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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612143/adhd-modulates-the-course-of-delinquency-a-15-year-follow-up-study-of-young-incarcerated-man
#1
Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Michael Rösler, Oriana Clasen, Toivo Zinnow, Petra Retz-Junginger, Wolfgang Retz
There is growing evidence of an association between ADHD and rule-breaking behaviour and that subjects with ADHD are more likely to be involved in the legal system. However, the research on ADHD as a risk factor not only for delinquency but also for recidivism is scarce and findings are controversial. Therefore, we explored the impact of ADHD on the course of delinquency in a sample of incarcerated young men. We conducted a 15-year follow-up study by investigating the criminal records of 106 former youth prisoners...
June 13, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541169/imagining-moral-bioenhancement-practices-drawing-inspiration-from-moral-education-public-health-ethics-and-forensic-psychiatry
#2
Jona Specker, Maartje H N Schermer
In this article, we consider contexts or domains in which (future) moral bioenhancement interventions possibly or most likely will be implemented. By looking closely at similar or related existing practices and their relevant ethical frameworks, we hope to identify ethical considerations that are relevant for evaluating potential moral bioenhancement interventions. We examine, first, debates on the proper scope of moral education; second, proposals for identifying early risk factors for antisocial behaviour; and third, the difficult balancing of individual freedom and third party concerns in (forensic) psychiatry...
July 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536655/supporting-looked-after-children-and-care-leavers-in-decreasing-drugs-and-alcohol-solid-protocol-for-a-pilot-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial-of-interventions-to-decrease-risky-substance-use-drugs-and-alcohol-and-improve-mental-health-of-looked-after
#3
Hayley Alderson, Ruth McGovern, Rebecca Brown, Denise Howel, Frauke Becker, Louise Carr, Alex Copello, Tony Fouweather, Eileen Kaner, Paul McArdle, Elaine McColl, Janet Shucksmith, Alison Steele, Luke Vale, Raghu Lingam
BACKGROUND: Looked after children (LAC) and care leavers are young people who have been placed under the legal care of local authorities, in many instances due to a history of abuse and/or neglect. These young people have a significantly increased risk of substance use and mental disorder compared to their peers. The aim of the SOLID study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a definitive three-arm multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) that compares the effectiveness of two interventions that aim to reduce risky drug and alcohol use and improve mental health among LAC aged 12 to 20 years with usual care...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420394/influence-maternal-background-has-on-children-s-mental-health
#4
Elena Arroyo-Borrell, Gemma Renart, Carme Saurina, Marc Saez
BACKGROUND: In this paper, we aim to discern how a mother's health and her socioeconomic determinants may influence her children's mental health. In addition to this, we also evaluate the influence of other household characteristics and whether or not the economic downturn has heightened the effect a parent's social gradient has on their children's mental health. METHODS: We use samples comprised of 4-14-year-old minors from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS), undertaken prior to the crisis, and the 2011 SNHS, carried out during the crisis...
April 18, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410498/smartstart-results-of-a-large-point-of-entry-study-into-preloading-alcohol-and-associated-behaviours
#5
Grant J Devilly, Corey Allen, Kathleen Brown
BACKGROUND: There is a growing trend of preloading with alcohol before entering entertainment districts. It is claimed that this occurs to save money and that preloading may be a good indicator of harmful drinking and risk taking behaviours more generally. No study has collected data from a large sample as the participants entered entertainment districts and measured blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels and self-reported drinking and risk taking behaviours in a systematic way. METHODS: In this research, police and academics worked together to gauge the breadth and depth of preloading behaviours...
May 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405353/effects-of-25-mg-oxazepam-on-emotional-mimicry-and-empathy-for-pain-a-randomized-controlled-experiment
#6
Gustav Nilsonne, Sandra Tamm, Armita Golkar, Karolina Sörman, Katarina Howner, Marianne Kristiansson, Andreas Olsson, Martin Ingvar, Predrag Petrovic
Emotional mimicry and empathy are mechanisms underlying social interaction. Benzodiazepines have been proposed to inhibit empathy and promote antisocial behaviour. First, we aimed to investigate the effects of oxazepam on emotional mimicry and empathy for pain, and second, we aimed to investigate the association of personality traits to emotional mimicry and empathy. Participants (n=76) were randomized to 25 mg oxazepam or placebo. Emotional mimicry was examined using video clips with emotional expressions...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403164/characterising-the-latent-structure-and-organisation-of-self-reported-thoughts-feelings-and-behaviours-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#7
Michelle C St Clair, Sharon Neufeld, Peter B Jones, Peter Fonagy, Edward T Bullmore, Raymond J Dolan, Michael Moutoussis, Umar Toseeb, Ian M Goodyer
Little is known about the underlying relationships between self-reported mental health items measuring both positive and negative emotional and behavioural symptoms at the population level in young people. Improved measurement of the full range of mental well-being and mental illness may aid in understanding the aetiological substrates underlying the development of both mental wellness as well as specific psychiatric diagnoses. A general population sample aged 14 to 24 years completed self-report questionnaires on anxiety, depression, psychotic-like symptoms, obsessionality and well-being...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397960/affective-empathy-cognitive-empathy-and-social-attention-in-children-at-high-risk-of-criminal-behaviour
#8
L van Zonneveld, E Platje, L M J de Sonneville, S H M van Goozen, H Swaab
BACKGROUND: Empathy deficits are hypothesized to underlie impairments in social interaction exhibited by those who engage in antisocial behaviour. Social attention is an essential precursor to empathy; however, no studies have yet examined social attention in relation to cognitive and affective empathy in those exhibiting antisocial behaviour. METHODS: Participants were 8- to 12-year-old children at high risk of developing criminal behaviour (N = 114, 80.7% boys) and typically developing controls (N = 43, 72...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342766/antisocial-behaviour-and-psychopathy-uncovering-the-externalizing-link-in-the-p3-modulation
#9
REVIEW
Rita Pasion, Carina Fernandes, Mariana R Pereira, Fernando Barbosa
In 2009, Gao and Raine's meta-analysis analysed P3 modulation over the antisocial spectrum. However, some questions remained open regarding the P3 modulation patterns across impulsive and violent manifestations of antisocial behaviour, phenotypic components of psychopathy, and P3 components. A systematic review of 36 studies was conducted (N=3514) to extend previous results and to address these unresolved questions. A clear link between decreased P3 amplitude and antisocial behaviour was found. In psychopathy, dimensional approaches become more informative than taxonomic models...
March 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235415/a-systematic-review-of-health-economic-models-of-opioid-agonist-therapies-in-maintenance-treatment-of-non-prescription-opioid-dependence
#10
Mersha Chetty, James J Kenworthy, Sue Langham, Andrew Walker, William C N Dunlop
BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence is a chronic condition with substantial health, economic and social costs. The study objective was to conduct a systematic review of published health-economic models of opioid agonist therapy for non-prescription opioid dependence, to review the different modelling approaches identified, and to inform future modelling studies. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in March 2015 in eight electronic databases, supplemented by hand-searching reference lists and searches on six National Health Technology Assessment Agency websites...
February 24, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173890/differences-in-executive-functioning-between-violent-and-non-violent-offenders
#11
J Meijers, J M Harte, G Meynen, P Cuijpers
BACKGROUND: A growing body of neuropsychological and neurobiological research shows a relationship between functioning of the prefrontal cortex and criminal and violent behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is crucial for executive functions such as inhibition, attention, working memory, set-shifting and planning. A deficit in these functions - a prefrontal deficit - may result in antisocial, impulsive or even aggressive behaviour. While several meta-analyses show large effect sizes for the relationship between a prefrontal deficit, executive dysfunction and criminality, there are few studies investigating differences in executive functions between violent and non-violent offenders...
February 8, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158988/microsatellite-polymorphisms-associated-with-human-behavioural-and-psychological-phenotypes-including-a-gene-environment-interaction
#12
Andrew T M Bagshaw, L John Horwood, David M Fergusson, Neil J Gemmell, Martin A Kennedy
BACKGROUND: The genetic and environmental influences on human personality and behaviour are a complex matter of ongoing debate. Accumulating evidence indicates that short tandem repeats (STRs) in regulatory regions are good candidates to explain heritability not accessed by genome-wide association studies. METHODS: We tested for associations between the genotypes of four selected repeats and 18 traits relating to personality, behaviour, cognitive ability and mental health in a well-studied longitudinal birth cohort (n = 458-589) using one way analysis of variance...
February 3, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959457/risk-f%C3%A3-r-v%C3%A3-ld-och-kriminalitet-vid-personlighetssyndrom
#13
REVIEW
Tom Palmstierna
Personality disorders, violence and criminal behaviour The importance of personality disorders for violent and criminal behaviour is illustrated by their high prevalence in prison populations. Especially antisocial personality disorder and antisocial personality traits are linked to violence. During diagnostic assessment of personality disorders, violence risk screening is recommended. Cognitive behaviour treatment focused on violent behaviour has some effect in criminal populations, but the antisocial personality traits are resistant to treatment...
December 6, 2016: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917767/prevalence-and-correlates-of-violence-among-south-african-high-school-learners-in-umgungundlovu-district-municipality-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#14
N Khuzwayo, M Taylor, C Connolly
BACKGROUND: Young people grow up in homes and communities where many are exposed daily to crime and antisocial behaviours. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of violence and the demographic factors associated with such violence among South African (SA)high school learners in the uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal, SA. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we used stratified random sampling to select 16 schools in uMgungundlovu District...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859951/the-effectiveness-of-therapeutic-conversation-intervention-for-caregivers-of-adolescents-with-adhd-a-quasi-experimental-design
#15
M Gisladottir, E K Svavarsdottir
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Caregivers of adolescents with ADHD experience major difficulties as care providers and are in need of guidance and support. Adolescents with ADHD may develop oppositional and criminal behaviour. More than 50 % have the symptoms in adulthood, and up to one-fourth with severe emotional or antisocial difficulties. There is a lack of evidence of caregivers' supporting intervention although caregiver groups have been found to contribute to better coping, decreased stress and improvements in ADHD symptoms...
February 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855334/early-risk-and-protective-factors-for-problem-gambling-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies
#16
REVIEW
N A Dowling, S S Merkouris, C J Greenwood, E Oldenhof, J W Toumbourou, G J Youssef
This systematic review aimed to identify early risk and protective factors (in childhood, adolescence or young adulthood) longitudinally associated with the subsequent development of gambling problems. A systematic search of peer-reviewed and grey literature from 1990 to 2015 identified 15 studies published in 23 articles. Meta-analyses quantified the effect size of 13 individual risk factors (alcohol use frequency, antisocial behaviours, depression, male gender, cannabis use, illicit drug use, impulsivity, number of gambling activities, problem gambling severity, sensation seeking, tobacco use, violence, undercontrolled temperament), one relationship risk factor (peer antisocial behaviours), one community risk factor (poor academic performance), one individual protective factor (socio-economic status) and two relationship protective factors (parent supervision, social problems)...
February 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837290/the-appeal-of-the-devil-s-eye-social-evaluation-affects-social-attention
#17
Luciana Carraro, Mario Dalmaso, Luigi Castelli, Giovanni Galfano, Andrea Bobbio, Gabriele Mantovani
Humans typically exhibit a tendency to follow the gaze of conspecifics, a social attention behaviour known as gaze cueing. Here, we addressed whether episodically learned social knowledge about the behaviours performed by the individual bearing the gaze can influence this phenomenon. In a learning phase, different faces were systematically associated with either positive or negative behaviours. The same faces were then used as stimuli in a gaze-cueing task. The results showed that faces associated with antisocial norm-violating behaviours triggered stronger gaze-cueing effects as compared to faces associated with sociable behaviours...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808160/anticipation-of-guilt-for-everyday-moral-transgressions-the-role-of-the-anterior-insula-and-the-influence-of-interpersonal-psychopathic-traits
#18
Ana Seara-Cardoso, Catherine L Sebastian, Eamon McCrory, Lucy Foulkes, Marine Buon, Jonathan P Roiser, Essi Viding
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterised by atypical moral behaviour likely rooted in atypical affective/motivational processing, as opposed to an inability to judge the wrongness of an action. Guilt is a moral emotion believed to play a crucial role in adherence to moral and social norms, but the mechanisms by which guilt (or lack thereof) may influence behaviour in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits are unclear. We measured neural responses during the anticipation of guilt about committing potential everyday moral transgressions, and tested the extent to which these varied with psychopathic traits...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776612/psychopathic-traits-mediate-the-effects-of-neighbourhood-risk-on-juvenile-antisocial-behaviour
#19
Olalla Cutrín Mosteiro, José A Gómez Fraguela, Lorena Maneiro Boo, Jorge Sobral Fernández, María A Luengo Martín
BACKGROUND: Research of the indirect effects of neighbourhood risk through psychopathic personality traits (i.e., impulsiveness, narcissism and callous-unemotional traits) on juvenile antisocial behaviour has become relevant. METHODS: In the current study, mediation effects were assessed using a sample composed of 406 young people between 14 and 21 years old, 82.7% males, from juvenile centres in Galicia and Andalucía (Spain). RESULTS: The results showed significant mediation effects of neighbourhood risk on antisocial behaviour through impulsiveness and callous-unemotional traits...
November 2016: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765774/extremism-religion-and-psychiatric-morbidity-in-a-population-based-sample-of-young-men
#20
Jeremy W Coid, Kamaldeep Bhui, Deirdre MacManus, Constantinos Kallis, Paul Bebbington, Simone Ullrich
BACKGROUND: There is growing risk from terrorism following radicalisation of young men. It is unclear whether psychopathology is associated. AIMS: To investigate the population distribution of extremist views among UK men. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of 3679 men, 18-34 years, in Great Britain. Multivariate analyses of attitudes, psychiatric morbidity, ethnicity and religion. RESULTS: Pro-British men were more likely to be White, UK born, not religious; anti-British were Muslim, religious, of Pakistani origin, from deprived areas...
December 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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