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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740992/positron-emission-tomography-and-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-in-neurology
#1
Robert S Miletich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are now available for routine clinical applications in neurology. This article discusses their diagnostic use in dementia, brain tumors, epilepsy, parkinsonism, cerebrovascular disease, and traumatic brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuromolecular imaging, also known as nuclear neurology, involves clinical imaging of both basal regional physiology (perfusion, metabolism, and transport mechanisms) and specific neurochemical physiology (currently, only the dopamine transporter)...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540431/brain-18-f-fdg-18-f-florbetaben-pet-ct-123-i-fp-cit-spect-and-cardiac-123-i-mibg-imaging-for-diagnosis-of-a-cerebral-type-of-lewy-body-disease
#2
Axel Van Der Gucht, Laurent Cleret de Langavant, Ophélie Bélissant, Corentin Rabu, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Sophie Bonnot-Lours, Gilles Fénelon, Emmanuel Itti
A 67-year-old man was referred for fluctuating neuropsychiatric symptoms, featuring depression, delirious episodes, recurrent visual hallucinations and catatonic syndrome associated with cognitive decline. No parkinsonism was found clinically even under neuroleptic treatment. (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed hypometabolism in the posterior associative cortex including the occipital cortex, suggesting Lewy body dementia, but (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT was normal and cardiac (123)I-MIBG imaging showed no signs of sympathetic denervation...
September 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432669/single-photon-emission-tomography
#3
Karolien Goffin, Koen van Laere
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a functional nuclear imaging technique that allows visualization and quantification of different in vivo physiologic and pathologic features of brain neurobiology. It has been used for many years in diagnosis of several neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, we discuss the current state-of-the-art of SPECT imaging of brain perfusion and dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging. Brain perfusion SPECT imaging plays an important role in the localization of the seizure onset zone in patients with refractory epilepsy...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430452/movement-disorders
#4
A Jon Stoessl, Martin J Mckeown
Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27407017/synthesis-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-evaluation-of-fluorine-18-and-iodine-123-pyrazolo-4-3-e-1-2-4-triazolo-1-5-c-pyrimidine-derivatives-as-pet-and-spect-radiotracers-for-mapping-a2a-receptors
#5
Christine Vala, Thomas J Morley, Xuechun Zhang, Caroline Papin, Adriana Alexandre S Tavares, H Sharon Lee, Cristian Constantinescu, Olivier Barret, Vincent M Carroll, Ronald M Baldwin, Gilles D Tamagnan, David Alagille
Imaging agents that target adenosine type 2A (A2A ) receptors play an important role in evaluating new pharmaceuticals targeting these receptors, such as those currently being developed for the treatment of movement disorders like Parkinson's disease. They are also useful for monitoring progression and treatment efficacy by providing a noninvasive tool to map changes in A2A receptor density and function in neurodegenerative diseases. We previously described the successful evaluation of two A2A -specific radiotracers in both nonhuman primates and in subsequent human clinical trials: [(123) I]MNI-420 and [(18) F]MNI-444...
September 6, 2016: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306201/-molecular-imaging-in-neurological-diseases
#6
M Reimold, C la Fougère
In neurodegeneration and in neuro-oncology, the standard imaging procedure, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), shows limited sensitivity and specificity. Molecular imaging with specific positron-emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers allows various molecular targets and metabolic processes to be assessed and is thus a valuable adjunct to MRI. Two important examples are referred to here: amino acid transport for neuro-oncological issues, and the recently approved PET tracers for detecting amyloid depositions during the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease...
July 2016: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27264343/functional-neuroimaging-and-clinical-features-of-drug-naive-patients-with-de-novo-parkinson-s-disease-and-probable-rbd
#7
Dario Arnaldi, Silvia Morbelli, Andrea Brugnolo, Nicola Girtler, Agnese Picco, Michela Ferrara, Jennifer Accardo, Ambra Buschiazzo, Fabrizio de Carli, Marco Pagani, Flavio Nobili
INTRODUCTION: The association between Parkinson Disease (PD) and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) has been related to a specific, malignant clinical phenotype. Definite RBD diagnosis requires video-polysomnography that is often unfeasible. A malignant clinical PD-RBD phenotype could be expected also in PD patients with probable RBD. Aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate whether a more severe neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging phenotype can be identified in PD patients with probable RBD...
August 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199649/metabolic-covariant-network-in-relation-to-nigrostriatal-degeneration-in-carbon-monoxide-intoxication-related-parkinsonism
#8
Chiung-Chih Chang, Jung-Lung Hsu, Wen-Neng Chang, Shu-Hua Huang, Chi-Wei Huang, Ya-Ting Chang, Nai-Ching Chen, Chun-Chung Lui, Chen-Chang Lee, Shih-Wei Hsu
Presence of parkinsonian features after carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is well known and the severity was found to relate to the pre-synaptic dopaminergic deficits. There is no systemic study to analyse the functional network involved in CO-related Parkinsonism. Forty-five CO-related parkinsonism patients and 25 aged-matched controls completed the 3D T1-weighted imaging and (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to assess the structural and functional brain differences between the patients and controls...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190023/in-vivo-imaging-of-neuromelanin-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-18f-av-1451-pet
#9
Allan K Hansen, Karoline Knudsen, Thea P Lillethorup, Anne M Landau, Peter Parbo, Tatyana Fedorova, Hélène Audrain, Dirk Bender, Karen Østergaard, David J Brooks, Per Borghammer
The tau tangle ligand (18)F-AV-1451 ((18)F-T807) binds to neuromelanin in the midbrain, and may therefore be a measure of the pigmented dopaminergic neuronal count in the substantia nigra. Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Extrapolation of post-mortem data predicts that a ∼30% decline of nigral dopamine neurons is necessary to cause motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Putamen dopamine terminal loss at disease onset most likely exceeds that of the nigral cell bodies and has been estimated to be of the order of 50-70%...
July 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182078/design-of-a-multi-pinhole-collimator-for-i-123-datscan-imaging-on-dual-headed-spect-systems-in-combination-with-a-fan-beam-collimator
#10
Michael A King, Joyeeta M Mukherjee, Arda Könik, I George Zubal, Joyoni Dey, Robert Licho
For the 2011 FDA approved Parkinson's Disease (PD) SPECT imaging agent I-123 labeled DaTscan, the volume of interest (VOI) is the interior portion of the brain. However imaging of the occipital lobe is also required with PD for calculation of the striatal binding ratio (SBR), a parameter of significance in early diagnosis, differentiation of PD from other disorders with similar clinical presentations, and monitoring progression. Thus we propose the usage of a combination of a multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator on one head of the SPECT system and a fan-beam on the other...
February 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098829/cingulate-island-sign-on-fdg-pet-is-associated-with-medial-temporal-lobe-atrophy-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#11
Tomomichi Iizuka, Masashi Kameyama
OBJECTIVE: The cingulate island sign (CIS), which refers to sparing of the posterior cingulate relative to the precuneus and cuneus, has been proposed as an FDG-PET imaging feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The sign is reportedly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) type neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology in autopsy cases. To confirm this relationship using neuroimaging modalities in vivo, we investigated associations between CIS and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy in DLB...
July 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025091/-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#12
Satoshi Orimo
It is important to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and other dementia, especially Alzheimer disease (AD), because the medical treatment, management, and the prognosis of these diseases are different. In regard to clinical features, DLB patients have relatively mild memory disturbance, fluctuating cognition, more severe disturbances of attention, executive function, visuospacial function, visual hallucination, depression, autonomic symptoms, REM sleep behavior disorder, and idiopathic parkinsonism compared to AD patients...
March 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006107/identification-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-a-fluorine-18-rolipram-analogue-18-f-mni-617-as-a-radioligand-for-pde4-imaging-in-mammalian-brain
#13
David Thomae, Thomas J Morley, Hsiaoju S Lee, Olivier Barret, Cristian Constantinescu, Caroline Papin, Ronald M Baldwin, Gilles D Tamagnan, David Alagille
Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 is the most prevalent PDE in the central nervous system (CNS) and catalyzes hydrolysis of intracellular cAMP, a secondary messenger. By therapeutic inhibition of PDE4, intracellular cAMP levels can be stabilized, and the symptoms of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders including depression, memory loss and Parkinson's disease can be ameliorated. Radiotracers targeting PDE4 can be used to study PDE4 density and function, and evaluate new PDE4 therapeutics, in vivo in a non-invasive way, as has been shown using the carbon-11 labeled PDE4 inhibitor R-(-)-rolipram...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26984612/cholinergic-imaging-in-dementia-spectrum-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Roman Roy, Flavia Niccolini, Gennaro Pagano, Marios Politis
The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias...
July 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950181/6-hydroxydopamine-induced-parkinson-s-disease-like-degeneration-generates-acute-microgliosis-and-astrogliosis-in-the-nigrostriatal-system-but-no-bioluminescence-imaging-detectable-alteration-in-adult-neurogenesis
#15
Inga B Fricke, Thomas Viel, Maik M Worlitzer, Franziska M Collmann, Alexis Vrachimis, Andreas Faust, Lydia Wachsmuth, Cornelius Faber, Frédéric Dollé, Michael T Kuhlmann, Klaus Schäfers, Sven Hermann, Jens C Schwamborn, Andreas H Jacobs
Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), leading to severe impairment in motor and non-motor functions. Endogenous subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem cells constantly give birth to new cells that might serve as a possible source for regeneration in the adult brain. However, neurodegeneration is accompanied by neuroinflammation and dopamine depletion, potentially compromising regeneration. We therefore employed in vivo imaging methods to study striatal deafferentation (N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-[(123) I]iodophenyl)nortropane single photon emission computed tomography, DaTscan(™) ) and neuroinflammation in the SN and striatum (N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-[(18) F]fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide positron emission tomography, [(18) F]DPA-714 PET) in the intranigral 6-hydroxydopamine Parkinson's disease mouse model...
May 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920358/serotonin-to-dopamine-transporter-ratios-in-parkinson-disease-relevance-for-dyskinesias
#16
Andreas-Antonios Roussakis, Marios Politis, David Towey, Paola Piccini
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a serotonin-to-dopamine terminal ratio is related to the appearance of dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with idiopathic PD (17 with levodopa-induced dyskinesias [LIDs], 11 without dyskinesias) and 12 age-matched healthy controls were studied with PET and 5[(11)C]-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenyl-sulfanyl)-benzonitrile ((11)C-DASB) and with SPECT and [(123)I]N-w-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ((123)I-ioflupane), which are in vivo specific markers of the serotonin and dopamine transporters' availability, respectively...
March 22, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26802555/molecular-imaging-of-dopamine-transporters
#17
REVIEW
David J Brooks
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for clearance of dopamine from the synaptic cleft after its release. Imaging DAT availability provides a measure of dopamine terminal function and a method for detecting the striatal dopamine terminal dysfunction present in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorders such as multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). DAT imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used to support or refute a diagnosis of dopamine deficient parkinsonism in cases where this is unclear and rationalise a trial of dopamine replacement agents as therapy...
September 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26776081/position-emission-tomography-single-photon-emission-tomography-neuroimaging-for-detection-of-premotor-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Jing Zou, Rui-Hui Weng, Zhao-Yu Chen, Xiao-Bo Wei, Rui Wang, Dan Chen, Ying Xia, Qing Wang
Premotor Parkinson's disease (PD) refers to a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) during which nonmotor clinical features may be present. Currently, it is difficult to make an early diagnosis for premotor PD. Molecular imaging with position emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) offers a wide variety of tools for overcoming this difficulty. Indeed, molecular imaging techniques may play a crucial role in diagnosing, monitoring and evaluating the individuals with the risk for PD...
March 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26764301/-scans-without-evidence-of-dopamine-deficit-swedds
#19
REVIEW
Yohei Mukai, Miho Murata
Dopamine transporter (DaT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and [18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) facilitate the investigation of dopaminergic hypofunction in neurodegenerative diseases. DaT SPECT and [18F]DOPA PET have been adopted as survey tools in clinical trials. In a large study on Parkinson's disease, 4-15% of subjects clinically diagnosed with early-stage Parkinson's disease had normal dopaminergic functional imaging scans. These are called Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs), and are considered to represent a state different from Parkinson's disease...
January 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26652877/the-role-of-neuroimaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-the-atypical-parkinsonian-syndromes-in-clinical-practice
#20
REVIEW
Magda Dąbrowska, Michał Schinwelski, Emilia J Sitek, Anna Muraszko-Klaudel, Bogna Brockhuis, Zygmunt Jamrozik, Jarosław Sławek
Atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD) are a heterogenous group of neurodegenerative diseases such as: progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA), cortico-basal degeneration (CBD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In all of them core symptoms of parkinsonian syndrome are accompanied by many additional clinical features not typical for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) like rapid progression, gaze palsy, apraxia, ataxia, early cognitive decline, dysautonomia and usually poor response to levodopa therapy...
2015: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
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