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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068467/exodisc-for-rapid-size-selective-and-efficient-isolation-and-analysis-of-nanoscale-extracellular-vesicles-from-biological-samples
#1
Hyun-Kyung Woo, Vijaya Sunkara, Juhee Park, Tae-Hyeong Kim, Ja-Ryoung Han, Chi-Ju Kim, Hyun-Il Choi, Yoon-Keun Kim, Yoon-Kyoung Cho
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived, nanoscale vesicles that carry nucleic acids and proteins from their cells of origin and show great potential as biomarkers for many diseases, including cancer. Efficient isolation and detection methods are prerequisites for exploiting their use in clinical settings and understanding their physiological functions. Here, we presented a rapid, label-free, and highly sensitive method for EV isolation and quantification using a lab-on-a-disc integrated with two nanofilters (Exodisc)...
January 9, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057672/targeting-cd19-the-good-the-bad-and-cd81
#2
Mireya Paulina Velasquez, Stephen Gottschalk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034753/role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-interaction-between-epithelial-and-mesenchymal-cells-during-oviductal-ciliogenesis
#3
Shota Nakano, Shohei Yamamoto, Atsumasa Okada, Tadaaki Nakajima, Mamiko Sato, Tomoko Takagi, Yasuhiro Tomooka
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been shown to transport miRNA, mRNA and protein, suggesting that they are new communication mediators. Diffusible mesenchymal factors determine the fate of Műllerian epithelial cells into oviductal ciliated cells. In the present study, we investigated whether EVs mediate the communication in the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during oviductal ciliogenesis. EVs were isolated from cells of oviductal mesenchymal cell line (S1 cells) and characterized by TEM and expression of exosomal marker CD81...
December 26, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031364/an-optimized-hepatitis-c-virus-e2-glycoprotein-core-adopts-a-functional-homodimer-that-efficiently-blocks-virus-entry
#4
Kathleen McCaffrey, Irene Boo, Catherine M Owczarek, Matthew P Hardy, Matthew A Perugini, Louis Fabri, Pierre Scotney, Pantelis Poumbourios, Heidi E Drummer
: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E2 is the major target of broadly neutralizing antibodies in vivo and is the focus of efforts in the rational design of a universal B cell vaccine against HCV. The E2 glycoprotein exhibits a high degree of amino-acid variability which localizes to three discrete regions: hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), hypervariable region 2 (HVR2) and the intergenotypic variable region (igVR). All three variable regions contribute to immune evasion and/or isolate-specific structural variations, both important considerations for vaccine design...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025988/charge-based-precipitation-of-extracellular-vesicles
#5
Maria Chiara Deregibus, Federico Figliolini, Sergio D'Antico, Paola Maria Manzini, Chiara Pasquino, Michela De Lena, Ciro Tetta, Maria Felice Brizzi, Giovanni Camussi
Vesicular-mediated communication between cells appears critical in many biological processes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from healthy and diseased cells are involved in a network of exchange of biologically active molecules. Since EVs present in biological fluids carry the signature of the cell of origin, they are potential biomarkers for ongoing physiological or pathological processes. Despite the knowledge on EV biology accrued in recent years, techniques of EV purification remain a challenge and all the described methods have some advantages and disadvantages...
November 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997681/the-core-domain-of-hepatitis-c-virus-glycoprotein-e2-generates-potent-cross-neutralizing-antibodies
#6
Patricia Vietheer, Irene Boo, Jun Gu, Kathleen McCaffrey, Stirling Edwards, Catherine Owczarek, Matthew P Hardy, Louis Fabri, Rob J Center, Pantelis Poumbourios, Heidi E Drummer
: A vaccine that prevents hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is urgently needed to support an emerging global elimination program. However, vaccine development has been confounded because of HCV's high degree of antigenic variability and the preferential induction of type-specific immune responses with limited potency against heterologous viral strains and genotypes. We showed previously that deletion of the three variable regions from the E2 receptor-binding domain (Δ123) increases the ability of human broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to inhibit E2-CD81 receptor interactions, suggesting improved bNAb epitope exposure...
December 20, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993971/the-cd9-cd81-and-cd151-ec2-domains-bind-to-the-classical-rgd-binding-site-of-integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3
#7
Jessica Yu, Chia-Ying Lee, Chun Austin Changou, Dora M Cedano-Prieto, Yoko K Takada, Yoshikazu Takada
Tetraspanins play important roles in normal (e.g., cell adhesion, motility, activation, and proliferation), and pathological conditions (e.g., metastasis and viral infection). Tetraspanins interact with integrins and regulate integrin functions, but the specifics of tetraspanin-integrin interaction are unclear. Using co-immunoprecipitation with integrins as a sole method to detect interaction between integrins and full-length tetraspanins, it has been proposed that the variable region (helices D and E) of the extracellular-2 (EC2) of tetraspanins laterally associate with non-ligand-binding site of integrins...
December 19, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932991/cannabidiol-modulates-the-immunophenotype-and-inhibits-the-activation-of-the-inflammasome-in-human-gingival-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Rosaliana Libro, Domenico Scionti, Francesca Diomede, Marco Marchisio, Gianpaolo Grassi, Federica Pollastro, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Oriana Trubiani
Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hGMSCs) are multipotential cells that can expand and differentiate in culture under specific and standardized conditions. In the present study, we have investigated whether in vitro pre-treatment of hGMSCs with Cannabidiol (CBD) can influence their expression profile, improving the therapeutic potential of this cell culture. Following CBD treatment (5 μM) for 24 h, gene expression analysis through Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has revealed several genes differentially expressed between CBD-treated hGMSCs (CBD-hGMSCs) and control cells (CTR-hGMSCs) that were linked to inflammation and apoptosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930836/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-propagates-through-interactions-between-syndecan-1-and-cd81-and-impacts-the-hepatocyte-glycocalyx
#9
Boyan Grigorov, Emma Reungoat, Alice Gentil Dit Maurin, Mihayl Varbanov, Julie Blaising, Maud Michelet, Rachel Manuel, Romain Parent, Birke Bartosch, Fabien Zoulim, Florence Ruggiero, Eve-Isabelle Pécheur
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects hepatocytes after binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans, in particular Syndecan-1, followed by recognition of the tetraspanin CD81 and other receptors. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found in a specific microenvironment coating the hepatocyte surface called the glycocalyx and are receptors for extracellular matrix proteins, cytokines, growth factors, lipoproteins, and infectious agents. We investigated the mutual influence of HCV infection on the glycocalyx and revealed new links between Syndecan-1 and CD81...
December 8, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928007/mice-expressing-minimally-humanized-cd81-and-occludin-genes-support-hepatitis-c-virus-uptake-in-vivo
#10
Qiang Ding, Markus von Schaewen, Gabriela Hrebikova, Brigitte Heller, Lisa Sandmann, Mario Plaas, Alexander Ploss
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes chronic infections in at least 150 million individuals world-wide. HCV has a narrow host range and robustly infects only humans and chimpanzees. The underlying mechanisms for this narrow host range are incompletely understood. At the level of entry differences in the amino acid sequences between the human and mouse orthologues of two essential host factors, the tetraspannin CD81 and the tight junction protein occludin (OCLN) explain at least in part HCV's limited ability to enter mouse hepatocytes...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916518/mechanism-of-structural-tuning-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-human-cellular-receptor-cd81-large-extracellular-loop
#11
Eva S Cunha, Pedro Sfriso, Adriana L Rojas, Adam Hospital, Modesto Orozco, Nicola G A Abrescia
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters into human hepatocytes via tetraspanin hCD81. HCV glycoprotein E2 recognizes the "head" subdomain of the large extracellular loop (LEL) of CD81 (hCD81LEL), but the precise mechanism of virus cell attachment and entry remains elusive. Here, by combining the structural analysis of a conspicuous number of crystallized CD81LEL molecules with molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the conformational plasticity of the hCD81LEL head subdomain is a molecular property of the receptor...
November 21, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894104/proteomic-profiling-of-nci-60-extracellular-vesicles-uncovers-common-protein-cargo-and-cancer-type-specific-biomarkers
#12
Stephanie N Hurwitz, Mark A Rider, Joseph L Bundy, Xia Liu, Rakesh K Singh, David G Meckes
Packed with biological information, extracellular vesicles (EVs) offer exciting promise for biomarker discovery and applications in therapeutics and non-invasive diagnostics. Currently, our understanding of EV contents is confined by the limited cells from which vesicles have been characterized utilizing the same enrichment method. Using sixty cell lines from the National Cancer Institute (NCI-60), here we provide the largest proteomic profile of EVs in a single study, identifying 6,071 proteins with 213 common to all isolates...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881302/crystal-structure-of-a-full-length-human-tetraspanin-reveals-a-cholesterol-binding-pocket
#13
Brandon Zimmerman, Brendan Kelly, Brian J McMillan, Tom C M Seegar, Ron O Dror, Andrew C Kruse, Stephen C Blacklow
Tetraspanins comprise a diverse family of four-pass transmembrane proteins that play critical roles in the immune, reproductive, genitourinary, and auditory systems. Despite their pervasive roles in human physiology, little is known about the structure of tetraspanins or the molecular mechanisms underlying their various functions. Here, we report the crystal structure of human CD81, a full-length tetraspanin. The transmembrane segments of CD81 pack as two largely separated pairs of helices, capped by the large extracellular loop (EC2) at the outer membrane leaflet...
November 3, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879451/tetraspanins-and-mouse-oocyte-microvilli-related-to-fertilizing-ability
#14
Achraf Benammar, Ahmed Ziyyat, Brigitte Lefèvre, Jean-Philippe Wolf
Our electron microscopy observations demonstrate for the first time that the number of microvilli on the mice oocyte membrane decreases when meiosis progresses from prophase I to metaphase II (MII) stage, and the morphology of the microvilli also changes. Microvilli are significantly shorter and larger on the ovulated oocyte membrane than at the previous stages. Although clathrin vesicles clearly disappear during oocyte maturation, exosome-like vesicles begin to be secreted at the metaphase I stage, more strongly at the MII stage...
November 21, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878588/the-impact-of-erdosteine-on-cisplatin-induced-ototoxicity-a-proteomics-approach
#15
Sofia Waissbluth, Delphine Garnier, Olubunmi V Akinpelu, Pezhman Salehi, Sam J Daniel
Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent and causes serious side effects, including progressive and irreversible hearing loss. No treatment is currently available for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. We have previously demonstrated that erdosteine, a potent antioxidant, partially protected the cochlea against cisplatin toxicity in vivo. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the protein profiles of the cochlea following cisplatin administration and (2) evaluate the impact of erdosteine on the protein profile using a proteomics-based approach...
November 23, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860532/hepatitis-c-virus-e2-protein-induces-upregulation-of-il-8-pathways-and-production-of-heat-shock-proteins-in-human-thyroid-cells
#16
Sara Salehi Hammerstad, Mihaela Stefan, Jason Blackard, Randall P Owen, Hanna J Lee, Erlinda Concepcion, Zhengzi Yi, Weijia Zhang, Yaron Tomer
CONTEXT: Thyroiditis is one of the most common extra hepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection. By binding to surface cell receptor CD81, hepatitis C envelop glycoprotein E2 mediates entry of HCV into cells. Studies have shown that different viral proteins may individually induce host responses to infection. We hypothesized that HCV E2 protein binding to CD81 expressed on thyroid cells activates a cascade of inflammatory responses that can trigger autoimmune thyroiditis in susceptible individuals...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856179/exosomal-proteins-as-prognostic-biomarkers-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
B Sandfeld-Paulsen, N Aggerholm-Pedersen, R Bæk, K R Jakobsen, P Meldgaard, B H Folkersen, T R Rasmussen, K Varming, M M Jørgensen, B S Sorensen
BACKGROUND: Use of exosomes as biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an intriguing approach in the liquid-biopsy era. Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles with membrane-bound proteins that reflect their originating cell. Prognostic biomarkers are needed to improve patient selection for optimal treatment. We here evaluate exosomes by protein phenotyping as a prognostic biomarker in NSCLC. METHODS: Exosomes from plasma of 276 NSCLC patients were phenotyped using the Extracellular Vesicle Array; 49 antibodies captured the proteins on the exosomes, and a cocktail of biotin-conjugated antibodies binding the general exosome markers CD9, CD81 and CD63 was used to visualise the captured exosomes...
December 2016: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843938/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-promotes-the-maturation-of-mast-cells
#18
Tomoko Yamaguchi, Misae Nishijima, Katsuhisa Tashiro, Kenji Kawabata
Mast cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Immature mast cells migrate into peripheral tissues from the bone marrow and undergo complete maturation. Interestingly, mast cells have characteristics similar to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), such as self-renewal and c-kit expression. In HSCs, Wnt signaling is involved in their maintenance and differentiation. On the other hand, the relation between Wnt signaling and mast cell differentiation is poorly understood. To study whether Wnt signals play a role in the maturation of mast cells, we studied the effect of Wnt proteins on mast cell maturation of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834208/expanding-the-host-range-of-hepatitis-c-virus-through-viral-adaptation
#19
Markus von Schaewen, Marcus Dorner, Kathrin Hueging, Lander Foquet, Sherif Gerges, Gabriela Hrebikova, Brigitte Heller, Julia Bitzegeio, Juliane Doerrbecker, Joshua A Horwitz, Gisa Gerold, Sebastian Suerbaum, Charles M Rice, Philip Meuleman, Thomas Pietschmann, Alexander Ploss
: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) species tropism is incompletely understood. We have previously shown that at the level of entry, human CD81 and occludin (OCLN) comprise the minimal set of human factors needed for viral uptake into murine cells. As an alternative approach to genetic humanization, species barriers can be overcome by adapting HCV to use the murine orthologues of these entry factors. We previously generated a murine tropic HCV (mtHCV or Jc1/mCD81) strain harboring three mutations within the viral envelope proteins that allowed productive entry into mouse cell lines...
November 8, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818281/gpr56-adgrg1-activation-promotes-melanoma-cell-migration-via-ntf-dissociation-and-ctf-mediated-g%C3%AE-12-13-rhoa-signaling
#20
Nien-Yi Chiang, Yen-Ming Peng, Horng-Heng Juang, Tse-Ching Chen, Hsiao-Lin Pan, Gin-Wen Chang, Hsi-Hsien Lin
GPR56/ADGRG1 is a versatile adhesion G protein-coupled receptor with diverse biological functions. GPR56 expression is variably detected in human melanoma cell lines and correlates inversely with the metastatic potential of melanoma lesions. GPR56 associates with the tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 on the melanoma cell surface. GPR56 activation by immobilized CG4 monoclonal antibody facilitates N-terminal fragment dissociation in a CD9/CD81-dependent manner specifically inducing IL-6 production, which promotes cell migration and invasion...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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