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K S Yang, C S Ho, P A Tai, W M Kung
Most lumbar intradural schwannomas present initially as radiculopathies with sensory disturbances. However, neurogenic bladder dysfunction may be one of the earliest manifestations and can cause long-term disability. We present the case of a patient with a L3-4 schwannoma (newly diagnosed owing to recurrent urinary retention and urinary tract infection) who finally underwent surgical resection. Improvement of bladder sensation was documented by urodynamic study and the patient was subsequently weaned off her Foley catheter with satisfactory outcome...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Oscar Arias-Carrion, Emmanuel Ortega-Robles, Benito de Celis-Alonso, Artur Palasz, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Miguel A Mendez-Rojas, Jose Salas-Pacheco, Elias Manjarrez
Adult neurogenesis, a specific form of brain plasticity in mammals occurring in the subventricular zone, is subject to complex regulations. Hypocretin/orexin neurons are implicated in the regulation of sleep and arousal states among other functions. Here, we found orexin afferent projections in the rat subventricular zone, which is a neurogenic region. We therefore studied in detail the origin of the orexinergic innervation to the subventricular zone in rats. Post-mortem retrograde tracing combined with immunofluorescence procedures indicate orexinergic projections toward the subventricular zone...
March 13, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Marion Griton, Jan Pieter Konsman
Although the immune and nervous systems have long been considered independent biological systems, they turn out to mingle and interact extensively. The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. The simplest activation concerns a reflex action within C-fibers leading to neurogenic inflammation. Low concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial fragments may also act on these afferent nerve fibers to signal the central nervous system and bring about early fever, hyperalgesia and sickness behavior...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Bas van Bussel, Nicky Peters, Marcel Aries
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Philipp Abe, Hannah M Wüst, Sebastian J Arnold, Serge A van de Pavert, Ralf Stumm
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is implicated in learning and memory processing. It is tightly controlled at several levels including progenitor proliferation as well as migration, differentiation and integration of new neurons. Hippocampal progenitors and immature neurons reside in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and are equipped with the CXCL12-receptor CXCR4 which contributes to defining the SGZ as neurogenic niche. The atypical CXCL12-receptor CXCR7 functions primarily by sequestering extracellular CXCL12 but whether CXCR7 is involved in adult neurogenesis has not been assessed...
March 14, 2018: Glia
De-Xin Wang, Fang-Gui Sun, Rui Liu, Da-Cheng Li, Yu-Tong Hu, Rong-Ming Xu
Transient osteoporosis of the hip(TOH) is classified as a type of bone marrow edema syndrome. TOH is lack of previous study and there is still controversy about his pathogenesis. In recent years, with the development of multi-discipline, such as imaging, pathology, molecular biology, the study has found that the pathological mechanism is complex, while its mechanism is still not clear, which need further research. This paper summarizes the research progress on the pathogenesis of TOH from neurogenic, osteonecrosis, abnormal vascular function, subchondral fracture, heredity and regional acceleration and son on...
February 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Prudence Dy, Cristina Lajom, Josephino Sanchez
Neurogenic tumours of the mediastinum in adults occur most often at the posterior mediastinum, majority of which are benign of nerve sheath in origin. A 72-year-old woman, known asthmatic, presented with chronic symptoms of hoarseness, dysphagia, chest heaviness, easy fatigability, cough, epigastric pain, feeling of abdominal fullness and choking with food intake and at a supine position. Treated for other disorders, routine chest X-ray incidentally found a homogenous convex radiodensity at the right paratracheal area; mass which was also observed with CT and 18F-fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT scan studies...
March 13, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Satyanarayana Achanta, Narendranath Reddy Chintagari, Marian Brackmann, Shrilatha Balakrishna, Sven-Eric Jordt
The skin is highly sensitive to the chemical warfare agent in mustard gas, sulfur mustard (SM) that initiates a delayed injury response characterized by erythema, inflammation and severe vesication (blistering). Although SM poses a continuing threat, used as recently as in the Syrian conflict, no mechanism-based antidotes against SM are available. Recent studies demonstrated that Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a chemosensory cation channel in sensory nerves innervating the skin, is activated by SM and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), an SM analog, in vitro, suggesting it may promote vesicant injury...
March 10, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Jianjie Zheng, Jing Li, Bo Kou, Qiuyue Yi, Tao Shi
The aim of the present study was to determine the cardioprotective mechanisms by which micro (mi)RNA-30e protects the heart from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/R) and to explore the signaling pathways that may confer protection for the heart and be potential therapeutic targets. It was demonstrated that miRNA‑30e expression was decreased in patients with MI/R. In H9C2 cells, silencing (si)miRNA‑30e significantly inhibited cellular apoptosis, the expression of apoptosis regulator BAX (Bax) and caspase‑3 activity...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Catherine S Forster, Elizabeth Jackson, Qing Ma, Michael Bennett, Samir S Shah, Stuart L Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between urinary tract infection (UTI) and colonization (UTC) in patients with neurogenic bladders who require clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) is difficult. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentrations (uNGAL) are increased in UTIs. Our objective was to determine the predictive accuracy of uNGAL for UTI in CIC-dependent children. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of CIC-dependent patients from August, 2015 to November, 2016...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Julie A Morgan, Andrew T Olagunju, Frances Corrigan, Bernhard T Baune
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise in adults improves depressive symptoms (DS) and major depressive disorder (MDD), however the clinical effects of ceasing exercise are largely unknown. METHODS: Seven databases were searched from inception to December 2017. Eligibility criteria included English language studies investigating the effects of ceasing exercise on DS or MDD in regularly active adults with or without prior DS or MDD. Blood based markers related to exercise cessation (EC) were assessed, if recorded...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
João Cavaleiro Rufo, Inês Paciência, Diana Silva, Carla Martins, Joana Madureira, Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes, Patrícia Padrão, Pedro Moreira, Luís Delgado, André Moreira
BACKGROUND: Endurance swimming exercises coupled to disinfection by-products exposure has been associated with increased airways dysfunction and neurogenic inflammation in elite swimmers. However, the impact of swimming pool exposure at a recreational level on autonomic activity has never been explored. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how swimming pool attendance is influencing lung and autonomic function in school-aged children. METHODS: A total of 858 children enrolled a cross sectional survey...
2018: PloS One
Zachary Jonas Hall, Vincent Tropepe
The postembryonic brain exhibits experience-dependent development, in which sensory experience guides normal brain growth. This neuroplasticity is thought to occur primarily through structural and functional changes in pre-existing neurons. Whether neurogenesis also mediates the effects of experience on brain growth is unclear. Here, we characterized the importance of motor experience on postembryonic neurogenesis in larval zebrafish. We found that movement maintains an expanded pool of forebrain neural precursors by promoting progenitor self-renewal over the production of neurons...
March 12, 2018: ELife
Peter Chung, Hope Northrup, Misbah Azmath, Ricardo A Mosquera, Shade Moody, Aravind Yadav
Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMN) are a rare heterogeneous group of inherited disorders specifically affecting the motor axons, leading to distal limb neurogenic muscular atrophy. The GARS gene has been identified as a causative gene responsible for clinical features of dHMN type V in families from different ethnic origins and backgrounds. We present the first cohort of family members of Nigerian descent with a novel heterozygous p.L272R variant on the GARS gene. We postulate that this variant is the cause of dHMN-V in this family, leading to variable phenotypical expressions that are earlier than reported in previous cases...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Jagatkumar A Patel, Bryan J Ray, Camilo Fernandez-Salvador, Christopher Gouveia, Soroush Zaghi, Macario Camacho
OBJECTIVE: A collapsible upper airway is a common cause of obstructive sleep apnea. The exact pathophysiology leading to a more collapsible airway is not well understood. A progressive neuropathy of the soft palate and pharyngeal dilators may be associated with the progression of snoring to OSA. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the international literature investigating the neurophysiologic changes in the soft palate and uvula that contribute to progression from snoring to OSA...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Quentin Manach, Olivier Cussenot, Morgan Rouprêt, Xavier Gamé, Emmanuel Chartier-Kastler, Christine Reus, Philippe Camparo, Eva Compérat, Véronique Phé
INTRODUCTION: To establish if the validated tumor biomarkers of luminal and basal bladder cancers in non neuro-urological patients are applicable to a neuro-urological population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrieved bladder cancer samples from neuro-urological patients (n = 20) and non-neurological controls (n = 40). The expression of GATA3 and CK5/6 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry of microarray tissue sections. We also assessed the correlation between previous biomarker expression, gender, age, tumor stage (non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC)/muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC)), squamous-cell differentiation and basal/luminal subtypes using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r)...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Urology
Qing Wang, Xinjie Wu, Mingsheng Tan, Gaoju Wang, Shuang Xu, Yingna Qi
OBJECTIVE: To describe lower cranial nerve palsy (LCNP) following vertical over-distraction when performing occipitocervical fusion (OCF) to treat vertical atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and basilar invagination (BI) and to investigate its possible causes. METHODS: We report 4 cases with vertical AAD and BI who postoperatively presented with neurogenic dysphagia, dysarthria, and bucking after undergoing anatomical reduction. RESULTS: Patients underwent revision surgery to achieve partial reduction and demonstrated remarkable recovery of 9th , 10th and 11th nerve deficits...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Mehmet E Yalvac, Jakkrit Amornvit, Lei Chen, Kimberly M Shontz, Sarah Lewis, Zarife Sahenk
Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) has well-recognized effects on peripheral nerve and Schwann cells, promoting axonal regeneration and associated myelination. In this study, we assessed the effects of AAV.NT-3 gene therapy on the oxidative state of the neurogenic muscle from the TremblerJ (TrJ ) mice at 16 weeks post-gene injection and found that the muscle fiber size increase was associated with a change in the oxidative state of muscle fibers towards normalization of the fiber type ratio seen in the wild type. NT-3-induced fiber size increase was most prominent for the fast twitch glycolytic fiber population...
March 9, 2018: Gene Therapy
(no author information available yet)
SS18-SSX usurps the PRC1.1 repressive complex to drive expression of a synovial sarcoma gene signature.
March 9, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Unsal Ozkuvanci, Muhammet Irfan Donmez, Faruk Ozgor, Akif Erbin, Özge Pasin, Ahmet Yaser Muslumanoglu
INTRODUCTION: Durasphere® EXP (DEXP) is a compound of biocompatible and non-biodegradable particles of zirconium oxide covered with pyrolytic carbon. The aim of this study is to evaluate the durability of off-label use of DEXP in the treatment of primary vesicoureteral reflux in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent subureteric injection of DEXP for the correction of primary VUR were retrospectively reviewed . Patients aged >18 years as well as those who had grade-I or -V VUR, anatomic abnormalities (duplicated system, hutch diverticulum), neurogenic bladder or treatment refractory voiding dysfunction were excluded...
March 9, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
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