT) surgical model and the intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) chemical model of OA in rats. Both models produced histological changes in the knee joint and associated bones consistent with OA pathology...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428821/recombinant-igg1-fc-hexamers-block-cytotoxicity-and-pathological-changes-in-experimental-in-vitro-and-rat-models-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#3
Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Christian M Felix, Rolf Spirig, Adriana Baz Morelli, A S Verkman
Intravenous human immunoglobulin G (IVIG) may have therapeutic benefit in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (herein called NMO), in part because of the anti-inflammatory properties of the IgG Fc region. Here, we evaluated recombinant Fc hexamers consisting of the IgM μ-tailpiece fused with the Fc region of human IgG1. In vitro, the Fc hexamers prevented cytotoxicity in aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expressing cells and in rat spinal cord slice cultures exposed to NMO anti-AQP4 autoantibody (AQP4-IgG) and complement, with >500-fold greater potency than IVIG or monomeric Fc fragments...
February 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407174/butylphthalide-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-suppressing-pgam5-induced-necroptosis-and-inflammation-in-microglia
#4
Ying Wang, Yue Bi, Zhilun Xia, Wei Shi, Bo Li, Bin Li, Liping Chen, Li Guo
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a long-lasting autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Currently, the etiology of MS is not known. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), has been recognized as the most widely used animal models to study the molecular mechanisms underlying MS and the efficacy of potential drugs for treatment of MS. In the present study, we found that Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP), a neuroprotective drug in ischemic brain injury, prevented development of disease in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and significantly reduced inflammatory factors and necroptosis-associated genes, including PGAM5 in the spinal cord tissues...
February 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377294/increased-ceruloplasmin-expression-caused-by-infiltrated-leukocytes-activated-microglia-and-astrocytes-in-injured-female-rat-spinal-cords
#5
Yan Wu, Lin Shen, Rui Wang, Jie Tang, Shu-Qin Ding, Sai-Nan Wang, Xue-Yan Guo, Jian-Guo Hu, He-Zuo Lü
Ceruloplasmin (Cp), an enzyme containing six copper atoms, has important roles in iron homeostasis and antioxidant defense. After spinal cord injury (SCI), the cellular components in the local microenvironment are very complex and include functional changes of resident cells and the infiltration of leukocytes. It has been confirmed that Cp is elevated primarily in astrocytes and to a lesser extent in macrophages following SCI in mice. However, its expression in other cell types is still not very clear. In this manuscript, we provide a sensible extension of these findings by examining this system within a female Sprague-Dawley rat model and expanding the scope of inquiry to include additional cell types...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375121/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-transverse-myelitis-and-infectious-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Yhojan Rodríguez, Manuel Rojas, Yovana Pacheco, Yeny Acosta-Ampudia, Carolina Ramírez-Santana, Diana M Monsalve, M Eric Gershwin, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and transverse myelitis (TM) both represent immunologically mediated polyneuropathies of major clinical importance. Both are thought to have a genetic predisposition, but as of yet no specific genetic risk loci have been clearly defined. Both are considered autoimmune, but again the etiologies remain enigmatic. Both may be induced via molecular mimicry, particularly from infectious agents and vaccines, but clearly host factor and co-founding host responses will modulate disease susceptibility and natural history...
January 29, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368775/evaluation-of-rgd-functionalization-in-hybrid-hydrogels-as-3d-neural-stem-cell-culture-systems
#7
Emanuele Mauri, Alessandro Sacchetti, Nunzio Vicario, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Filippo Rossi, Stefano Pluchino
The use of neural stem cells (NSCs) in cell therapy has become a powerful tool used for the treatment of central nervous system diseases, including traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. However, a significant drawback is related to the limited viability after transplantation in situ. The design of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that are capable of resembling the architecture and physico-chemical features of an extracellular environment could be a suitable approach to improve cell survival and preserve their cellular active phase over time...
January 25, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358338/quantitative-proteomics-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-a-regenerative-and-a-non-regenerative-stage-in-the-frog%C3%A2-xenopus-laevis
#8
Dasfne Lee-Liu, Liangliang Sun, Norman J Dovichi, Juan Larraín
The capacity to regenerate the spinal cord after an injury is a coveted trait that only a limited group of non-mammalian organisms can achieve. In Xenopus laevis, this capacity is only present during larval or tadpole stages, but is absent during postmetamorphic frog stages. This provides an excellent model for comparative studies between a regenerative and a non-regenerative stage to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms that explain this difference in regenerative potential. Here, we used iTRAQ chemistry to obtain a quantitative proteome of the spinal cord 1 day after a transection injury in regenerative and non-regenerative stage animals, and used sham operated animals as controls...
January 22, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357739/grafts-of-olfactory-stem-cells-restore-breathing-and-motor-functions-after-a-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Jean-Claude Stamegna, Kevin Sadelli, Guy Escoffier, Stéphane D Girard, Antoine D Veron, Amandine Bonnet, Michel Khrestchatisky, Patrick Gauthier, Francois Roman
The transplantation of Olfactory Ecto-Mesenchymal Stem Cells (OEMSCs) could be a helpful therapeutic strategy for spinal cord repair. Using an acute rat model of high cervical contusion that provokes a persistent hemi-diaphragmatic and foreleg paralysis, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of a delayed syngeneic transplantation (two days post-contusion) of OEMSCs within the injured spinal cord. Respiratory function was assessed using diaphragmatic electromyography and neuro-electrophysiological recordings of phrenic nerves (innervating the diaphragm)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355786/upregulation-of-calcium-channel-alpha-2-delta-1-subunit-in-dorsal-horn-contributes-to-spinal-cord-injury-induced-tactile-allodynia
#10
Kazuki Kusuyama, Toshiya Tachibana, Hiroki Yamanaka, Masamichi Okubo, Shinichi Yoshiya, Koichi Noguchi
BACKGROUND CONTEX: Spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly results not only in motor paralysis but also in the emergence of neuropathic pain, both of which can impair the quality of life for SCI patients. In the clinical field, it is well known that pregabalin, which binds to the voltage-gated calcium channel α2δ-1subunit has therapeutic effects on neuropathic pain after SCI. A Previous study has demonstrated that SCI increased α2δ-1 in L4-6 dorsal spinal cord of SCI rats by Western blot analysis and that the increase of α2δ-1 was correlated with tactile allodynia of the hind paw...
January 16, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349661/pkm2-is-involved-in-neuropathic-pain-by-regulating-erk-and-stat3-activation-in-rat-spinal-cord
#11
Binbin Wang, Siyuan Liu, Bingbing Fan, Xingguo Xu, Yonglin Chen, Rongxiang Lu, Zhongling Xu, Xiaojuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Pyruvate kinase isozymes M2 (PKM2), as a member of pyruvate kinase family, plays a role of glycolytic enzyme in glucose metabolism. It also functions as protein kinase in cell proliferation, signaling, immunity, and gene transcription. In this study, the role of PKM2 in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) was investigated. METHODS: Rats were randomly grouped to establish CCI models. PKM2, extracellular regulated protein kinases (EKR), p-ERK, signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT3), p-STAT3, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and p-PI3K/AKT proteins expression in spinal cord was examined by Western blot analysis...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323048/topiramate-as-a-neuroprotective-agent-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Firat Narin, Sahin Hanalioglu, Huseyin Ustun, Kamer Kilinc, Burcak Bilginer
Topiramate (TPM) is a widely used antiepileptic and antimigraine agent which has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in various experimental traumatic brain injury and stroke models. However, its utility in spinal cord injury has not been studied extensively. Thus, we evaluated effects of TPM on secondary cellular injury mechanisms in an experimental rat model of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). After rat models of thoracic contusive SCI were established by free weight-drop method, TPM (40 mg/kg) was given at 12-hour intervals for four times orally...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323029/environmental-cues-determine-the-fate-of-astrocytes-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
REVIEW
Fatima M Nathan, Shuxin Li
Reactive astrogliosis occurs after central nervous system (CNS) injuries whereby resident astrocytes form rapid responses along a graded continuum. Following CNS lesions, naïve astrocytes are converted into reactive astrocytes and eventually into scar-forming astrocytes that block axon regeneration and neural repair. It has been known for decades that scarring development and its related extracellular matrix molecules interfere with regeneration of injured axons after CNS injury, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms for controlling astrocytic scar formation and maintenance are not well known...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300519/expression-and-cellular-localization-of-ifitm1-in-normal-and-injured-rat-spinal-cords
#14
Ying Wang, Yu-Hong Lin, Yan Wu, Zong-Feng Yao, Jie Tang, Lin Shen, Rui Wang, Shu-Qin Ding, Jian-Guo Hu, He-Zuo Lü
Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) is a member of the IFITM family that is associated with some acute-phase cytokine-stimulated response. Recently, we demonstrated that IFITM1 was significantly upregulated in the injured spinal cords at the mRNA level. However, its expression and cellular localization at the protein level is still unclear. Here, a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) was performed to investigate the spatio-temporal expression of IFITM1 after SCI. IFITM1 mRNA and protein were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blot, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298648/optogenetics-of-the-spinal-cord-use-of-channelrhodopsin-proteins-for-interrogation-of-spinal-cord-circuits
#15
Habibur Rahman, Youngpyo Nam, Jae-Hong Kim, Won-Ha Lee, Kyoungho Suk
Spinal cord circuits play a key role in receiving and transmitting somatosensory information from the body and the brain. They also contribute to the timing and coordination of complex patterns of movement. Under disease conditions, such as spinal cord injury and neuropathic pain, spinal cord circuits receive pain signals from peripheral nerves, and are involved in pain development via neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators released from neurons and glial cells. Despite the importance of spinal cord circuits in sensory and motor functions, many questions remain regarding the relationship between activation of specific cells and behavioral responses...
December 29, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283016/pericytes-make-spinal-cord-breathless-after-injury
#16
Viviani M Almeida, Ana E Paiva, Isadora F G Sena, Akiva Mintz, Luiz Alexandre V Magno, Alexander Birbrair
Traumatic spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that leads to significant neurological deficits and reduced quality of life. Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord lesions are designed to address multiple aspects of the secondary damage. However, the lack of detailed knowledge about the cellular and molecular changes that occur after spinal cord injury restricts the design of effective treatments. Li and colleagues using a rat model of spinal cord injury and in vivo microscopy reveal that pericytes play a key role in the regulation of capillary tone and blood flow in the spinal cord below the site of the lesion...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279310/proliferating-ng2-cell-dependent-angiogenesis-and-scar-formation-alter-axon-growth-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#17
Z C Hesp, R Y Yoseph, R Suzuki, C Wilson, A Nishiyama, D M McTigue
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a centralized fibrotic scar surrounded by a reactive glial scar at the lesion site. The origin of these scars is thought to be perivascular cells entering lesions on ingrowing blood vessels and reactive astrocytes, respectively. However, two NG2-expressing cell populations (pericytes and glia) also may influence scar formation. In the periphery, new blood vessel growth requires proliferating NG2+ pericytes; if also true in the CNS, then the fibrotic scar would depend on dividing NG2+ pericytes...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240948/early-cyclical-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-improves-strength-and-trophism-by-akt-pathway-signaling-in-partially-paralyzed-biceps-muscle-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#18
Gabriel R de Freitas, Caroline C do Espírito Santo, Nicolas A M M de Machado-Pereira, Franciane Bobinski, Adair R S Dos Santos, Jocemar Ilha
Background: Electrical stimulation is often used to treat weakness in people with spinal cord injury (SCI), however its efficacy to increase strength and trophism are weak and the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefits are unknown. Objective: The purpose of the study was to analyze the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle function, trophism and the Akt pathway signaling involved in muscular plasticity after incomplete-SCI in rats...
December 12, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239336/neural-progenitor-cells-but-not-astrocytes-respond-distally-to-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat-models
#19
Tara Nguyen, Yilin Mao, Theresa Sutherland, Catherine Anne Gorrie
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a detrimental condition that causes loss of sensory and motor function in an individual. Many complex secondary injury cascades occur after SCI and they offer great potential for therapeutic targeting. In this study, we investigated the response of endogenous neural progenitor cells, astrocytes, and microglia to a localized thoracic SCI throughout the neuroaxis. Twenty-five adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent mild-contusion thoracic SCI (n = 9), sham surgery (n = 8), or no surgery (n = 8)...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238462/mechanisms-of-spinal-cord-injury-regeneration-in-zebrafish-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Zeynab Noorimotlagh, Mahla Babaie, Mahdi Safdarian, Tahereh Ghadiri, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
Objectives: To determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish. Materials and Methods: Medical databases of PubMed and Scopus were searched with following key words: Zebrafish; spinal cord injuries; regeneration; recovery of function. The map of mechanisms was performed using Xmind software. Results: Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, L1.1, L1.2, Major vault protein (MVP), contactin-2 and High mobility group box1 (HMGB1) had positive promoting effects on axonal re-growth while Ptena had an inhibitory effect...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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