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Cardiac Chamber Expansion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540665/myocardial-bmp2-gain-causes-ectopic-emt-and-promotes-cardiomyocyte-proliferation-and-immaturity
#1
Belén Prados, Paula Gómez-Apiñániz, Tania Papoutsi, Guillermo Luxán, Stephane Zaffran, José María Pérez-Pomares, José Luis de la Pompa
During mammalian heart development, restricted myocardial Bmp2 expression is a key patterning signal for atrioventricular canal specification and the epithelial-mesenchyme transition that gives rise to the valves. Using a mouse transgenic line conditionally expressing Bmp2, we show that widespread Bmp2 expression in the myocardium leads to valve and chamber dysmorphogenesis and embryonic death by E15.5. Transgenic embryos show thickened valves, ventricular septal defect, enlarged trabeculae and dilated ventricles, with an endocardium able to undergo EMT both in vivo and in vitro...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059957/cardiac-image-segmentation-using-generalized-polynomial-chaos-expansion-and-level-set-function
#2
Yuncheng Du, Dongping Du
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) images involves a great amount of uncertainties. Such uncertainties may originate from either intrinsic measurement limitations or heterogeneities among patients. Without properly considering these uncertainties, image analysis may provide inaccurate estimations of cardiac functions, and ultimately lead to false diagnosis and inappropriate treatment strategy. In this work, a stochastic image segmentation algorithm is developed to separate cardiac chambers from the background of CMR images...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945162/orbital-atherectomy-for-the-treatment-of-severely-calcified-coronary-lesions-evidence-technique-and-best-practices
#3
Evan Shlofmitz, Brad J Martinsen, Michael Lee, Sunil V Rao, Philippe Généreux, Joe Higgins, Jeffrey W Chambers, Ajay J Kirtane, Emmanouil S Brilakis, David E Kandzari, Samin K Sharma, Richard Shlofmitz
The presence of severe coronary artery calcification is associated with higher rates of angiographic complications during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), as well as higher major adverse cardiac events compared with non-calcified lesions. Incorporating orbital atherectomy (OAS) for effective preparation of severely calcified lesions can help maximize the benefits of PCI by attaining maximal luminal gain (or stent expansion) and improve long-term outcomes (by reducing need for revascularization). Areas covered: In this manuscript, the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of coronary artery calcification on PCI are reviewed...
October 4, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538535/quantitative-evaluation-of-left-atrial-volume-and-function-by-one-dimensional-two-dimensional-and-three-dimensional-echocardiography-in-a-population-of-normal-dogs
#4
N LeBlanc, K Scollan, D Sisson
OBJECTIVES: The primary goal of this study was to compare left atrial (LA) volume and functional indices in a population of normal dogs using transthoracic one-dimensional M-mode, two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. ANIMALS: Forty clinically normal dogs of various breeds were stratified into four groups based on weight. METHODS: Left atrial volume (LAV) was estimated by converting single linear measurements derived from M-mode and 2D images into volumes via the cube and sphere formulas...
December 2016: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989555/postinfarct-left-ventricular-remodelling-a-prevailing-cause-of-heart-failure
#5
REVIEW
Alessio Galli, Federico Lombardi
Heart failure is a chronic disease with high morbidity and mortality, which represents a growing challenge in medicine. A major risk factor for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is a history of myocardial infarction. The expansion of a large infarct scar and subsequent regional ventricular dilatation can cause postinfarct remodelling, leading to significant enlargement of the left ventricular chamber. It has a negative prognostic value, because it precedes the clinical manifestations of heart failure...
2016: Cardiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26250191/description-of-trischistoma-abharensis-n-sp-nematoda-trischistomatidae-and-first-record-of-tripylella-intermedia-b%C3%A3-tschli-1873-brzeski-winiszewska-%C3%A5-lipinska-1993-nematoda-tripylidae-from-iran
#6
Ramezan Asghari, Ali Eskandari, Zahra Tanha Maafi, Zeng Qi Zhao, Sergio Álvarez-Ortega, Majid Nadirkhanloo
Two populations of the genera Trischistoma and Tripylella were recovered from the rhizosphere of grapevines and mosses growing on alder trees in Zanjan and Guilan provinces, respectively, Iran. The nematodes were identified as Trischistoma abharensis n. sp. and Tripylella intermedia, respectively. Trischistoma abharensis n. sp. is characterized by having females with body length 1069-1322 μm, presence of sparse somatic setae on the sublateral body, absence of ventromedian cervical setae, a distinct dorsal tooth directed anteriorly, absence of post-vulval uterine sac, and tail with one pair of subdorsal caudal setae...
July 17, 2015: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26095446/temporal-cohesion-of-the-structural-functional-and-molecular-characteristics-of-the-developing-zebrafish-heart
#7
Gianfranco Matrone, Kathryn S Wilson, John J Mullins, Carl S Tucker, Martin A Denvir
Heart formation is a complex, dynamic and highly coordinated process of molecular, morphogenetic and functional factors with each interacting and contributing to formation of the mature organ. Cardiac abnormalities in early life can be lethal in mammals but not in the zebrafish embryo which has been widely used to study the developing heart. While early cardiac development in the zebrafish has been well characterized, functional changes during development and how these relate to architectural, cellular and molecular aspects of development have not been well described previously...
June 2015: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25883210/numb-family-proteins-novel-players-in-cardiac-morphogenesis-and-cardiac-progenitor-cell-differentiation
#8
REVIEW
Mingfu Wu, Jingjing Li
Vertebrate heart formation is a spatiotemporally regulated morphogenic process that initiates with bilaterally symmetric cardiac primordial cells migrating toward the midline to form a linear heart tube. The heart tube then elongates and undergoes a series of looping morphogenesis, followed by expansions of regions that are destined to become primitive heart chambers. During the cardiac morphogenesis, cells derived from the first heart field contribute to the primary heart tube, and cells from the secondary heart field, cardiac neural crest, and pro-epicardial organ are added to the heart tube in a precise spatiotemporal manner...
April 2015: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25611312/right-and-left-atrial-dissimilarities-in-normal-subjects-explored-by-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#9
Sherif Moustafa, Hamed Zuhairy, Mostafa A Youssef, Nanette Alvarez, Michael S Connelly, Timothy Prieur, Farouk Mookadam
BACKGROUND: Atrial function is an important contributor of ventricular function and has a prognostic role in various cardiovascular diseases. We tested the hypothesis that right and left atrial (RA & LA) function may not be equal despite their accommodating identical cardiac output. METHODS: Two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography was acquired from the apical four-chamber view in 100 normal subjects. Both RA/LA subendocardial borders were traced to obtain atrial volumes, strain (ε) and strain rate (SR)...
September 2015: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25560321/extracardiac-control-of-embryonic-cardiomyocyte-proliferation-and-ventricular-wall-expansion
#10
Hua Shen, Susana Cavallero, Kristine D Estrada, Ionel Sandovici, S Ram Kumar, Takako Makita, Ching-Ling Lien, Miguel Constancia, Henry M Sucov
AIMS: The strategies that control formation of the ventricular wall during heart development are not well understood. In previous studies, we documented IGF2 as a major mitogenic signal that controls ventricular cardiomyocyte proliferation and chamber wall expansion. Our objective in this study was to define the tissue source of IGF2 in heart development and the upstream pathways that control its expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a number of mouse genetic tools, we confirm that the critical source of IGF2 is the epicardium...
March 1, 2015: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24567615/detection-of-heart-disease-by-open-access-echocardiography-a-retrospective-analysis-of-general-practice-referrals
#11
MULTICENTER STUDY
John Chambers, Saleha Kabir, Eric Cajeat
BACKGROUND: Heart disease is difficult to detect clinically and it has been suggested that echocardiography should be available to all patients with possible cardiac symptoms or signs. AIM: To analyse the results of 2 years of open access echocardiography for the frequency of structural heart disease according to request. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective database analysis in a teaching hospital open access echocardiography service. METHOD: Reports of all open access transthoracic echocardiograms between January 2011 and December 2012 were categorised as normal, having minor abnormalities, or significant abnormalities according to the indication...
February 2014: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24400169/the-vortex-formation-time-to-diastolic-function-relation-assessment-of-pseudonormalized-versus-normal-filling
#12
Erina Ghosh, Sándor J Kovács
In early diastole, the suction pump feature of the left ventricle opens the mitral valve and aspirates atrial blood. The ventricle fills via a blunt profiled cylindrical jet of blood that forms an asymmetric toroidal vortex ring inside the ventricle whose growth has been quantified by the standard (dimensionless) expression for vortex formation time, VFTstandard = {transmitral velocity time integral}/{mitral orifice diameter}. It can differentiate between hearts having distinguishable early transmitral (Doppler E-wave) filling patterns...
November 2013: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24026008/heart-development-and-regeneration-via-cellular-interaction-and-reprogramming
#13
REVIEW
Masaki Ieda
The heart consists of many types of cells, including cardiomyocytes, vascular cells, neural cells, and cardiac fibroblasts. Adult cardiomyocytes are terminally differentiated cells, and loss of cardiomyocytes as a result of heart damage is irreversible. To regenerate damaged hearts and restore cardiac function, understanding the cellular and molecular basis of heart development is of considerable importance. Although it is well known that heart function is tightly regulated by cell-cell interactions, their roles in heart development are not clear...
2013: Keio Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23633400/development-of-the-human-heart
#14
REVIEW
Marc Sylva, Maurice J B van den Hoff, Antoon F M Moorman
Molecular and genetic studies around the turn of this century have revolutionized the field of cardiac development. We now know that the primary heart tube, as seen in the early embryo contains little more than the precursors for the left ventricle, whereas the precursor cells for the remainder of the cardiac components are continuously added, to both the venous and arterial pole of the heart tube, from a single center of growth outside the heart. While the primary heart tube is growing by addition of cells, it does not show significant cell proliferation, until chamber differentiation and expansion starts locally in the tube, by which the chambers balloon from the primary heart tube...
June 2014: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23460596/safety-and-feasibility-of-orbital-atherectomy-for-the-treatment-of-calcified-coronary-lesions-the-orbit-i-trial
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Keyur Parikh, Praveen Chandra, Nishit Choksi, Puneet Khanna, Jeffrey Chambers
OBJECTIVE: The ORBIT I trial evaluated the safety and performance of an orbital atherectomy system (OAS) for the treatment of de novo calcified coronary lesions. BACKGROUND: Severely calcified coronary arteries pose an ongoing treatment challenge. Stent placement in calcified lesions can result in stent under expansion, malapposition, and procedural complications. OAS treatment may change calcified lesion compliance to reduce procedural complications and facilitate stent placement...
June 1, 2013: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23439246/fluid-responsiveness-and-right-ventricular-function-in-cardiac-surgical-patients-a-multicenter-study
#16
M Ranucci, A Pazzaglia, L Tritapepe, F Guarracino, M Lupo, V Salandin, P Del Sarto, A Condemi, R Campodonico, G Laudani, D Pittarello, L Belloni, Ri Ve R Right Ventricle Research Group
INTRODUCTION: We investigated fluid responsiveness in a population of patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization, with respect to their right ventricular ejection fraction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multicenter trial involving 11 cardiac surgical Institutions and 65 patients undergoing elective coronary artery revascularization. Hemodynamic parameters were measured before and after volume expansion using a modified pulmonary artery catheter and transesophageal echocardiographic monitoring...
2009: HSR Proceedings in Intensive Care & Cardiovascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23395262/incidental-cardiac-findings-on-thoracic-imaging
#17
REVIEW
Hong Kuan Kok, Bryan Loo, William C Torreggiani, Orla Buckley
The cardiac structures are well seen on nongated thoracic computed tomography studies in the investigation and follow-up of cardiopulmonary disease. A wide variety of findings can be incidentally picked up on careful evaluation of the pericardium, cardiac chambers, valves, and great vessels. Some of these findings may represent benign variants, whereas others may have more profound clinical importance. Furthermore, the expansion of interventional and surgical practice has led to the development and placement of new cardiac stents, implantable pacemaker devices, and prosthetic valves with which the practicing radiologist should be familiar...
November 2013: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23370721/early-left-ventricular-diastolic-function-quantitation-using-directional-impedances
#18
Erina Ghosh, Sándor J Kovács
Impedance has been used in vascular biology to characterize the frequency dependent opposition the circulatory system presents to blood flow in response to a pulsatile pressure gradient. It has also been used to characterize diastolic function (DF) via the early, diastolic left ventricular (LV) pressure-flow relation. In a normal LV, early filling volume is accommodated primarily by wall-thinning and ascent of the mitral annulus relative to the spatially fixed apex (longitudinal chamber expansion). Simultaneously, the endocardial (transverse or short axis) dimension also increases while epicardial (transverse) external dimension remains essentially constant...
June 2013: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23314057/mutations-in-the-notch-pathway-regulator-mib1-cause-left-ventricular-noncompaction-cardiomyopathy
#19
Guillermo Luxán, Jesús C Casanova, Beatriz Martínez-Poveda, Belén Prados, Gaetano D'Amato, Donal MacGrogan, Alvaro Gonzalez-Rajal, David Dobarro, Carlos Torroja, Fernando Martinez, José Luis Izquierdo-García, Leticia Fernández-Friera, María Sabater-Molina, Young-Y Kong, Gonzalo Pizarro, Borja Ibañez, Constancio Medrano, Pablo García-Pavía, Juan R Gimeno, Lorenzo Monserrat, Luis J Jiménez-Borreguero, José Luis de la Pompa
Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) causes prominent ventricular trabeculations and reduces cardiac systolic function. The clinical presentation of LVNC ranges from asymptomatic to heart failure. We show that germline mutations in human MIB1 (mindbomb homolog 1), which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes endocytosis of the NOTCH ligands DELTA and JAGGED, cause LVNC in autosomal-dominant pedigrees, with affected individuals showing reduced NOTCH1 activity and reduced expression of target genes. Functional studies in cells and zebrafish embryos and in silico modeling indicate that MIB1 functions as a dimer, which is disrupted by the human mutations...
February 2013: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23085412/spatiotemporal-regulation-of-an-hcn4-enhancer-defines-a-role-for-mef2c-and-hdacs-in-cardiac-electrical-patterning
#20
Vasanth Vedantham, Melissa Evangelista, Yu Huang, Deepak Srivastava
Regional differences in cardiomyocyte automaticity permit the sinoatrial node (SAN) to function as the leading cardiac pacemaker and the atrioventricular (AV) junction as a subsidiary pacemaker. The regulatory mechanisms controlling the distribution of automaticity within the heart are not understood. To understand regional variation in cardiac automaticity, we carried out an in vivo analysis of cis-regulatory elements that control expression of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide gated ion channel 4 (Hcn4)...
January 1, 2013: Developmental Biology
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