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Spinal cord injury cellular

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030146/salamander-spinal-cord-regeneration-the-ultimate-positive-control-in-vertebrate-spinal-cord-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Akira Tazaki, Elly M Tanaka, Jifeng Fei
Repairing injured tissues / organs is one of the major challenges for the maintenance of proper organ function in adulthood. In mammals, the central nervous system including the spinal cord, once established during embryonic development, has very limited capacity to regenerate. In contrast, salamanders such as axolotls can fully regenerate the injured spinal cord, making this a very powerful vertebrate model system for studying this process. Here we discuss the cellular and molecular requirements for spinal cord regeneration in the axolotl...
October 10, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025962/therapeutic-hypothermia-in-acute-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#2
James Collis
Therapeutic hypothermia is already widely acknowledged as an effective neuroprotective intervention, especially within the acute care setting in relation to conditions such as cardiac arrest and neonatal encephalopathy. Its multifactorial mechanisms of action, including lowering metabolic rate and reducing acute inflammatory cellular processes, ultimately provide protection for central nervous tissue from continuing injury following ischaemic or traumatic insult. Its clinical application within acute traumatic spinal cord injury would therefore seem very plausible, it having the potential to combat the pathophysiological secondary injury processes that can develop in the proceeding hours to days following the initial injury...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985200/cellular-therapy-for-traumatic-neurological-injury
#3
REVIEW
Charles S Cox
Neurological injury is the primary lethal mechanism of injury in children, and the primary etiology of long-term disability after trauma. Laboratories and clinical/translational teams have sought to develop stem/progenitor cell therapies to improve recovery in a clinical setting in which there is no significant reparative option. While none of these treatments are currently standard therapeutics, Phase 2b clinical trials are underway in both adults and children in severe traumatic brain injury and Phase 1/2a trials in spinal cord injury...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980210/photobiomodulation-therapy-improves-acute-inflammatory-response-in-mice-the-role-of-cannabinoid-receptors-atp-sensitive-k-channel-p38-mapk-signalling-pathway
#4
Laís M S Neves, Elaine C D Gonçalves, Juliana Cavalli, Graziela Vieira, Larissa R Laurindo, Róli R Simões, Igor S Coelho, Adair R S Santos, Alexandre M Marcolino, Maíra Cola, Rafael C Dutra
Although photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) has been applied clinically for the treatment of pain and inflammation, wound healing, sports and soft tissue injuries, as well as to repair injured spinal cords and peripheral nerves, it remains unclear which molecular substrates (receptor) are implicated in the cellular mechanisms of PBM. Here, we reported that PBM (660 nm, 30 mW, 0.06 cm(2), 50 J/cm(2), plantar irradiation) significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw oedema, but not noxious thermal response, through positive modulation to both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979699/autophagy-plays-a-protective-role-in-motor-neuron-degeneration-following-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-spastic-paralysis
#5
Li Wang, Dongliang Feng, Yuan Liu, Sen Li, Long Jiang, Zaiyun Long, Yamin Wu
Spinal cord ischemia and reperfusion (SCIR) injury can lead to neurologic dysfunction and paraplegia, which are serious complications after shock or thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process in eukaryotes, and homeostasis of autophagic activities in the cytoplasm is critical for the maintenance of neuronal function. To date, no studies have addressed the involvement of autophagy in the regulation of motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord area following SCIR-induced spastic paralysis or the underlying mechanisms of this process...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972143/shedding-of-membrane-associated-ldl-receptor-related-protein-1-from-microglia-amplifies-and-sustains-neuro-inflammation
#6
Coralie Brifault, Andrew S Gilder, Emilia Laudati, Michael Banki, Steven L Gonias
In the CNS, microglia are activated in response to injury or infection and in neurodegenerative diseases. The endocytic and cell-signaling receptor, LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1), is reported to suppress innate immunity in macrophages and oppose microglial activation. The goal of this study was to identify novel mechanisms by which LRP1 may regulate microglial activation. Using primary cultures of microglia isolated from mouse brains, we demonstrated that LRP1 gene-silencing increases expression of pro-inflammatory mediators; however, the observed response was modest...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967329/post-injury-treatment-with-nim811-promotes-recovery-of-function-in-adult-female-rats-following-spinal-cord-contusion-a-dose-response-study
#7
Joe E Springer, Nishant Visavadiya, Patrick G Sullivan, Edward D Hall
Mitochondrial homeostasis is essential for maintaining cellular function and survival in the central nervous system (CNS). Mitochondrial function is significantly compromised following spinal cord injury (SCI) and is associated with accumulation of high levels of calcium, increased production of free radicals, oxidative damage, and eventually mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT). The formation of the mPT pore (mPTP) and subsequent mPT state are considered to be end stage events in the decline of mitochondrial integrity, and strategies that inhibit mPT can limit mitochondrial demise...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964881/clinical-translation-of-stem-cell-based-interventions-for-spinal-cord-injury-are-we-there-yet
#8
Harvinder S Chhabra, Kanchan Sarda
Recent advances in basic science in research related to spinal cord injury (SCI) and regeneration have led to a variety of novel experimental therapeutics designed to promote functionally effective axonal regrowth and sprouting. Stem cell and other cellular interventions have gained lot of attention due to their immense potential of regeneration. These interventions have been tested for their efficacy in case of SCI both at the pre-clinical and clinical level. In this review we critically discuss the published literature on the cellular interventions for SCI and their clinical applications with respect to the strength of evidence established by these studies...
September 27, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947264/surgical-techniques-influence-local-environment-of-injured-spinal-cord-and-cause-various-grafted-cell-survival-and-integration
#9
Shaoping Hou, Tatiana M Saltos, Idiata W Iredia, Veronica J Tom
BACKGROUND: Cellular transplantation to repair a complete spinal cord injury (SCI) is tremendously challenging due to the adverse local milieu for graft survival and growth. Results from cell transplantation studies yield great variability, which may possibly be due to the surgical techniques employed to induce an SCI. In order to delineate the influence of surgery on such inconsistency, we compared lesion morphology and graft survival as well as integration from different lesion methodologies of SCI...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935700/mitochondrial-based-therapeutics-for-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury-mitochondrial-biogenesis-as-a-potential-pharmacological-target
#10
Natalie E Scholpa, Rick G Schnellmann
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by an initial trauma followed by a progressive cascade of damage referred to as secondary injury. A hallmark of secondary injury is vascular disruption leading to vasoconstriction and decreased oxygen delivery, directly reducing the ability of mitochondria to maintain homeostasis, leading to loss of ATP-dependent cellular functions, calcium overload, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, further exacerbating injury. Restoration of mitochondria dysfunction during the acute phases of secondary injury post-SCI represents a potentially effective therapeutic strategy...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928988/the-effect-of-glucocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-interactions-on-brain-spinal-cord-and-glial-cell-plasticity
#11
REVIEW
Kathryn M Madalena, Jessica K Lerch
Stress, injury, and disease trigger glucocorticoid (GC) elevation. Elevated GCs bind to the ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid receptor (GR). While GRs are in every cell in the nervous system, the expression level varies, suggesting that diverse cell types react differently to GR activation. Stress/GCs induce structural plasticity in neurons, Schwann cells, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes as well as affect neurotransmission by changing the release and reuptake of glutamate. While general nervous system plasticity is essential for adaptation and learning and memory, stress-induced plasticity is often maladaptive and contributes to neuropsychiatric disorders and neuropathic pain...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895456/spatial-and-cellular-expression-patterns-of-erythropoietin-receptor-and-erythropoietin-during-a-42-day-post-lesional-time-course-after-graded-thoracic-spinal-cord-impact-lesions-in-the-rat
#12
Gesa Cohrs, Stephan Goerden, Ralf Lucius, Michael Synowitz, Maximilian Hubertus Mehdorn, Janka Held-Feindt, Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus
Erythropoietin (Epo) exhibits promising neuroregenerative potential for spinal cord injury (SCI) and might be involved in other long-term sequelae, such as neuropathic pain development. The current studies investigated the time courses and spatial and cellular patterns of Epo and EpoR expression along the spinal axis after graded SCI. Male Long Evans rats received 100-kdyn, 150-kdyn, and 200-kdyn thoracic (T9) contusions from an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Sham controls received laminectomies. Anatomical and quantitative immunohistochemical analyses of the EpoR/Epo expression along the whole spinal axis were performed 7, 15, and 42 DPO after the lesioning...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886701/the-loss-of-function-disease-mutation-g301r-in-the-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-2-isoform-decreases-lesion-volume-and-improves-functional-outcome-after-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#13
Ditte Gry Ellman, Toke Jost Isaksen, Minna Christiansen Lund, Safinaz Dursun, Martin Wirenfeldt, Louise Helskov Jørgensen, Karin Lykke-Hartmann, Kate Lykke Lambertsen
BACKGROUND: The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases are transmembrane ion pumps important for maintenance of ion gradients across the plasma membrane that serve to support multiple cellular functions, such as membrane potentials, regulation of cellular volume and pH, and co-transport of signaling transmitters in all animal cells. The α2Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunit isoform is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, which us the sharp Na(+)-gradient maintained by the sodium pump necessary for astroglial metabolism...
September 8, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881824/differential-gene-and-lncrna-expression-in-the-lower-thoracic-spinal-cord-following-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-rats
#14
Qing-Quan Liu, Hui Liu, Zhi-Gang He, Shi-Jie Zhang, Bao-Wen Liu, Le Wang, Wen-Hui Qiu, Qing Xu, Hong-Bing Xiang, Yong-Man Lv
We used high-throughput RNA sequencing to analyze differential gene and lncRNA expression patterns in the lower thoracic spinal cord during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. We observed that of 32662 mRNAs, 4296 out were differentially expressed in the T8-12 segments of the spinal cord upon I/R-induced AKI. Among these, 62 were upregulated and 34 were downregulated in response to I/R (FDR < 0.05, |log2FC| > 1). Further, 52 differentially expressed lncRNAs (35 upregulated and 17 downregulated) were identified among 3849 lncRNA transcripts...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881715/activation-of-the-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway-by-probucol-contributes-to-inhibiting-inflammation-and-neuronal-apoptosis-after-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Zipeng Zhou, Chang Liu, Shurui Chen, Haosen Zhao, Kang Zhou, Wei Wang, Yajiang Yuan, Zhuo Li, Yue Guo, Zhaoliang Shen, Xifan Mei
The nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway plays an essential role in the cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses. Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a massive release of inflammatory factors and free radicals, which seriously compromise nerve recovery and axon regeneration. In this study, we examined the efficacy of probucol on anti-inflammatory responses and functional recovery after SCI by activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. We also investigated the mechanism by which inflammation is inhibited in this process...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875455/albumin-conjugated-lipid-based-multilayered-nanoemulsion-improves-drug-specificity-and-anti-inflammatory-potential-at-the-spinal-cord-injury-gsite-after-intravenous-administration
#16
Xiao-Gang Chen, Fu Hua, Shou-Guo Wang, Hong-Hui Tang
Albumin-conjugated multilayered nanoemulsion (albumin-MNE) of methyl prednisolone (MP) was developed to ensure the specificity of the drug at the spinal cord injury (SCI) site. MNE was prepared by emulsification followed by ionic deposition of oppositely charged polymer followed by albumin conjugation using N-hydroxysuccinimide. Prepared nanoemulsion was characterized for particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (Zp), pH, viscosity, and entrapment efficiency. It was further evaluated for shape and morphological analysis, in vitro release, cell viability, and in vivo efficacy against post SCI-like conditions in terms of behavioral assessment, histopathological evaluation, and immunoflorescence assay of the histological sections showing Bax-driven apoptosis...
September 5, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861160/long-nonding-rna-uca1-regulates-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-by-controlling-mir-1-hes1-expression
#17
Jiaolin Zheng, Dan Yi, Yu Liu, Mingqiu Wang, Yulan Zhu, Huaizhang Shi
Neural stem cells are able to self-renew and generate glial and neuronal lineages. Neural stem cell may serve as therapeutic method for neurological disorders including spinal cord injuries, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are longer than 200 nucleotides with limited protein-coding capacity. Recent studies have demonstreated that lncRNAs play an important role in several cellular processes including cell differentiation, cell development, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851597/intraspinal-tlr4-activation-promotes-iron-storage-but-does-not-protect-neurons-or-oligodendrocytes-from-progressive-iron-mediated-damage
#18
Evan Z Goldstein, Jamie S Church, Nicole Pukos, Manoj K Gottipati, Phillip G Popovich, Dana M McTigue
Iron is essential for basic cellular functions but in excess is highly toxic. For this reason, free iron and iron storage are controlled in the periphery by elaborate regulatory mechanisms. In contrast, iron regulation in the central nervous system (CNS) is not well defined. Given that excess iron is present after trauma, hemorrhagic stroke and neurodegeneration, understanding normal iron regulation and promoting iron uptake in CNS pathology is crucial. Peripherally, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation promotes iron sequestration by macrophages...
August 26, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851266/different-mixed-astrocyte-populations-derived-from-embryonic-stem-cells-have-variable-neuronal-growth-support-capacities
#19
Russell E Thompson, Allison Lake, Peter Kenny, Michael N Saunders, Kristina Sakers, Nisha R Iyer, Joseph D Dougherty, Shelly E Sakiyama-Elbert
Central nervous system injury often leads to functional impairment due, in part, to the formation of an inhibitory glial scar following injury that contributes to poor regeneration. Astrocytes are the major cellular components of the glial scar, which has led to the belief that they are primarily inhibitory following injury. Recent work has challenged this by demonstrating that some astrocytes are required for spinal cord regeneration and astrocytic roles in recovery depend on their phenotype. In this work, two mixed populations containing primarily either fibrous or protoplasmic astrocytes were derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs)...
October 17, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819194/hdac3-inhibition-ameliorates-spinal-cord-injury-by-immunomodulation
#20
Tomoharu Kuboyama, Shalaka Wahane, Yong Huang, Xiang Zhou, Jamie K Wong, Andrew Koemeter-Cox, Michael Martini, Roland H Friedel, Hongyan Zou
Following spinal cord injury (SCI), the innate immune response of microglia and infiltrating macrophages clears up cellular debris and promotes tissue repair, but it also inflicts secondary injury from inflammatory responses. Immunomodulation aimed at maximizing the beneficial effects while minimizing the detrimental roles of the innate immunity may aid functional recovery after SCI. However, intracellular drivers of global reprogramming of the inflammatory gene networks in the innate immune cells are poorly understood...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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