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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134067/modelling-the-role-of-correctional-services-on-gangs-insights-through-a-mathematical-model
#1
F Nyabadza, C P Ogbogbo, J Mushanyu
Research has shown that gang membership increases the chances of offending, antisocial behaviour and drug use. Gang membership should be acknowledged as part of crime prevention and policy designs, and when developing interventions and preventative programmes. Correctional services are designed to rehabilitate convicted offenders. We formulate a deterministic mathematical model using nonlinear ordinary differential equations to investigate the role of correctional services on the dynamics of gangs. The recruitment into gang membership is assumed to happen through an imitation process...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120030/risk-behaviours-among-native-and-immigrant-youths-in-switzerland-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Lorenzo Campisi, André Berchtold, Yara Barrense-Dias, Christina Akre, Mario Gehri, Joan-Carles Suris
QUESTION UNDER STUDY: Switzerland has been receiving migrants of various origins for more than 50 years. The adoption of risk-taking behaviours among migrant youths is unclear. Moreover, when studied, migrant youths are rarely analysed according to whether they are first or second generation, or just young people with mixed origins. The aim of this study was to assess whether there are any differences between first-and second-generation immigrants, youths of mixed origins and their native peers in Switzerland concerning their engagement in risk behaviours...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058105/disentangling-the-relations-between-social-identity-and-prosocial-and-antisocial-behavior-in-competitive-youth-sport
#3
Mark W Bruner, Ian D Boardley, Alex J Benson, Kathleen S Wilson, Zachary Root, Jennifer Turnnidge, Jordan Sutcliffe, Jean Côté
The social identities formed through membership on extracurricular activity groups may contribute to the frequency with which youth engage in prosocial and antisocial behavior. However, researchers have yet to disentangle the individual- and group-level processes social identification effects operate through; sex and perceived norms may also moderate such effects. Thus, we investigated the hierarchical and conditional relations between three dimensions of social identity (i.e., ingroup ties, cognitive centrality, ingroup affect) and prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth ice hockey players (N = 376; 33% female)...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024062/why-run-the-risk-motivation-for-offences-by-patients-with-substance-use-and-antisocial-personality-disorders-which-they-rated-as-most-risky-to-their-own-well-being
#4
Birgitte Thylstrup, Morten Hesse
BACKGROUND: Understanding motives for offending is important for the development and delivery of effective interventions. AIMS: To explore associations between variables with motivational implications and the offence committed in the past year rated by people with antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorder as putting them and their status at most risk. METHODS: Participants were 127 outpatients from a sample recruited for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of an intervention for adults attending substance abuse treatment clinics in 13 municipalities in Denmark...
October 10, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992741/neuropsychology-and-emotion-processing-in-violent-individuals-with-antisocial-personality-disorder-or-schizophrenia-the-same-or-different-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Ottilie Sedgwick, Susan Young, David Baumeister, Ben Greer, Mrigendra Das, Veena Kumari
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether there are shared or divergent (a) cognitive and (b) emotion processing characteristics among violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder and/or schizophrenia, diagnoses which are commonly encountered at the interface of mental disorder and violence. Cognition and emotion processing are incorporated into models of violence, and thus an understanding of these characteristics within and between disorder groups may help inform future models and therapeutic targets...
October 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983792/conduct-problems-trajectories-and-psychosocial-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Leonardo Bevilacqua, Daniel Hale, Edward D Barker, Russell Viner
There is increasing evidence that youth who follow the early onset persistent (EOP), adolescent-onset (AO) and childhood-limited (CL) trajectories of conduct problems show varying patterns of health, mental health, educational, and social outcomes in adulthood. However, there has been no systematic review and meta-analysis on outcomes associated with different conduct problems trajectories. We systematically reviewed the literature of longitudinal studies considering outcomes of three conduct problems trajectories: EOP, AO, and CL compared with individuals with low levels of conduct problems (low)...
October 6, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950739/are-periodontal-outcomes-affected-by-personality-patterns-a-18-month-follow-up-study
#7
Carlo Bertoldi, Marco Venuta, Gianpaolo Guaraldi, Michele Lalla, Stefania Guaitolini, Luigi Generali, Daniele Monzani, Pierpaolo Cortellini, Davide Zaffe
OBJECTIVES: This research aims to study the relationship between personality traits and periodontal clinical outcomes by taking into account the level of anxiety and depression, periodontal health and oral hygiene behaviour of patients affected with gingivitis or moderate periodontitis requiring periodontal therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The periodontal data of 40 systemically healthy patients affected by gingivitis or moderate periodontitis were collected at baseline and 18 months later...
September 26, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931400/conduct-disorders-and-psychopathy-in-children-and-adolescents-aetiology-clinical-presentation-and-treatment-strategies-of-callous-unemotional-traits
#8
REVIEW
Simone Pisano, Pietro Muratori, Chiara Gorga, Valentina Levantini, Raffaella Iuliano, Gennaro Catone, Giangennaro Coppola, Annarita Milone, Gabriele Masi
Conduct Disorder (CD) is a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behaviour in which the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate social norms or rules are violated. Callous Unemotional (CU) traits are a meaningful specifier in subtyping CD for more severe antisocial and aggressive behaviours in adult psychopathology; they represent the affective dimension of adult psychopathy, but they can be also detected in childhood and adolescence. The CU traits include lack of empathy, sense of guilt and shallow emotion, and their characterization in youth can improve our diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic abilities...
September 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913834/which-children-and-young-people-are-excluded-from-school-findings-from-a-large-british-birth-cohort-study-the-avon-longitudinal-study-of-parents-and-children-alspac
#9
A Paget, C Parker, J Heron, S Logan, W Henley, A Emond, T Ford
BACKGROUND: Exclusion from school is increasingly recognized as pertinent to child health. National educational data reveal that boys, children who are looked-after, living in poverty, have special educational needs, or from certain ethnic minorities, are disproportionately excluded from school. As population-based data on the wider characteristics of excluded children are scarce, we aimed to describe predictors of school exclusion in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
September 14, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905111/maternal-depressive-symptoms-in-childhood-and-risky-behaviours-in-early-adolescence
#10
Eirini Flouri, Sofia Ioakeimidi
Longitudinal patterns of maternal depressive symptoms have yet to be linked to risky behaviours, such as substance use or violence, in early adolescence, when such behaviours may be particularly detrimental. This study was carried out to do this. Using data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, it modelled the effect of trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms at child ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years on antisocial behaviour and delinquency at age 11 years (N = 12,494). It also explored their role in predicting moral judgement and attitudes to alcohol at age 11, important predictors of delinquent or antisocial behaviour and alcohol use, respectively...
September 13, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901202/intellectual-disability-hate-crime-and-other-social-constructions-a-view-from-south-yorkshire
#11
Alex McClimens, Jacqui Brewster
The category of hate crime is a recent legislative response to the increasing levels of antisocial, criminal and discriminatory behaviours and practices that target a wide spectrum of individuals on the basis of their identification within certain minority sociological subcultures. People with intellectual disability are often targeted for this kind of behaviour. Here, we report on an evaluation of one English city's efforts to instigate a street-based scheme to offer some security and protection to its intellectually disabled citizens...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891219/the-health-and-well-being-of-children-and-young-people-who-are-looked-after-findings-from-a-face-to-face-survey-in-glasgow
#12
Sharon Vincent, Michael Jopling
Evidence suggests children and young people who are looked after (LACYP) may have poorer health outcomes than children and young people in the general population, particularly in relation to mental health. This paper discusses findings from a survey of the health and well-being of LACYP in Glasgow. A structured questionnaire used in the 2010 Glasgow Schools Survey (GSS) was adapted and administered in face-to-face interviews with 130 young people aged 11-18 in 2014-2015 to investigate various aspects of health and well-being including physical activity, diet and sleep, smoking, alcohol and drugs, health feelings and worries, behaviours, attitudes and expectations...
September 11, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878976/the-nature-and-distribution-of-affiliative-behaviour-during-exposure-to-mild-threat
#13
Guillaume Dezecache, Julie Grèzes, Christoph D Dahl
Individual reactions to danger in humans are often characterized as antisocial and self-preservative. Yet, more than 50 years of research have shown that humans often seek social partners and behave prosocially when confronted by danger. This research has relied on post hoc verbal reports, which fall short of capturing the more spontaneous reactions to danger and determine their social nature. Real-world responses to danger are difficult to observe, due to their evanescent nature. Here, we took advantage of a series of photographs freely accessible online and provided by a haunted house attraction, which enabled us to examine the more immediate reactions to mild threat...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857440/preschool-children-s-response-to-behavioural-parent-training-and-parental-predictors-of-outcome-in-routine-clinical-care
#14
Lianne van der Veen-Mulders, Pieter J Hoekstra, Maaike H Nauta, Barbara J van den Hoofdakker
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of behavioral parent training (BPT) for preschool children with disruptive behaviours and to explore parental predictors of response. METHODS: Parents of 68 preschool children, aged between 2.7 and 5.9 years, participated in BPT. We evaluated the changes in children's behaviour after BPT with a one group pretest-posttest design, using a waiting period for a double pretest. Outcome was based on parents' reports of the intensity and number of behaviour problems on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853004/sex-specific-issues-in-eating-disorders-a-clinical-and-psychopathological-investigation
#15
Stefano Valente, Giulia Di Girolamo, Martina Forlani, Anna Biondini, Paolo Scudellari, Diana De Ronchi, Anna Rita Atti
OBJECTIVE: To highlight the characteristics of eating disorders (ED) in males, with particular attention to sex-related clinical features and psychiatric co-morbidities. METHOD: Out of 280 persons, referred to our outpatients ED clinic between January 2011 and June 2014, 267 with complete information were included in this retrospective observational study. RESULTS: The men/women ratio was one to five (male 16.5% vs female 83.5%) with an increasing proportion of male patients over the years...
December 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836395/high-novelty-seeking-as-a-predictor-of-antisocial-behaviour-in-early-adulthood
#16
James Foulds, Joseph Boden, John Horwood, Roger Mulder
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial behaviours (age 18-35). METHOD: A New Zealand general population birth cohort was studied from 1977 to 2012. Sample sizes ranged from n = 962 (age 35) to n = 1025 (age 18). NS was measured at age 16 using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Perpetration of antisocial behaviours was ascertained by self-report at ages 18, 21, 25, 30 and 35. Generalized estimating equation models investigated the association between NS and antisocial behaviours net of individual factors and correlates of NS before age 16 and alcohol and substance use disorders at age 18-35...
August 23, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811177/prospective-associations-between-peer-teasing-in-childhood-and-young-men-s-obesity
#17
David C R Kerr, Gianluca Gini
OBJECTIVE: Being teased and otherwise victimised by peers during childhood increases risk for obesity. However, few prospective studies have considered whether risk extends to adulthood. We tested whether being teased in childhood predicted higher body mass index (BMI) and increased odds of obesity in early adulthood in a community sample of American males. METHOD: Boys (n=206) were classified as victims of peer teasing or non-victims (n=55 and 151, respectively) based on mother, father, and teacher reports at ages 10-12 years...
November 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801755/a-cross-national-comparison-of-violence-among-young-men-in-china-and-the-uk-psychiatric-and-cultural-explanations
#18
Jeremy Coid, Junmei Hu, Constantinos Kallis, Yuan Ping, Juying Zhang, Yueying Hu, Laura Bui, Simone Ullrich, Paul Bebbington
PURPOSE: Public health psychiatry has a key role in violence prevention. Cross-national comparisons of violence and associated psychiatric morbidity can indicate targets for preventive interventions. METHOD: Data on young adult men in households, 18-34 years, were drawn from the Second Men's Modern Lifestyles survey in Great Britain (n = 2046) and from a corresponding survey in Chengdu, China (n = 4132), using a translated questionnaire. Binary logistic regression models were carried out to estimate the cross-national differences for different types of violence and to identify explanatory variables...
October 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797081/early-life-predictors-of-adolescent-suicidal-thoughts-and-adverse-outcomes-in-two-population-based-cohort-studies
#19
Jennifer Dykxhoorn, Simon Hatcher, Marie-Hélène Roy-Gagnon, Ian Colman
BACKGROUND: Understanding suicidality has proven challenging given the complex aetiology in early childhood. Being able to accurately predict groups at increased risk of developing suicidal thoughts may aid in the development of targeted prevention programs that mitigate increased vulnerability. Further, the predictors of suicidal thoughts may be shared with other outcomes in adolescence. Previous research has linked many factors to suicidality, so the objective of this study was to consider how these factors may act together to increase risk of suicidal thoughts and other non-mental health outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791693/atypical-antipsychotics-for-disruptive-behaviour-disorders-in-children-and-youths
#20
REVIEW
Jik H Loy, Sally N Merry, Sarah E Hetrick, Karolina Stasiak
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane Review, last published in 2012 (Loy 2012). Children and youths with disruptive behaviour disorders may present to health services, where they may be treated with atypical antipsychotics. There is increasing usage of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of disruptive behaviour disorders. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect and safety of atypical antipsychotics, compared to placebo, for treating disruptive behaviour disorders in children and youths...
August 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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