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Spinal cord injury cellular

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631619/modeling-trans-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-modulation-of-the-lumbar-spinal-motor-pathways
#1
Alexander Kuck, Dick Stegeman, Edwin van Asseldonk
OBJECTIVE: Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a potential new technique for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). TsDCS aims to facilitate plastic changes in the neural pathways of the spinal cord with a positive effect on SCI recovery. To establish tsDCS as a possible treatment option for SCI, it is essential to gain a better understanding of its cause and effects. We seek to understand the acute effect of tsDCS, including the generated electric field (EF) and its polarization effect on the spinal circuits, to determine a cellular target...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628593/consideration-of-dose-and-timing-when-applying-interventions-after-stroke-and-spinal-cord-injury
#2
D Michele Basso, Catherine E Lang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nearly 4 decades of investigation into the plasticity of the nervous system suggest that both timing and dose could matter. This article provides a synopsis of our lectures at the IV STEP meeting, which presented a perspective of current data on the issues of timing and dose for adult stroke and spinal cord injury motor rehabilitation. SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS: For stroke, the prevailing evidence suggests that greater amounts of therapy do not result in better outcomes for upper extremity interventions, regardless of timing...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626016/the-mtor-substrate-s6-kinase-1-s6k1-is-a-negative-regulator-of-axon-regeneration-and-a-potential-drug-target-for-central-nervous-system-injury
#3
Hassan Al-Ali, Ying Ding, Tatiana Slepak, Wei Wu, Yan Sun, Yania Martinez, Xiao-Ming Xu, V P Lemmon, J L Bixby
The mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) positively regulates axon growth in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Though axon regeneration and functional recovery from CNS injuries are typically limited, knockdown or deletion of PTEN, a negative regulator of mTOR, increases mTOR activity and induces robust axon growth and regeneration. It has been suggested that inhibition of S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1, gene symbol: RPS6KB1), a prominent mTOR target, would blunt mTOR's positive effect on axon growth. In contrast to this expectation, we demonstrate that inhibition of S6K1 in CNS neurons promotes neurite outgrowth in vitro by 2-3 fold...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601045/microrna-494-improves-functional-recovery-and-inhibits-apoptosis-by-modulating-pten-akt-mtor-pathway-in-rats-after-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Huaguang Zhu, Rong Xie, Xiaodong Liu, Jiajun Shou, Wentao Gu, Shixin Gu, Xiaoming Che
Multiple cellular, molecular, and biochemical changes contribute to the etiology and treatment outcome of contusion spinal cord injury (SCI). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) aberrant expression have been found after SCI in recent studies. However, little is known about the functional significance of the unique role of miRNAs in SCI. Here, we established a rat SCI model and performed the miRNA microarray to analyze miRNAs expression at different times post-SCI. Microarray data revealed that 14 miRNAs were upregulated and 46 miRNAs were downregulated by 2 times compared with sham rat spinal cords, and miR-494 was one of the miRNAs being most significantly downregulated...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599602/spinal-cord-injury-causes-systolic-dysfunction-and-cardiomyocyte-atrophy
#5
Jordan W Squair, Kathryn M DeVeau, Kathryn A Harman, Malihe-Sadat Poormasjedi-Meibod, Brian Hayes, Jie Liu, David S K Magnuson, Andrei V Krassioukov, Christopher R West
Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to exhibit systolic, and to a lesser extent, diastolic cardiac dysfunction. However, previous reports of cardiac dysfunction in this population are confounded by the changing loading conditions after SCI and as such, whether cardiac dysfunction per se is present is still unknown. Therefore, our aim was to establish if load-independent cardiac dysfunction is present after SCI, to understand the functional cardiac response to SCI, and to explore the changes within the cellular milieu of the myocardium...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587745/an-ex-vivo-spinal-cord-injury-model-to-study-ependymal-cells-in-adult-mouse-tissue
#6
Teresa Fernandez-Zafra, Simone Codeluppi, Per Uhlén
Traumatic spinal cord injury is characterized by an initial cell loss that is followed by a concerted cellular response in an attempt to restore the damaged tissue. Nevertheless, little is known about the signaling mechanisms governing the cellular response to injury. Here, we have established an adult ex vivo system that exhibits multiple hallmarks of spinal cord injury and allows the study of complex processes that are difficult to address using animal models. We have characterized the ependymal cell response to injury in this model system and found that ependymal cells can become activated, proliferate, migrate out of the central canal lining and differentiate in a manner resembling the in vivo situation...
June 3, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585890/hypoxic-conditioning-and-the-central-nervous-system-a-new-therapeutic-opportunity-for-brain-and-spinal-cord-injuries
#7
S Baillieul, S Chacaroun, S Doutreleau, O Detante, J L Pépin, S Verges
Central nervous system diseases are among the most disabling in the world. Neuroprotection and brain recovery from either acute or chronic neurodegeneration still represent a challenge in neurology and neurorehabilitation as pharmacology treatments are often insufficiently effective. Conditioning the central nervous system has been proposed as a potential non-pharmacological neuro-therapeutic. Conditioning refers to a procedure by which a potentially deleterious stimulus is applied near to but below the threshold of damage to the organism to increase resistance to the same or even different noxious stimuli given above the threshold of damage...
June 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565771/erythropoietin-facilitates-the-recruitment-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-sites-of-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Jun Li, Weichun Guo, Min Xiong, Shuangjie Zhang, Heng Han, Jie Chen, Dan Mao, Hualong Yu, Yun Zeng
Despite the successes of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation for the treatment of spinal cord injuries, only a small fraction of grafted cells migrate to the target areas. Therefore, there remains a need for more efficient strategies of BMSC delivery. The present study was designed to explore this. Rat models of spinal cord injury (SCI) were established and exposed to phosphate buffered saline (control), BMSCs or BMSCs + erythropoietin (EPO). Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale and grid walk tests were then utilized to estimate neurological rehabilitation...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562227/a-combinatorial-approach-to-induce-sensory-axon-regeneration-into-the-dorsal-root-avulsed-spinal-cord
#9
Jan Hoeber, Niclas König, Carl Trolle, Emilia Lekholm, Chunfang Zhou, Stanislava Pankratova, Elisabet Åkesson, Robert Fredriksson, Håkan Aldskogius, Elena N Kozlova
Spinal root injuries result in newly formed glial scar formation, which prevents regeneration of sensory axons causing permanent sensory loss. Previous studies showed that delivery of trophic factors or implantation of human neural progenitor cells supports sensory axon regeneration and partly restores sensory functions. In this study, we elucidate mechanisms underlying stem cell-mediated ingrowth of sensory axons after dorsal root avulsion (DRA). We show that human spinal cord neural stem/progenitor cells (hscNSPC), and also, mesoporous silica particles loaded with growth factor mimetics (MesoMIM), supported sensory axon regeneration...
May 31, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559442/cxcl12%C3%AE-sdf-1-from-perisynaptic-schwann-cells-promotes-regeneration-of-injured-motor-axon%C3%A2-terminals
#10
Samuele Negro, Francesca Lessi, Elisa Duregotti, Paolo Aretini, Marco La Ferla, Sara Franceschi, Michele Menicagli, Elisanna Bergamin, Egle Radice, Marcus Thelen, Aram Megighian, Marco Pirazzini, Chiara M Mazzanti, Michela Rigoni, Cesare Montecucco
The neuromuscular junction has retained through evolution the capacity to regenerate after damage, but little is known on the inter-cellular signals involved in its functional recovery from trauma, autoimmune attacks, or neurotoxins. We report here that CXCL12α, also abbreviated as stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), is produced specifically by perisynaptic Schwann cells following motor axon terminal degeneration induced by α-latrotoxin. CXCL12α acts via binding to the neuronal CXCR4 receptor. A CXCL12α-neutralizing antibody or a specific CXCR4 inhibitor strongly delays recovery from motor neuron degeneration in vivo Recombinant CXCL12α in vivo accelerates neurotransmission rescue upon damage and very effectively stimulates the axon growth of spinal cord motor neurons in vitro These findings indicate that the CXCL12α-CXCR4 axis plays an important role in the regeneration of the neuromuscular junction after motor axon injury...
May 30, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554833/optimization-of-mitochondrial-isolation-techniques-for-intraspinal-transplantation-procedures
#11
Jenna L Gollihue, Samir P Patel, Charlie Mashburn, Khalid C Eldahan, Patrick G Sullivan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
BACKGROUND: Proper mitochondrial function is essential to maintain normal cellular bioenergetics and ionic homeostasis. In instances of severe tissue damage, such as traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, mitochondria become damaged and unregulated leading to cell death. The relatively unexplored field of mitochondrial transplantation following neurotrauma is based on the theory that replacing damaged mitochondria with exogenous respiratory-competent mitochondria can restore overall tissue bioenergetics...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554011/physical-chitosan-microhydrogels-as-scaffolds-for-spinal-cord-injury-restoration-and-axon-regeneration
#12
Jamila Chedly, Sylvia Soares, Alexandra Montembault, Ysander von Boxberg, Michèle Veron-Ravaille, Christine Mouffle, Marie-Noelle Benassy, Jacques Taxi, Laurent David, Fatiha Nothias
Recovery from traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) usually fails due to a cascade of cellular and molecular events that compromise neural tissue reconstitution by giving rise to glial scarring and cavity formation. We designed a scaffold material for SCI treatment containing only chitosan and water as fragmented physical hydrogel suspension (Chitosan-FPHS), with defined degree of acetylation (DA), polymer concentration, and mean fragment size. Implantation of Chitosan-FPHS alone into rat spinal cord immediately after a bilateral dorsal hemisection promoted reconstitution of spinal tissue and vasculature, and diminished fibrous glial scarring: with astrocyte processes primarily oriented towards the lesion, the border between lesion site and intact tissue became permissive for regrowth of numerous axons into, and for some even beyond the lesion site...
May 19, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548606/anatomical-recruitment-of-spinal-v2a-interneurons-into-phrenic-motor-circuitry-after-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Lyandysha Viktorovna Zholudeva, Jordyn Karliner, Kimberly J Dougherty, Michael Lane
More than half of all spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur at the cervical level, often resulting in impaired respiration. Despite this devastating outcome, there is substantial evidence for endogenous neuroplasticity after cervical SCI. Spinal interneurons are widely recognized as being an essential anatomical component of this plasticity by contributing to novel neuronal pathways that can result in functional improvement. The identity of spinal interneurons involved with respiratory plasticity post-SCI, however, has remained largely unknown...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540118/spinal-cord-injury-in-the-geriatric-population-risk-factors-treatment-options-and-long-term-management
#14
REVIEW
Tochukwu C Ikpeze, Addisu Mesfin
Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are sustained by more than 12 500 patients per year in the United States and more globally. The SCIs disproportionately affect the elderly, especially men. Approximately 60% of these injuries are sustained traumatically through falls, but nontraumatic causes including infections, tumors, and medication-related epidural bleeding have also been documented. Preexisting conditions such as ankylosing spondylitis and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis can render the spine stiff and are risk factors as well as cervical spondylosis and ensuing cervical stenosis...
June 2017: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526267/neurological-heterotopic-ossification-current-understanding-and-future-directions
#15
Rhys D Brady, Sandy R Shultz, Stuart J McDonald, Terence J O'Brien
Neurological heterotopic ossification (NHO) involves the formation of bone in soft tissue following a neurological condition, of which the most common are brain and spinal cord injuries. NHO often forms around the hip, knee and shoulder joints, causing severe pain and joint deformation which is associated with significant morbidity and reduced quality of life. The cellular and molecular events that initiate NHO have been the focus of an increasing number of human and animal studies over the past decade, with this work largely driven by the need to unearth potential therapeutic interventions to prevent the formation of NHO...
May 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508364/a-novel-2-de-based-proteomic-analysis-to-identify-multiple-substrates-for-specific-protease-in-neuronal-cells
#16
Chiho Kim, Young J Oh
Proteolysis is a process where proteins are broken down into smaller polypeptides or amino acids, comprising one of the important posttranslational modifications of proteins. Since this process is exquisitely achieved by specialized enzymes called proteases under physiological conditions, abnormal protease activity and dysregulation of their substrate proteins are closely associated with a progression of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, stroke, and spinal cord injury...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503634/an-acute-mouse-spinal-cord-slice-preparation-for-studying-glial-activation-ex-vivo
#17
Juan Mauricio Garré, Guang Yang, Feliksas F Bukauskas, Michael V L Bennett
Pathological conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury and chronic pain are characterized by activation of astrocytes and microglia in spinal cord and have been modeled in rodents. In vivo imaging at cellular level in these animal models is limited due to the spinal cord's highly myelinated funiculi. The preparation of acute slices may offer an alternative and valuable strategy to collect structural and functional information in vitro from dorsal, lateral and ventral regions of spinal cord...
January 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499241/pathophysiology-mechanisms-and-applications-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury
#18
REVIEW
Pravin Shende, Muna Subedi
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a serious devastating condition associated to the high chances of morbidity and mortality. It involves a primary and a secondary injury, former cause damages to both lower and upper motor neurones and disrupts sensory, motor and autonomic functions while the latter involves various stages of molecular plus cellular incidents which elaborate the original injury. In the treatment of SCI, stem cells possess a good therapeutic potential. Bone marrow, adipose tissue, placenta, amniotic fluid and umbilical cord are the good sources for mesenchymal stem cells...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495596/the-role-of-omega-3-and-omega-9-fatty-acids-for-the-treatment-of-neuropathic-pain-after-neurotrauma
#19
REVIEW
Iriana Galán-Arriero, Diego Serrano-Muñoz, Julio Gómez-Soriano, Carlos Goicoechea, Julian Taylor, Ana Velasco, Gerardo Ávila-Martín
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as Docosaexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), mediate neuroactive effects in experimental models of traumatic peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. Cellular mechanisms of PUFAs include reduced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, enhanced neurotrophic support, and activation of cell survival pathways. Bioactive omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, such as Oleic Acid (OA) and 2-Hydroxy Oleic Acid (2-OHOA), also show therapeutic effects in neurotrauma models...
May 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482882/targeted-sirna-delivery-reduces-nitric-oxide-mediated-cell-death-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Wen Gao, Jianming Li
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) includes the primary insult as well as a sequela of biochemical and cellular cascades that amplifies the initial injury. This degenerative process, known as secondary injury, is often mediated by both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species released from damaged cells. Previous data suggests that dysregulated production of nitric oxide via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is detrimental to spinal cord recovery. M1 macrophages have been implicated to overexpress iNOS post-SCI...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
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