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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929331/glutamatergic-regulation-of-hypothalamic-presympathetic-neurons-in-hypertension
#1
De-Pei Li, Hui-Lin Pan
Elevated sympathetic vasomotor tone emanating from the brain is a major mechanism involved in the development of hypertension. Increased glutamatergic excitatory input to presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus leads to increased sympathetic outflow in various animal models of hypertension. Recent studies have revealed molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying enhanced glutamatergic synaptic input to PVN presympathetic neurons in hypertension. In this review article, we summarize recent findings on changes in inotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, at both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites, responsible for increased glutamatergic input to PVN presympathetic neurons in hypertension...
September 19, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928918/arterial-thoracic-outlet-syndrome-secondary-to-hypertrophy-of-the-anterior-scalene-muscle
#2
Erion Qaja, Sara Honari, Robert Rhee
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) was first introduced in literature by Peet et al. in 1956. Since then is has been studied extensively and subcategorized into at least four closely related syndrome. Neurogenic TOS due to the compression of brachial plexus, arterial TOS in cases of compression of the subclavian artery, venous TOS in cases of compression of the subclavian vein, and non-specific type of TOS. Neurogenic TOS is by far the most common consisting of 95% of the cases, followed by venous and lastly arterial...
August 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927073/surgical-treatment-of-parapharyngeal-space-tumors-a-report-of-29-cases
#3
Kei Ijichi, Shingo Murakami
The present study aimed to establish a strategy for parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumor surgery based on preoperative symptoms, clinical signs, imaging and histological examination. A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 29 adult patients who underwent surgery for primary PPS tumors from 2008-2015. The following data was obtained: Preoperative symptoms of the patient, histological type of the tumor, surgical approach and complications. Of the 29 patients who underwent surgery to remove a PPS tumor, 16 presented with neurogenic tumors and 13 with salivary gland tumors...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926124/reliability-of-urinary-cytology-and-cystoscopy-for-the-screening-and-diagnosis-of-bladder-cancer-in-patients-with-neurogenic-bladder-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Quentin Alimi, Juliette Hascoet, Andrea Manunta, Solène-Florence Kammerer-Jacquet, Grégory Verhoest, Charlène Brochard, Lucas Freton, Jacques Kerdraon, Nelly Senal, Laurent Siproudhis, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Benjamin Brucker, Xavier Gamé, Benoit Peyronnet
AIMS: To assess the reliability of urinary cytology and cystoscopy to screen and diagnose bladder cancer in patients with NB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search of the Medline and Embase databases was performed in April 2017. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers. A narrative synthesis was made. RESULTS: Out of 220 records assessed, 15 were included in this systematic review. All studies were prospective or retrospective series with no control group...
September 19, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923427/minimally-invasive-versus-open-surgery-for-lumbar-synovial-cysts
#5
Pierluigi Vergara, Christopher Yusuf Akhunbay-Fudge, Mark Robert Kotter, Rodney John Charles Laing
OBJECTIVE: Lumbar synovial cysts are relatively infrequent. Historically, these benign lesions have been treated with open excision, sometimes associated with fusion. The aim of this study is to compare Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) with Open Surgery (OS) for the treatment of lumbar synovial cysts. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients who underwent minimally invasive or open excision of lumbar synovial cysts. Clinical outcomes, recurrence rate and surgical complications were compared in the 2 groups...
September 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920935/spinal-cord-injury-induced-immunodeficiency-is-mediated-by-a-sympathetic-neuroendocrine-adrenal-reflex
#6
Harald Prüss, Andrea Tedeschi, Aude Thiriot, Lydia Lynch, Scott M Loughhead, Susanne Stutte, Irina B Mazo, Marcel A Kopp, Benedikt Brommer, Christian Blex, Laura-Christin Geurtz, Thomas Liebscher, Andreas Niedeggen, Ulrich Dirnagl, Frank Bradke, Magdalena S Volz, Michael J DeVivo, Yuying Chen, Ulrich H von Andrian, Jan M Schwab
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) causes systemic immunosuppression and life-threatening infections, thought to result from noradrenergic overactivation and excess glucocorticoid release via hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation. Instead of consecutive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, we report that acute SCI in mice induced suppression of serum norepinephrine and concomitant increase in cortisol, despite suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone, indicating primary (adrenal) hypercortisolism...
September 18, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920043/short-term-analgesic-effects-of-5-dextrose-epidural-injections-for-chronic-low-back-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Liza Maniquis-Smigel, Kenneth Dean Reeves, Howard Jeffrey Rosen, John Lyftogt, Cassie Graham-Coleman, An-Lin Cheng, David Rabago
BACKGROUND: Hypertonic dextrose injection (prolotherapy) is reported to reduce pain including non-surgical chronic low back pain (CLBP), and subcutaneous injection of 5% dextrose is reported to reduce neurogenic pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. The mechanism in both cases is unclear, though a direct effect of dextrose on neurogenic pain has been proposed. This study assessed the short-term analgesic effects of epidural 5% dextrose injection compared with saline for non-surgical CLBP...
February 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919727/five-year-durability-of-stand-alone-interspinous-process-decompression-for-lumbar-spinal-stenosis
#8
Pierce D Nunley, Vikas V Patel, Douglas G Orndorff, William F Lavelle, Jon E Block, Fred H Geisler
BACKGROUND: Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most common indication for spine surgery in older adults. Interspinous process decompression (IPD) using a stand-alone spacer that functions as an extension blocker offers a minimally invasive treatment option for intermittent neurogenic claudication associated with spinal stenosis. METHODS: This study evaluated the 5-year clinical outcomes for IPD (Superion(®)) from a randomized controlled US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) noninferiority trial...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916299/non-canonical-wnt-mediated-neurogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Sujeong Jang, Hyong-Ho Cho, Jong-Seong Park, Han-Seong Jeong
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), which are characterized by multipotency and self-renewal, are responsible for tissue regeneration and repair. We have previously reported in adipose tissue-derived MSCs that only Wnt5a is enhanced at neurogenic differentiation, and the mechanism of differentiation is dependent on the Wnt5a/JNK pathway; however, the role of Wnt/MAPK pathway is yet to be investigated in neurogenic differentiation in BM-MSCs. We compared the transcriptional expression of Wnt in neurogenic induced-hBM-MSCs (NI-hBM-MSCs) with that in primary hBM-MSCs, using RT-PCR, qPCR, and western blotting...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916193/ferulic-acid-promotes-survival-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-to-prevent-gentamicin-induced-neuronal-hearing-loss
#10
Lintao Gu, Xinhua Cui, Wei Wei, Jia Yang, Xuezhong Li
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have exhibited promising potential in therapies against neuronal hearing loss. Ferulic acid (FA) has been widely reported to enhance neurogenic differentiation of different stem cells. We investigated the role of FA in promoting NSC transplant therapy to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. NSCs were isolated from mouse cochlear tissues to establish in vitro culture, which were then treated with FA. The survival and differentiation of NSCs were evaluated. Subsequently, neurite outgrowth and excitability of the in vitro neuronal network were assessed...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915880/increasing-bladder-capacity-by-foot-stimulation-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injuries
#11
Guoqing Chen, Limin Liao, Zhaoxia Wang, Xing Li, Wenjuan Du
BACKGROUND: This study was to explore the possibility that foot stimulation increased bladder capacity(BC) in rats with neurogenic bladder secondary to T10 spinal cord injuries. METHODS: In 20 awake rats (stimulation group) with T10 spinal cord injuries, 5 repeat cystometrograms (CMGs) were recorded. The 1st and 2nd CMGs were performed without stimulation. The 3rd, 4th, and 5th CMGs were done separately with 1 T, 2 T, and 4 T stimulation, respectively, through a pair of pad electrodes on the skin of the hind foot...
September 15, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915233/the-utility-of-stem-cells-in-pediatric-urinary-bladder-regeneration
#12
REVIEW
Philip M Iannaccone, Vasil Galat, Matthew I Bury, Yongchao C Ma, Arun K Sharma
Pediatric patients with a neurogenic urinary bladder caused by developmental abnormalities including spina bifida exhibit chronic urological problems. Surgical management in the form of enterocystoplasty is used to enlarge the bladder but is associated with significant clinical complications. Thus, alternative methods to enterocystoplasty have been explored through the incorporation of stem cells with tissue engineering strategies. Within the context of this review, we will examine the use of bone marrow stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as they relate to bladder regeneration at the anatomic and molecular levels...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912722/repeated-mandibular-extension-in-rat-a-procedure-to-modulate-the-cerebral-arteriolar-tone
#13
Dominga Lapi, Maurizio Varanini, Antonio Colantuoni, Cristina Del Seppia, Sergio Ghione, Enza Fommei, Rossana Scuri
Previous data have shown both in the rat and in the human that a single mandibular extension lasting 10 min induces a significant important and prolonged reduction in blood pressure and heart rate, affecting also rat pial microcirculation by the release of endothelial factors. In the present work, we assessed whether repeated mandibular extension could further prolong these effects. We performed two mandibular extensions, the second mandibular extension being applied 10 min after the first one. The second mandibular extension produced a reduction in blood pressure and heart rate for at least 240 min...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911819/non-neurogenic-language-disorders-a-preliminary-classification
#14
REVIEW
Mario F Mendez
BACKGROUND: Few publications deal with non-neurogenic language disorders (NNLDs), distinct from psychogenic speech disorders such as psychogenic dysphonia or stuttering. NNLDs are alterations in language owing to psychosomatic preoccupations, conversion disorder, psychiatric disorders, or other psychological reasons. OBJECTIVE: To identify and classify the range of NNLDs and their characteristics. METHODS: This review summarizes the literature on disturbances in language, broadly defined as the use of symbols for communication, which may have a psychogenic or psychiatric etiology...
August 10, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910442/unilateral-laryngoscopic-findings-associated-with-response-to-gabapentin-in-patients-with-chronic-cough
#15
John Paul Giliberto, Daniel Dibildox, Albert Merati
Importance: Chronic cough is a debilitating, often multifactorial problem. Vagal neuropathy has been proposed as a cause for a fraction of these cases. There are certain features that support the clinical diagnosis of vagal neuropathy. It is hypothesized that patients with neurogenic cough who have vocal fold motion asymmetry (VFMA) on laryngoscopy will be more likely to respond to gabapentin. Objective: To evaluate the association between the history, physical and videostroboscopic examinations, and clinical response to gabapentin...
September 14, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904220/congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders-a-literature-review
#16
Rebecca Fels
Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD) is a new term describing a collection of non-progressive neurogenic syndromes. Initially referred to as congenital fibrosis syndrome, it was thought that the primary problem was extraocular muscular maldevelopment. Recent advancements in genetics and neuro-radiology have now determined the initial observation of fibrotic muscles is secondary to a primary lack of innervation from deficient, absent, or misguided cranial nerves. This presentation provides an overview of the known genes and phenotypes currently recognized within the CCDD domain...
January 2017: American Orthoptic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902695/effectiveness-of-droxidopa-compared-to-midodrine-in-standing-blood-pressure-and-orthostatic-tolerance-in-adults-with-neurogenic-orthostatic-hypotension-a-systematic-review-protocol
#17
Kelli Patrick, Tina Martin
The question of this review is: what is the effectiveness of droxidopa compared to midodrine on standing blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance symptoms in adults with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension?
September 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901936/advances-in-paediatric-urology
#18
REVIEW
David A Diamond, Ivy H Y Chan, Andrew J A Holland, Michael P Kurtz, Caleb Nelson, Carlos R Estrada, Stuart Bauer, Paul K H Tam
Paediatric urological surgery is often required for managing congenital and acquired disorders of the genitourinary system. In this Series paper, we highlight advances in the surgical management of six paediatric urological disorders. The management of vesicoureteral reflux is evolving, with advocacy ranging from a less interventional assessment and antimicrobial prophylaxis to surgery including endoscopic injection of a bulking agent and minimally invasive ureteric reimplantation. Evidence supports early orchidopexy to improve fertility and reduce malignancy in boys with undescended testes...
September 9, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900705/clinical-relevance-of-neurological-evaluation-in-patients-suffering-urinary-retention-in-the-absence-of-subvesical-obstruction
#19
N Schwertner-Tiepelmann, A Hagedorn-Wiesner, C Erschig, K Beilecke, F Schwab, R Tunn
PURPOSE: Clinical relevance of neurological evaluation in patients suffered urinary retention in the absence of subvesical obstruction. Determining whether (1) women complaining residual bladder volume without prolapse and obstruction always suffer pudendal nerve damage; (2) neurogenic damage can be linked to patients history/clinical examination; (3) therapy alters regarding to neurological findings; and (4) electromyography (EMG) of musculus sphincter ani externus (MSAE) can be omitted with electronically stimulated pudendal nerve latency (ESPL) as the standard investigation...
September 12, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899827/a-randomized-trial-of-clitoral-vacuum-suction-versus-vibratory-stimulation-in-neurogenic-female-orgasmic-dysfunction
#20
Marcalee Alexander, Khurram Bashir, Craig Alexander, Lesley Marson, Raymond Rosen
OBJECTIVE: To examine safety and efficacy of use of a clitoral vacuum suction device (CVSD) versus vibratory stimulation (V) to treat orgasmic dysfunction in women with MS or SCI. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Two academic medical centers. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one women including 20 with MS and 11 with SCI. INTERVENTION: A 12-week trial of the use of a CVSD versus V MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Female Sexual Function Inventory (FSFI) and Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS)...
September 9, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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