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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526573/transcriptomic-variation-of-locally-infected-skin-of-epinephelus-coioides-reveals-the-mucosal-immune-mechanism-against-cryptocaryon-irritans
#1
Yazhou Hu, Anxing Li, Yang Xu, Biao Jiang, Geling Lu, Xiaochun Luo
Fish skin is the largest immunologically active mucosal organ, providing first-line defense against external pathogens. However, the skin-associated immune mechanisms of fish are still unclear. Cryptocaryon irritans is an obligate ectoparasitic ciliated protozoan that infects almost all marine fish, and is believed to be an excellent pathogen model to study fish mucosal immunity. In this study, a de novo transcriptome assembly of Epinephelus coioides skin post C. irritans tail-infection was performed for the first time using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2500 system...
May 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512091/conformational-flexibility-in-the-immunoglobulin-like-domain-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-glycoprotein-e2
#2
Ieva Vasiliauskaite, Ania Owsianka, Patrick England, Abdul Ghafoor Khan, Sarah Cole, Dorothea Bankwitz, Steven K H Foung, Thomas Pietschmann, Joseph Marcotrigiano, Felix A Rey, Arvind H Patel, Thomas Krey
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoprotein E2 is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and is therefore highly relevant for vaccine design. Its structure features a central immunoglobulin (Ig)-like β-sandwich that contributes to the binding site for the cellular receptor CD81. We show that a synthetic peptide corresponding to a β-strand of this Ig-like domain forms an α-helix in complex with the anti-E2 antibody DAO5, demonstrating an inside-out flip of hydrophobic residues and a secondary structure change in the composite CD81 binding site...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509416/the-importance-of-cd39-cd43-cd81-and-cd95-expression-for-differentiating-b-cell-lymphoma-by-flow-cytometry
#3
Chandra Chiappin Cardoso, Mariangeles Auat, Iris Mattos Santos-Pirath, Renata Cristina Messores Rudolf-Oliveira, Jessica Pires da Silva, Bárbara Gil Lange, Danielle Siegel, Ana Carolina Rabello de Moraes, Joanita Angela Gonzaga Del Moral, Maria Claudia Santos-Silva
BACKGROUND: B cell lymphomas' (BCL) current diagnosis is usually based on a combination of morphology, immunophenotype, recurrent cytogenetic aberration and clinical features. However, even with these diagnostic tools, a definitive diagnosis can be difficult to achieve. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the profile of CD39, CD43, CD81, and CD95 expressions in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cases. METHODS: To address this issue, we investigated the expression of CD39, CD43, CD81, and CD95 by eight-color flow cytometry in retrospective cases from 2014 to 2016...
May 16, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506360/plasmodium-p36-determines-host-cell-receptor-usage-during-sporozoite-invasion
#4
Giulia Manzoni, Carine Marinach, Selma Topçu, Sylvie Briquet, Morgane Grand, Matthieu Tolle, Marion Gransagne, Julien Lescar, Chiara Andolina, Jean-François Franetich, Mirjam B Zeisel, Thierry Huby, Eric Rubinstein, Georges Snounou, Dominique Mazier, François Nosten, Thomas F Baumert, Olivier Silvie
Plasmodium sporozoites, the mosquito-transmitted forms of the malaria parasite, first infect the liver for an initial round of replication before the emergence of pathogenic blood stages. Sporozoites represent attractive targets for antimalarial preventive strategies, yet the mechanisms of parasite entry into hepatocytes remain poorly understood. Here we show that the two main species causing malaria in humans, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, rely on two distinct host cell surface proteins, CD81 and the Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI), respectively, to infect hepatocytes...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481946/a-sequence-in-the-loop-domain-of-hepatitis-c-virus-e2-protein-identified-in-silico-as-crucial-for-the-selective-binding-to-human-cd81
#5
Chun-Chun Chang, Hao-Jen Hsu, Jui-Hung Yen, Shih-Yen Lo, Je-Wen Liou
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a species-specific pathogenic virus that infects only humans and chimpanzees. Previous studies have indicated that interactions between the HCV E2 protein and CD81 on host cells are required for HCV infection. To determine the crucial factors for species-specific interactions at the molecular level, this study employed in silico molecular docking involving molecular dynamic simulations of the binding of HCV E2 onto human and rat CD81s. In vitro experiments including surface plasmon resonance measurements and cellular binding assays were applied for simple validations of the in silico results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449602/reference-values-for-b-cell-surface-markers-and-co-receptors-associated-with-primary-immune-deficiencies-in-healthy-turkish-children
#6
Elif Azarsiz, Neslihan Edeer Karaca, Guzide Aksu, Necil Kutukculer
In order to evaluate B-lymphocyte subsets of patients with primary immunodeficiencies, the normal values for national healthy children have to be used as a reference. Recently, B-cell co-receptor markers (CD19, CD21, and CD81) and CD20, CD22, and CD27 deficiencies have been reported in relation with different primary immunodeficiency diseases. The objective of this study was to establish national reference values for B-lymphocyte co-receptors and some surface markers, CD20, CD22, CD27, as well as classic lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of healthy children...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442431/reducing-isoform-complexity-of-human-tetraspanins-by-optimized-expression-in-dictyostelium-discoideum-enables-high-throughput-functional-read-out
#7
Tineke Scheltz, Julia von Bülow, Eric Beitz
The human tetraspanin family of scaffold proteins comprises 33 isoforms. Being integral membrane proteins, they organize a so-called tetraspanin web via homomeric and heteromeric protein-protein interactions with integrins, immunoglobulins, growth factors, receptor tyrosine kinases, proteases, signaling proteins, and viral capsid proteins. Tetraspanins promote cellular effects, such as adhesion, migration, invasion, signaling, membrane fusion, protein trafficking, cancer progression, and infections. The ubiquitous expression of multiple tetraspanin isoforms and partner proteins hampers specific interaction studies...
April 22, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414289/-isolation-and-characterization-of-exosomes-from-blood-plasma-of-breast-cancer-and-colorectal-cancer-patients
#8
S N Tamkovich, N V Yunusova, М N Stakheeva, A K Somov, А Y Frolova, N А Kirushina, S G Afanasyev, А E Grigoryeva, P P Laktionov, I V Kondakova
A simple approach for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma, which allows to obtain highly purified preparations of microvesicles no larger than 100 nm has been proposed. The presence of different subpopulations of exosomes in the blood plasma of healthy donors and cancer patients has been recognized. We found the presence of the universal markers CD9, CD24 and CD81 on exosomes isolated from blood plasma that can be used to their routine typing.
March 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408492/cd81-as-a-tumor-target
#9
REVIEW
Felipe Vences-Catalán, Caroline Duault, Chiung-Chi Kuo, Ranjani Rajapaksa, Ronald Levy, Shoshana Levy
CD81 participates in a variety of important cellular processes such as membrane organization, protein trafficking, cellular fusion and cell-cell interactions. In the immune system, CD81 regulates immune synapse, receptor clustering and signaling; it also mediates adaptive and innate immune suppression. CD81 is a gateway in hepatocytes for pathogens such as hepatitis C virus and Plasmodium; it also confers susceptibility to Listeria infection. These diverse biological roles are due to the tendency of CD81 to associate with other tetraspanins and with cell-specific partner proteins, which provide the cells with a signaling platform...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408489/tetraspanins-in-infections-by-human-cytomegalo-and-papillomaviruses
#10
REVIEW
Laura A Fast, Diana Lieber, Thorsten Lang, Luise Florin
Members of the tetraspanin family have been identified as essential cellular membrane proteins in infectious diseases by nearly all types of pathogens. The present review highlights recently published data on the role of tetraspanin CD151, CD81, and CD63 and their interaction partners in host cell entry by human cytomegalo- and human papillomaviruses. Moreover, we discuss a model for tetraspanin assembly into trafficking platforms at the plasma membrane. These platforms might persist during intracellular viral trafficking...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404852/attachment-and-post-attachment-receptors-important-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-cell-to-cell-transmission
#11
Huahao Fan, Luhua Qiao, Kyung-Don Kang, Junfen Fan, Wensheng Wei, Guangxiang Luo
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection requires multiple receptors for its attachment and entry to the cell. Our previous studies found that human syndecan-1 (SDC-1), SDC-2, and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 1 (TIM-1) are HCV attachment receptors. Other cell surface molecules such as CD81, CLDN1, OCLN, SR-BI, and LDLR mainly function at post-attachment steps, which are considered post-attachment receptors. The underlying molecular mechanisms of different receptors in HCV cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission remain elusive...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386391/pellet-free-isolation-of-human-and-bovine-milk-extracellular-vesicles-by-size-exclusion-chromatography
#12
Kristine Blans, Maria S Hansen, Laila V Sørensen, Michael L Hvam, Kenneth A Howard, Arne Möller, Lars Wiking, Lotte B Larsen, Jan T Rasmussen
Studies have suggested that nanoscale extracellular vesicles (EV) in human and bovine milk carry immune modulatory properties which could provide beneficial health effects to infants. In order to assess the possible health effects of milk EV, it is essential to use isolates of high purity from other more abundant milk structures with well-documented bioactive properties. Furthermore, gentle isolation procedures are important for reducing the risk of generating vesicle artefacts, particularly when EV subpopulations are investigated...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360912/exosomes-isolated-from-ascites-of-t-cell-lymphoma-bearing-mice-expressing-surface-cd24-and-hsp-90-induce-a-tumor-specific-immune-response
#13
Florencia Menay, Leticia Herschlik, Julieta De Toro, Federico Cocozza, Rodrigo Tsacalian, María José Gravisaco, María Paula Di Sciullo, Alejandrina Vendrell, Claudia I Waldner, Claudia Mongini
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including endosome-derived nanovesicles (exosomes), are involved in cell-cell communication. Through transfer of their molecular contents, extracellular nanovesicles can alter the function of recipient cells. Due to these characteristics, EVs have shown potential as a new alternative for cancer immunotherapy. Tumor exosomes isolated from malignant ascites can activate dendritic cells, thereby priming the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. However, a suppressive role on tumor immune response has also been reported, suggesting that the neoplastic stage of carcinogenesis and the microenvironment where tumor cells grow may influence the amount of EVs released by the cell...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359953/cigarette-smoke-extract-induced-exosome-release-is-mediated-by-depletion-of-exofacial-thiols-and-can-be-inhibited-by-thiol-antioxidants
#14
Birke J Benedikter, Charlotte Volgers, Pascalle H van Eijck, Emiel F M Wouters, Paul H M Savelkoul, Niki L Reynaert, Guido R M M Haenen, Gernot G U Rohde, Antje R Weseler, Frank R M Stassen
INTRODUCTION: Airway epithelial cells have been described to release extracellular vesicles (EVs) with pathological properties when exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). As CSE causes oxidative stress, we investigated whether its oxidative components are responsible for inducing EV release and whether this could be prevented using the thiol antioxidants N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or glutathione (GSH). METHODS: BEAS-2B cells were exposed for 24h to CSE, H2O2, acrolein, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), bacitracin, rutin or the anti-protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) antibody clone RL90; with or without NAC or GSH...
March 28, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346015/the-role-of-exosomes-derived-from-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-neuron-proliferation-in-vitro
#15
Fan-Long Kong, Xiao-Ping Wang, Ya-Nan Li, Hai-Xu Wang
Exosomes is a key component of cell paracrine secretion and can exert important effects in various disease models. However, the role of exosomes in neuron repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) has rarely been reported. In this study, Exosomes were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of SCI and normal, and incubated neuron in vitro respectively to research its biological function in cell proliferation. The results demonstrated these exosomes all expressed CD9, CD63, CD81, Alix and Tsg101; however, only exosomes derived from cerebrospinal fluid of SCI could promote proliferation of neuron via ERK signaling pathway, and decrease cell apoptosis...
March 27, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326166/trail-delivery-by-msc-derived-extracellular-vesicles-is-an-effective-anticancer-therapy
#16
ZhengQiang Yuan, Krishna K Kolluri, Kate H C Gowers, Sam M Janes
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane-enclosed nanoparticles released by cells. They mediate intercellular communication by transferring biological molecules and therefore have potential as innovative drug delivery vehicles. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Unfortunately, the clinical application of recombinant rTRAIL has been hampered by its low bioavailability and resistance of cancer cells. EV-mediated TRAIL delivery may circumvent these problems...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300134/white-matter-repair-after-extracellular-vesicles-administration-in-an-experimental-animal-model-of-subcortical-stroke
#17
Laura Otero-Ortega, Fernando Laso-García, María Del Carmen Gómez-de Frutos, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Jorge Pascual-Guerra, Blanca Fuentes, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Mesenchymal stem cells have previously been shown to mediate brain repair after stroke; they secrete 50-100 nm complexes called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which could be responsible for provoking neurovascular repair and functional recovery. EVs have been observed by electron microscopy and NanoSight, and they contain associated proteins such as CD81 and Alix. This purified, homogeneous population of EVs was administered intravenously after subcortical stroke in rats. To evaluate the EVs effects, we studied the biodistribution, proteomics analysis, functional evaluation, lesion size, fiber tract integrity, axonal sprouting and white matter repair markers...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229263/exosomes-derived-from-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-accelerate-wound-healing-and-inhibit-scar-formation
#18
Bin Zhao, Yijie Zhang, Shichao Han, Wei Zhang, Qin Zhou, Hao Guan, Jiaqi Liu, Jihong Shi, Linlin Su, Dahai Hu
Wound healing is a highly orchestrated physiological process consisting of a complex events, and scarless wound healing is highly desired for the development and application in clinical medicine. Recently, we have demonstrated that human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) promoted wound healing and inhibited scar formation through a paracrine mechanism. However, exosomes (Exo) are one of the most important paracrine factors. Whether exosomes derived from human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs-Exo) have positive effects on scarless wound healing have not been reported yet...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221101/identification-of-a-novel-epitope-in-the-c-terminus-of-hcv-e2-protein-that-induces-potent-and-cross-reactive-neutralizing-antibodies
#19
Soma Das, Ranajoy Mullick, Anuj Kumar, Himani Tandon, Mihika Bose, K Gouthamchandra, Madhavi Chandra, Bagepally Ravishankar, M N Khaja, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan, Saumitra Das, Shaila Melkote Subbarao, Anjali Anoop Karande
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic viral hepatitis, but an effective vaccine is still not available to prevent infection. Use of neutralizing antibodies could be a potential therapeutic option. In this study, presence of anti-HCV antibodies in HCV-infected patients' was assessed from 50 patients and examined for the presence of neutralizing antibodies using the 'hepatitis C virus like particles'. Antibodies from two samples exhibited significant inhibitory activity suggesting that these may neutralize viral infection...
February 3, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211494/hepatocyte-secreted-extracellular-vesicles-modify-blood-metabolome-and-endothelial-function-by-an-arginase-dependent-mechanism
#20
Felix Royo, Laura Moreno, Justyna Mleczko, Laura Palomo, Esperanza Gonzalez, Diana Cabrera, Angel Cogolludo, Francisco Perez Vizcaino, Sebastiaan van-Liempd, Juan M Falcon-Perez
Hepatocytes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) loaded with signaling molecules and enzymes into the bloodstream. Although the importance of EVs in the intercellular communication is already recognized, the metabolic impact of the enzymes carried by these vesicles is still unclear. We evaluated the global effect of the enzymatic activities of EVs by performing untargeted metabolomic profiling of serum samples after their exposure to EVs. This approach revealed a significant change in the abundance of 94 serum metabolic signals...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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