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Matthias Gmeiner, Helga Wagner, Christoph Zacherl, Petra Polanski, Christian Auer, Willem J R van Ouwerkerk, Kurt Holl
PURPOSE: Very long-term follow-up and outcome are rare for pediatric patients with hydrocephalus and shunt operations. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term mortality rates in these patients. METHODS: Pediatric patients with first shunt operation between 1982 and 1992 were included. For each patient, time and cause of death were determined. Further, patients with first operation from 1982 to 1987 were compared to those first operated from 1988 to 1992...
October 20, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Jose Juan Sanchez Rodriguez, Jaime Torres Corzo, Dominic Shelby Cervantes, Roberto Rodriguez-DellaVecchia, Antonio Gordillo-Moscoso, Juan Manuel Vinas Rios, Martin Sanchez-Aguilar
Objective To compare the resolution rate of hydrocephalus after endoscopy (predominantly endoscopic third ventriculostomy [ETV]) using flexible endoscopes during a 5-year period in patients with a permeable and a nonpermeable subarachnoid space (SAS). Material and Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of the videos and records of 150 hydrocephalic patients chosen randomly who underwent ETV (and other endoscopic procedures) with a flexible endoscope. The patients were classified into two groups based on the neuroendoscopic findings...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
E Varvarigos, M Iaccarino, S Iaccarino, M La Verde, V Parisella, R N Laurini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Helen Williams
It is proposed that negative central nervous system (CNS) pressure is one of the filling mechanisms of the fluid spaces of the CNS. Negative CNS pressure is caused by the combination of gravitational force and body movement. The venous system imposes pressure fluctuations on the CNS due to changes in posture and body cavity pressure. It is proposed here that filling of veins, arteries and cerebrospinal (CSF) spaces are all assisted by negative CNS pressure. Hyperemia in the CNS in response to pressure changes with movement was described in the first part of this hypothesis...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Necati Ucler, Fatih Serhat Erol, Sait Ozturk, Bekir Akgun, Metin Kaplan, Yasar Sen
OBJECTIVE/AIM: The aim of this report was to investigate the effect of ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion for the treatment of hydrocephalus on thyroid hormones in the first 3 months of life. METHODS: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T3 (fT3), and free T4 (fT4) levels were compared at 7 days (preoperatively) and at 30 and 90 days (postoperatively) after birth between 25 ventriculoperitoneal shunt-inserted hydrocephalic newborns and 20 healthy newborns. RESULTS: The TSH level at 7 days was higher in the hydrocephalic patient group (6...
August 5, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Per Kristian Eide, Geir Ringstad
BACKGROUND: In symptomatic individuals with non-hydrocephalic pineal cysts (PCs), it remains controversial what causes the symptoms. Based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers, we proposed that PC-associated crowding of the pineal recess may cause central venous hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare pulsatile and static ICP in patients with PCs and chronic daily headache (CDH), and compare ICP data in PC patients with the previously identified MRI biomarkers. METHODS: All patients assessed with over-night ICP monitoring for PCs or CDH who had been ruled out for idiopathic intracranial hypertension without papilledema (IIHWOP) were retrieved from the database...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Song-Bai Gui, Sheng-Yuan Yu, Lei Cao, Ji-Wei Bai, Xin-Sheng Wang, Chu-Zhong Li, Ya-Zhuo Zhang
OBJECTIVE At present, endoscopic treatment is advised as the first procedure in cases of suprasellar arachnoid cysts (SSCs) with hydrocephalus. However, the appropriate therapy for SSCs without hydrocephalus has not been fully determined yet because such cases are very rare and because it is usually difficult to perform the neuroendoscopic procedure in patients without ventriculomegaly given difficulties with ventricular cannulation and the narrow foramen of Monro. The purpose of this study was to find out the value of navigation-guided neuroendoscopic ventriculocystocisternostomy (VCC) for SSCs without lateral ventriculomegaly...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Naila Naz, Alicia Requena Jimenez, Anna Sanjuan-Vilaplana, Megan Gurney, Jaleel Miyan
Folate is vital in a range of biological processes and folate deficiency is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as neural tube defects and hydrocephalus (HC). 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase (FDH) is a key regulator for folate availability and metabolic interconversion for the supply of 1-carbon groups. In previous studies, we found a deficiency of FDH in CSF associated with the developmental deficit in congenital and neonatal HC. In this study, we therefore aimed to investigate the role of FDH in folate transport and metabolism during the brain development of the congenital hydrocephalic Texas (H-Tx) rat and normal (Sprague-Dawley) rats...
August 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Arvid A Eriksen, Joakim S Johnsen, Anders H Tennøe, Abenezer Tirsit, Tsegazeab Laeke, Ephrem B Amare, Knut Wester
OBJECTIVE: A substantial number of infants in Ethiopia suffer from hydrocephalus. Neurosurgical expertise has until recently been virtually nonexistent in the country; however, since 2006, a neurosurgery training program has been established in Addis Ababa, where hydrocephalus surgery now is performed in 3 hospitals. Our experience is that hydrocephalus is diagnosed and treatment is too late to avoid severe brain damage. Introducing routine head circumference (HC) measurements can ease the detection of hydrocephalus and thus lead to earlier diagnosis, thereby reducing the brain damage caused by the condition...
July 2016: World Neurosurgery
Naïma Diesner, Florian Freimann, Christin Clajus, Kai Kallenberg, Veit Rohde, Florian Stockhammer
BACKGROUND: Gravitational valves (GVs) prevent overdrainage in ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS). However, there are no data available on the appropriate opening pressure in the shunt system when implementing a GV. We performed a retrospective analysis of hydrocephalic patients who were successfully treated with VPS which included one or more GV. METHOD: In this retrospective study in adult VPS patients with GVs, we analysed all available data, including the most recent computed tomography (CT) scans, to determine the best adjustments for alleviating any symptoms of overdrainage and underdrainage...
July 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Jonathan Pindrik, Brandon G Rocque, Anastasia A Arynchyna, James M Johnston, Curtis J Rozzelle
OBJECTIVE Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with choroid plexus (CP) cauterization (CPC) represents a viable treatment option for congenital hydrocephalus in infants younger than 2 years. Imaging studies complement clinical data in the evaluation of treatment success or failure. The objectives of this study were to investigate novel radiographic markers-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) turbulence and CP visualization-and their ability to reflect or predict clinical outcomes following ETV/CPC. METHODS Hydrocephalic patients younger than 2 years who were initially treated by ETV/CPC at the senior authors' institution between March 2013 and February 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
J Haldar, N Pal, R Ray, P K Maiti
Technical limitations restrict routine anaerobe isolation from clinical materials in resource-limited laboratories. An innovative two steps combustion candle jar technique may be suitable for such setup. This system was tried with one case of chronic osteomyelitis developed on supracondyler compound fracture. Porphyromonas spp. was isolated and identified. Vancomycin was recommended based on in vitro sensitivity test, but the leg was amputed after receiving a resistant drug gentamycin. While in another child with hydrocephalous, V-P shunt associated infection by Peptostreptococcus anaerobius was successfully controlled by sensitive drug vancomycin...
January 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
Li Liu, Xi Liu, Fan Zhang, Xianyi Yao, Peng Xue, Hong Shen, Yunfeng Jiang, Zhisong Zhou, Changbin Shi, Zhiguo Lin
BACKGROUND: In minimally invasive endoscopic port surgery, the medium is air, and the image is clearer than in fluid. The most commonly used port is a single-channel port, which accommodates the rod lens of the endoscope and 2 microsurgical instruments. This setup decreases the freedom of movement of the 3 instruments, making the bimanual procedure difficult. We describe a novel "dual-channel" endoscopic port to facilitate a bimanual refinement procedure for removing deep-seated spontaneous intracerebral hematomas, and we demonstrate the feasibility of this method...
July 2016: World Neurosurgery
Domenico L Di Curzio, Emily Turner-Brannen, Xiaoyan Mao, Marc R Del Bigio
BACKGROUND: Previous work with 3-week hydrocephalic rats showed that white matter damage could be reduced by the calcium channel antagonist magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). We hypothesized that MgSO4 therapy would improve outcomes in ferrets with hydrocephalus induced with kaolin at 15 days. METHODS: MRI was performed at 29 days to assess ventricle size and stratify ferrets to treatment conditions. Beginning at 31 days age, they were treated daily for 14 days with MgSO4 (9 mM/kg/day) or sham saline therapy, and then imaged again before sacrifice...
2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Daniel Dubinski, Michel Mittelbronn, Gerhard Marquardt, Dominique S Tews, Anika Noack, Bedjan Behmanesh, Volker Seifert, Thomas M Freiman
Intracranial teratoma is a rare neoplasm derived from omnipotent germinal cells that can contain mesoderm, endoderm and/or ectoderm layer tissue. Histologically teratomas are characterized by abnormal structures like teeth or bone that can be further subdivided into mature and immature according to the presence of incompletely differentiated tissue. Characteristic intracranial teratomas are space-occupying lesions in the pineal region and often present with hydrocephalic symptoms due to aqueduct stenosis. A 3-year-old boy presented with a peracute hemiparesis, fatigue and speech deficit...
April 25, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Eduardo Ortega, Rosa I Muñoz, Nelly Luza, Francisco Guerra, Monserrat Guerra, Karin Vio, Roberto Henzi, Jaime Jaque, Sara Rodriguez, James P McAllister, Esteban Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Mutant rodent models have highlighted the importance of the ventricular ependymal cells and the subcommissural organ (a brain gland secreting glycoproteins into the cerebrospinal fluid) in the development of fetal onset hydrocephalus. Evidence indicates that communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus can be two sequential phases of a single pathological phenomenon triggered by ependymal disruption and/or abnormal function of the subcommissural organ. We have hypothesized that a similar phenomenon may occur in human cases with fetal onset hydrocephalus...
2016: BMC Neurology
R Sinha, J A D Morgan, J R Wawrzynski, Z Czosnyka, M Kasprowicz, M Czosnyka, M Garnett, P J A Hutchinson, J D Pickard, S J Price
OBJECTIVES: Suspected cerebrospinal fluid shunt (CSF) dysfunction in hydrocephalic patients poses a diagnostic uncertainty. The clinical picture can be non-specific and CT imaging alone is not always pathognomonic. Infusion tests are an increasingly used investigation for real-time hydrodynamic assessment of shunt patency. We report the correlation between infusion test results with the quality of ventricular drain placement on CT scans in a large retrospective group of hydrocephalic patients...
March 29, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Carl Muroi, Yuto Kashiwagi, Takemi Rokugawa, Misato Tonomura, Atsushi Obata, Edin Nevzati, Akio Tsuboi, Kazuo Okuchi, Kenichi Mishima, Kohji Abe, Masayuki Fujioka
The filament perforation model (FPM) in mice is becoming increasingly popular to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of neuronal injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We evaluated brain MRI in a mouse FPM. A total of 28 male C57Bl/6J mice were used. Seventeen animals underwent SAH induction by FPM. In two animals, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) was induced. Nine mice served as controls. T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted images (T2WI), T2(∗)-weighted images (T2*WI) and apparent diffusion coefficient maps were acquired at day 0 and at various time points following SAH (range: day 1-6 after SAH)...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Per Kristian Eide, Are Hugo Pripp, Geir A Ringstad
BACKGROUND: While most pineal cysts (PCs) are asymptomatic, some PCs are accompanied with symptoms of variable severity. We suggested that symptom severity in symptomatic patients with non-hydrocephalic PCs relates to venous compression causing central venous hypertension. This study explored whether possible magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers of central venous hypertension could differentiate the severity of symptoms in individuals with non-hydrocephalic PCs. METHODS: The study included all individuals with PCs and MRI available for analysis followed conservatively within the department from 2003 to 2014...
April 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Sait Ozturk, Fatih Serhat Erol, Bekir Akgun, Metin Kaplan, Omer Faruk Birkent, Turgut Karlidag
BACKGROUND/AIM: There is currently no objective evaluation of hearing in patients with hydrocephalus (HCP), and we could not find any study in the literature comprising a sufficient number of patients with a high level of scientific evidence. In the current study, we used the auditory brainstem response (ABR) test to assess whether hearing function in patients with HCP is altered after ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. METHODS: In total, 20 newborn patients with HCP (13 female, 7 male) were enrolled in this study...
2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
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