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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877908/evaluation-of-ventricle-size-measurements-in-infants-by-pediatric-emergency-medicine-physicians
#1
Brunhild M Halm, Tina A Leone, Lindsey T Chaudoin, Kenneth W McKinley, Carrie Ruzal-Shapiro, Adrian A Franke, Daniel S Tsze
OBJECTIVES: The identification of hydrocephalus in infants by pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians using cranial point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has not been evaluated. We aimed to conduct a pilot/proof-of-concept study to evaluate whether PEM physicians can identify hydrocephalus (anterior horn width >5 mm) in 15 infants (mean 69 ± 42 days old) from the neonatal intensive care unit using POCUS. Our exploratory aims were to determine the test characteristics of cranial POCUS performed by PEM physicians for diagnosing hydrocephalus and the interrater reliability between measurements made by the PEM physicians and the radiologist...
June 5, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29798726/altered-folate-binding-protein-expression-and-folate-delivery-are-associated-with-congenital-hydrocephalus-in-the-hydrocephalic-texas-rat
#2
Alicia R Jimenez, Naila Naz, Jaleel A Miyan
Hydrocephalus (HC) is an imbalance in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) secretion/absorption resulting in fluid accumulation within the brain with consequential pathophysiology. Our research has identified a unique cerebral folate system in which depletion of CSF 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase (FDH) is associated with cortical progenitor cell-cycle arrest in hydrocephalic Texas (H-Tx) rats. We used tissue culture, immunohistochemistry, in-situ PCR and RT-PCR and found that the in-vitro proliferation of arachnoid cells is highly folate-dependent with exacerbated proliferation occurring in hydrocephalic CSF that has low FDH but high folate-receptor-alpha (FRα) and folate...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791910/melatonin-attenuates-histopathological-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-infantile-rats-with-kaolin-induced-hydrocephalus
#3
Mehmet Turgut, Meral Baka, Yiğit Uyanıkgil
OBJECTIVE/AIM: Hydrocephalus is defined as an incapacitating neurological disorder characterized by ventricular enlargement in children, but the effects of melatonin on this hydrocephalus have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present experiment, we attempted to investigate the effects of exogenous melatonin administration on hydrocephalus-induced hippocampal changes in infantile rats. METHODS: In this study, we randomly divided 45 Swiss albino rats aged 2 weeks into 3 groups: group I, the control group received a sham injection with needle insertion only; groups II and III were given kaolin injections before treatment - group II, the hydrocephalus group, was treated with an isotonic NaCl solution, and group III, the hydrocephalus plus melatonin group, was treated with 0...
May 23, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749882/low-cost-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-simulator-with-mimetic-endoscope
#4
Richard Justin Garling, Xin Jin, Jianzhong Yang, Ahmad H Khasawneh, Carolyn Anne Harris
OBJECTIVE Hydrocephalus affects approximately 1 in 500 people in the US, yet ventricular shunting, the gold standard of treatment, has a nearly 85% failure rate. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is an alternative surgical approach for a specific subset of hydrocephalic patients, but can be limited by the inability of neurosurgical residents to practice prior to patient contact. The goal of this study was to create an affordable ETV model and endoscope for resident training. METHODS Open-source software was used to isolate the skull and brain from the CT and MR images of a 2-year-old boy with hydrocephalus...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720231/nimodipine-treatment-does-not-benefit-juvenile-ferrets-with-kaolin-induced-hydrocephalus
#5
Domenico L Di Curzio, Xiaoyan Mao, Aidan Baker, Marc R Del Bigio
Prior research on 3-week hydrocephalic rats showed that behavioral deficits and white matter damage could be reduced by treatment with Ca2+ channel blocker nimodipine. We hypothesized that treatment with nimodipine would be also beneficial to young ferrets with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus was induced at 14 days of age and animals were treated either with vehicle, low dose nimodipine (3.2 mg/kg/day), or high dose nimodipine (16 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks from 38 to 52 days age. Hydrocephalic ferrets developed progressive ventriculomegaly, behavioral changes, and in some cases cortical blindness...
May 3, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671042/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-reduces-astrogliosis-and-helps-to-recovery-brain-damage-in-hydrocephalic-young-rats
#6
Stephanya Covas da Silva, Omar Feres, Pâmella da Silva Beggiora, Hélio Rubens Machado, Rafael Menezes-Reis, João Eduardo Araújo, Ricardo Andrade Brandão, Luiza da Silva Lopes
PURPOSE: We investigated the possible beneficial effects that hyperbaric oxygen therapy could offer in different brain structures affected by ventriculomegaly in pup rats submitted to experimental hydrocephalus. METHODS: Seven-day-old Wistar rats were submitted to hydrocephalus by intracisternal injection of 10% kaolin into the cisterna magna. The animals were divided into four groups: control (n = 5); control with HBOT (3ATA/2 h/day) (n = 5); untreated hydrocephalic (n = 10); hydrocephalic treated with HBOT (3ATA/2 h/day) (n = 10)...
June 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651556/neurospheres-from-neural-stem-neural-progenitor-cells-nspcs-of-non-hydrocephalic-htx-rats-produce-neurons-astrocytes-and-multiciliated-ependyma-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-normal-and-hydrocephalic-rats-supports-such-a-differentiation
#7
Roberto Henzi, Montserrat Guerra, Karin Vío, César González, Cristian Herrera, Pat McAllister, Conrad Johanson, Esteban M Rodríguez
Fetal onset hydrocephalus and abnormal neurogenesis are two inseparable phenomena turned on by a cell junction pathology first affecting neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and later the multiciliated ependyma. The neurological impairment of children born with hydrocephalus is not reverted by derivative surgery. NSPCs and neurosphere (NE) grafting into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of hydrocephalic fetuses thus appears as a promising therapeutic procedure. There is little information about the cell lineages actually forming the NE as they grow throughout their days in vitro (DIV)...
April 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626689/petrous-face-meningiomas-classification-clinical-syndromes-and-surgical-outcomes
#8
Stephen T Magill, Jonathan W Rick, William C Chen, David A Haase, David R Raleigh, Manish K Aghi, Philip V Theodosopoulos, Michael W McDermott
BACKGROUND: Petrous face meningiomas (PFMs) are challenging tumors because of their proximity to the cranial nerves, brainstem, and critical vasculature. The objective of this study is to present surgical outcomes and support an anatomic classification for PFM based on clinical presentation. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed, and 51 PFMs were identified. Tumors were classified by location along the petrous face into anterior, middle, and posterior...
June 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625114/memantine-treatment-of-juvenile-rats-with-kaolin-induced-hydrocephalus
#9
Domenico L Di Curzio, Gurjit Nagra, Xiaoyan Mao, Marc R Del Bigio
Memantine is a selective, non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has previously been shown to have neuroprotective qualities in some animal models of neurologic disease. We hypothesized that memantine therapy would improve behavioral, neuropathological, and/or biochemical outcomes in juvenile rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Three-week old rats received an injection of kaolin (aluminum silicate) into the cisterna magna. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed one week later to assess ventricle size and stratify rats to three treatment groups...
June 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569086/pediatric-cerebellar-pilocytic-astrocytoma-presenting-with-spontaneous-intratumoral-hemorrhage
#10
REVIEW
Carmine Antonio Donofrio, Filippo Gagliardi, Marcella Callea, Camillo Ferrari da Passano, Maria Rosa Terreni, Andrea Cavalli, Alfio Spina, Stefania Acerno, Michele Bailo, Samer K Elbabaa, Pietro Mortini
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are benign glial tumors and one of the most common childhood posterior fossa tumors. Spontaneous intratumoral hemorrhage in PAs occurs occasionally, in about 8-20% of cases. Cerebellar hemorrhages in pediatric population are rare and mainly due to head injuries, rupture of vascular malformations, infections, or hematological diseases. We have investigated the still controversial and unclear pathophysiology underlying intratumoral hemorrhage in PAs. Bleeding in low-grade tumors might be related to structural abnormalities and specific angio-architecture of tumor vessels, such as degenerative mural hyalinization, "glomeruloid" endothelial proliferation, presence of encased micro-aneurysms, and glioma-induced neoangiogenesis...
March 22, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566708/seizures-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-is-neurofibromatosis-type-1-enough
#11
Claudia Santoro, Pia Bernardo, Antonietta Coppola, Umberto Pugliese, Mario Cirillo, Teresa Giugliano, Giulio Piluso, Giuseppe Cinalli, Salvatore Striano, Carmela Bravaccio, Silverio Perrotta
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is related to a generally increased prevalence of seizures. The mechanism underlying the increased predisposition to seizures has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of NF1 in seizures pathogenesis in a cohort of children with NF1 and seizures. METHODS: The medical records of 437 children (0-18 years old) with NF1 were reviewed. All children with at least one afebrile seizure were included...
March 22, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498604/early-postnatal-cranial-vault-reduction-and-fixation-surgery-for-severe-hydrocephalic-macrocephaly
#12
Rajiv R Iyer, Carolyn M Carey, S Alex Rottgers, Lisa Tetreault, Nir Shimony, Jennifer Katzenstein, Ernesto Ruas, Gerald F Tuite
OBJECTIVE Infants with severe hydrocephalus and extreme macrocephaly typically undergo CSF diversion early in life, which can result in significant cranial deformity due to CSF overdrainage. In this scenario, overlap of the cranial plates can precede the development of secondary synostosis and/or severe, permanent cranial deformity. As a result, extensive cranial vault remodeling is sometimes undertaken later in life, which is often challenging and has been associated with mortality and a high morbidity rate...
May 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492547/are-slow-waves-of-intracranial-pressure-suppressed-by-general-anaesthesia
#13
Despina Afroditi Lalou, Marek Czosnyka, Joseph Donnelly, Andrea Lavinio, John D Pickard, Matthew Garnett, Zofia Czosnyka
OBJECTIVES: Slow waves of intracranial pressure (ICP) are spontaneous oscillations with a frequency of 0.3-4 cycles/min. They are often associated with pathological conditions, following vasomotor activity in the cranial enclosure. This study quantifies the effects of general anaesthesia (GA) on the magnitude of B-waves compared with natural sleep and the conscious state. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four groups of 30 patients each were formed to assess the magnitude of slow waves...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483013/endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-for-shunt-malfunction-in-children-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Mueez Waqar, Jonathan R Ellenbogen, Conor Mallucci
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is increasingly used in place of shunt revision for shunt malfunction (secondary ETV). This review provides a comprehensive overview of preoperative, operative and postoperative considerations for patients undergoing a secondary ETV. Preoperatively, patient selection is vital and there is evidence that secondary ETV is more effective than primary ETV in certain hydrocephalic aetiologies. Operative considerations include use of neuronavigation and consideration of surgeon technical experience due to anatomical differences that are likely to accompany chronic shunting, management of existing shunt hardware and the use of temporary external ventricular drains or short/long-term ventricular access devices...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480510/-functional-hemispherectomy-long-term-follow-up-in-a-series-of-five-patients
#15
X Rodriguez-Osorio, F J Lopez-Gonzalez, J Eiris-Punal, C Frieiro-Dantas, C Gomez-Lado, M Peleteiro-Fernandez, A Prieto-Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: Functional hemispherectomy consists in palliative epilepsy surgical procedure usually performed in patients with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy and hemispheric syndromes. It is based on the neural disconnection of the affected hemisphere with preservation of the vascular supply. AIM: To analyze long-term prognosis and safety of the hemispherectomies performed in our institution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis collecting the following variables: age, gender, age of epilepsy onset, type of seizures, etiology, age of epilepsy surgery, prognosis and potential surgical complications...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458296/a-non-hydrocephalic-goat-experimental-model-to-evaluate-a-ventriculosinus-shunt
#16
Jelle Vandersteene, Edward Baert, Stijn Schauvliege, Kimberley Vandevelde, Frank Dewaele, Filip De Somer, Dirk Van Roost
The ventriculosinus shunt is a promising treatment for hydrocephalus. Currently, different shunt techniques exist, and it is not clear whether one is preferable. This pilot study reports on a non-hydrocephalic goat model (Saanen breed) that provides opportunities to evaluate and optimize several aspects of the ventriculosinus shunt technique. Analysis of the coagulation properties of 14 goats by a viscoelastic coagulation monitor showed that goats have a hypercoagulable state compared to humans. This property can be partially counteracted by antiplatelet drugs...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408347/the-results-of-neuroendoscopic-surgery-in-patients-with-posttraumatic-and-posthemorrhagic-hydrocephalus
#17
Jan Chrastina, Zdeněk Novák, Tomáš Zeman, Věra Feitová, Dušan Hrabovský, Ivo Říha
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) were previously considered not suitable for neuroendoscopic treatment. New hydrocephalus theories support possible successful neuroendoscopy in such patients. METHODS: This study presents the results of neuroendoscopy in PTH and PHH with a background analysis. From 130 hydrocephalic patients after neuroendoscopic surgeries, 35 cases with PTH (n = 11) or PHH (n = 24; acute: n = 9, subacute: n = 10, chronic: n = 5) were found...
May 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322554/transcription-factor-foxc1-is-involved-in-anterior-part-of-cranial-base-formation
#18
Nandar Mya, Toshiko Furutera, Shigeru Okuhara, Tsutomu Kume, Masaki Takechi, Sachiko Iseki
The cranial base is a structure mainly formed through endochondral ossification and integrated into the craniofacial complex, which acts as an underlying platform for the developing brain. Foxc1 is an indispensable regulator during intramembranous and endochondral ossification. In this study, we found that the spontaneous loss of Foxc1 function in a mouse (congenital hydrocephalous), Foxc1ch/ch , demonstrated the anterior cranial base defects, including unossified presphenoid and lack of middle part of the basisphenoid bone...
January 11, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282698/elevated-surfactant-protein-levels-and-increased-flow-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-cranial-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Stefan Schob, Alexander Weiß, Alexey Surov, Julia Dieckow, Cindy Richter, Mandy Pirlich, Diana Horvath-Rizea, Wolfgang Härtig, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Matthias Krause, Ulf Quäschling
Surfactant proteins (SPs) are a multifunctional group of proteins, responsible for the regulation of rheological properties of body fluids, host defense, and cellular waste clearance. Their concentrations are changed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients suffering from communicating hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalic conditions are accompanied by altered CSF flow dynamics; however, the association of CSF-SP concentrations and CSF flow has not yet been investigated. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between SP concentrations in the CSF and marked CSF flow phenomena at different anatomical landmarks of CSF spaces...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201837/expression-of-aquaporin-1-and-4-in-the-choroid-plexus-and-brain-parenchyma-of-kaolin-induced-hydrocephalic-rats
#20
Taehyung Jeon, Ki-Su Park, Seong-Hyun Park, Jeong-Hyun Hwang, Sung Kyoo Hwang
Objective: Aquaporin (AQP) is a recently discovered protein that regulates water homeostasis. The present study examines changes in AQP 1 and 4 in kaolin induced experimental hydrocephalic rats to elucidate the pathophysiology of water homeostasis in the disease. Methods: Hydrocephalus was induced by percutaneous intracisternal injection of kaolin. The brain parenchyma and choroid plexus were obtained at 3, 7, 14 and 30 days after injection. Protein expressions of AQP 1 and 4 were measured by western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) stains...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
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