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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414289/-isolation-and-characterization-of-exosomes-from-blood-plasma-of-breast-cancer-and-colorectal-cancer-patients
#1
S N Tamkovich, N V Yunusova, М N Stakheeva, A K Somov, А Y Frolova, N А Kirushina, S G Afanasyev, А E Grigoryeva, P P Laktionov, I V Kondakova
A simple approach for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma, which allows to obtain highly purified preparations of microvesicles no larger than 100 nm has been proposed. The presence of different subpopulations of exosomes in the blood plasma of healthy donors and cancer patients has been recognized. We found the presence of the universal markers CD9, CD24 and CD81 on exosomes isolated from blood plasma that can be used to their routine typing.
March 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408492/cd81-as-a-tumor-target
#2
REVIEW
Felipe Vences-Catalán, Caroline Duault, Chiung-Chi Kuo, Ranjani Rajapaksa, Ronald Levy, Shoshana Levy
CD81 participates in a variety of important cellular processes such as membrane organization, protein trafficking, cellular fusion and cell-cell interactions. In the immune system, CD81 regulates immune synapse, receptor clustering and signaling; it also mediates adaptive and innate immune suppression. CD81 is a gateway in hepatocytes for pathogens such as hepatitis C virus and Plasmodium; it also confers susceptibility to Listeria infection. These diverse biological roles are due to the tendency of CD81 to associate with other tetraspanins and with cell-specific partner proteins, which provide the cells with a signaling platform...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408489/tetraspanins-in-infections-by-human-cytomegalo-and-papillomaviruses
#3
REVIEW
Laura A Fast, Diana Lieber, Thorsten Lang, Luise Florin
Members of the tetraspanin family have been identified as essential cellular membrane proteins in infectious diseases by nearly all types of pathogens. The present review highlights recently published data on the role of tetraspanin CD151, CD81, and CD63 and their interaction partners in host cell entry by human cytomegalo- and human papillomaviruses. Moreover, we discuss a model for tetraspanin assembly into trafficking platforms at the plasma membrane. These platforms might persist during intracellular viral trafficking...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404852/attachment-and-post-attachment-receptors-important-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-cell-to-cell-transmission
#4
Huahao Fan, Luhua Qiao, Kyung-Don Kang, Junfen Fan, Wensheng Wei, Guangxiang Luo
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection requires multiple receptors for its attachment and entry to the cell. Our previous studies found that human syndecan-1 (SDC-1), SDC-2, and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 1 (TIM-1) are HCV attachment receptors. Other cell surface molecules such as CD81, CLDN1, OCLN, SR-BI, and LDLR mainly function at post-attachment steps, which are considered post-attachment receptors. The underlying molecular mechanisms of different receptors in HCV cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission remain elusive...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386391/pellet-free-isolation-of-human-and-bovine-milk-extracellular-vesicles-by-size-exclusion-chromatography
#5
Kristine Blans, Maria S Hansen, Laila V Sørensen, Michael L Hvam, Kenneth A Howard, Arne Möller, Lars Wiking, Lotte B Larsen, Jan T Rasmussen
Studies have suggested that nanoscale extracellular vesicles (EV) in human and bovine milk carry immune modulatory properties which could provide beneficial health effects to infants. In order to assess the possible health effects of milk EV, it is essential to use isolates of high purity from other more abundant milk structures with well-documented bioactive properties. Furthermore, gentle isolation procedures are important for reducing the risk of generating vesicle artefacts, particularly when EV subpopulations are investigated...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360912/exosomes-isolated-from-ascites-of-t-cell-lymphoma-bearing-mice-expressing-surface-cd24-and-hsp-90-induce-a-tumor-specific-immune-response
#6
Florencia Menay, Leticia Herschlik, Julieta De Toro, Federico Cocozza, Rodrigo Tsacalian, María José Gravisaco, María Paula Di Sciullo, Alejandrina Vendrell, Claudia I Waldner, Claudia Mongini
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including endosome-derived nanovesicles (exosomes), are involved in cell-cell communication. Through transfer of their molecular contents, extracellular nanovesicles can alter the function of recipient cells. Due to these characteristics, EVs have shown potential as a new alternative for cancer immunotherapy. Tumor exosomes isolated from malignant ascites can activate dendritic cells, thereby priming the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. However, a suppressive role on tumor immune response has also been reported, suggesting that the neoplastic stage of carcinogenesis and the microenvironment where tumor cells grow may influence the amount of EVs released by the cell...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359953/cigarette-smoke-extract-induced-exosome-release-is-mediated-by-depletion-of-exofacial-thiols-and-can-be-inhibited-by-thiol-antioxidants
#7
Birke J Benedikter, Charlotte Volgers, Pascalle H van Eijck, Emiel F M Wouters, Paul H M Savelkoul, Niki L Reynaert, Guido R M M Haenen, Gernot G U Rohde, Antje R Weseler, Frank R M Stassen
INTRODUCTION: Airway epithelial cells have been described to release extracellular vesicles (EVs) with pathological properties when exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). As CSE causes oxidative stress, we investigated whether its oxidative components are responsible for inducing EV release and whether this could be prevented using the thiol antioxidants N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or glutathione (GSH). METHODS: BEAS-2B cells were exposed for 24h to CSE, H2O2, acrolein, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), bacitracin, rutin or the anti-protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) antibody clone RL90; with or without NAC or GSH...
March 28, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346015/the-role-of-exosomes-derived-from-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-neuron-proliferation-in-vitro
#8
Fan-Long Kong, Xiao-Ping Wang, Ya-Nan Li, Hai-Xu Wang
Exosomes is a key component of cell paracrine secretion and can exert important effects in various disease models. However, the role of exosomes in neuron repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) has rarely been reported. In this study, Exosomes were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of SCI and normal, and incubated neuron in vitro respectively to research its biological function in cell proliferation. The results demonstrated these exosomes all expressed CD9, CD63, CD81, Alix and Tsg101; however, only exosomes derived from cerebrospinal fluid of SCI could promote proliferation of neuron via ERK signaling pathway, and decrease cell apoptosis...
March 27, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326166/trail-delivery-by-msc-derived-extracellular-vesicles-is-an-effective-anticancer-therapy
#9
ZhengQiang Yuan, Krishna K Kolluri, Kate H C Gowers, Sam M Janes
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane-enclosed nanoparticles released by cells. They mediate intercellular communication by transferring biological molecules and therefore have potential as innovative drug delivery vehicles. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Unfortunately, the clinical application of recombinant rTRAIL has been hampered by its low bioavailability and resistance of cancer cells. EV-mediated TRAIL delivery may circumvent these problems...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300134/white-matter-repair-after-extracellular-vesicles-administration-in-an-experimental-animal-model-of-subcortical-stroke
#10
Laura Otero-Ortega, Fernando Laso-García, María Del Carmen Gómez-de Frutos, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Jorge Pascual-Guerra, Blanca Fuentes, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Mesenchymal stem cells have previously been shown to mediate brain repair after stroke; they secrete 50-100 nm complexes called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which could be responsible for provoking neurovascular repair and functional recovery. EVs have been observed by electron microscopy and NanoSight, and they contain associated proteins such as CD81 and Alix. This purified, homogeneous population of EVs was administered intravenously after subcortical stroke in rats. To evaluate the EVs effects, we studied the biodistribution, proteomics analysis, functional evaluation, lesion size, fiber tract integrity, axonal sprouting and white matter repair markers...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229263/exosomes-derived-from-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-accelerate-wound-healing-and-inhibit-scar-formation
#11
Bin Zhao, Yijie Zhang, Shichao Han, Wei Zhang, Qin Zhou, Hao Guan, Jiaqi Liu, Jihong Shi, Linlin Su, Dahai Hu
Wound healing is a highly orchestrated physiological process consisting of a complex events, and scarless wound healing is highly desired for the development and application in clinical medicine. Recently, we have demonstrated that human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) promoted wound healing and inhibited scar formation through a paracrine mechanism. However, exosomes (Exo) are one of the most important paracrine factors. Whether exosomes derived from human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs-Exo) have positive effects on scarless wound healing have not been reported yet...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221101/identification-of-a-novel-epitope-in-the-c-terminus-of-hcv-e2-protein-that-induces-potent-and-cross-reactive-neutralizing-antibodies
#12
Soma Das, Ranajoy Mullick, Anuj Kumar, Himani Tandon, Mihika Bose, K Gouthamchandra, Madhavi Chandra, Bagepally Ravishankar, M N Khaja, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan, Saumitra Das, Shaila Melkote Subbarao, Anjali Anoop Karande
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic viral hepatitis, but an effective vaccine is still not available to prevent infection. Use of neutralizing antibodies could be a potential therapeutic option. In this study, presence of anti-HCV antibodies in HCV-infected patients' was assessed from 50 patients and examined for the presence of neutralizing antibodies using the 'hepatitis C virus like particles'. Antibodies from two samples exhibited significant inhibitory activity suggesting that these may neutralize viral infection...
February 3, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211494/hepatocyte-secreted-extracellular-vesicles-modify-blood-metabolome-and-endothelial-function-by-an-arginase-dependent-mechanism
#13
Felix Royo, Laura Moreno, Justyna Mleczko, Laura Palomo, Esperanza Gonzalez, Diana Cabrera, Angel Cogolludo, Francisco Perez Vizcaino, Sebastiaan van-Liempd, Juan M Falcon-Perez
Hepatocytes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) loaded with signaling molecules and enzymes into the bloodstream. Although the importance of EVs in the intercellular communication is already recognized, the metabolic impact of the enzymes carried by these vesicles is still unclear. We evaluated the global effect of the enzymatic activities of EVs by performing untargeted metabolomic profiling of serum samples after their exposure to EVs. This approach revealed a significant change in the abundance of 94 serum metabolic signals...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210221/pharmacogenomic-characterization-and-isobologram-analysis-of-the-combination-of-ascorbic-acid-and-curcumin-two-main-metabolites-of-curcuma-longa-in-cancer-cells
#14
Edna Ooko, Onat Kadioglu, Henry J Greten, Thomas Efferth
Curcuma longa has long been used in China and India as anti-inflammatory agent to treat a wide variety of conditions and also as a spice for varied curry preparations. The chemoprofile of the Curcuma species exhibits the presence of varied phytochemicals with curcumin being present in all three species but AA only being shown in C. longa. This study explored the effect of a curcumin/AA combination on human cancer cell lines. The curcumin/AA combination was assessed by isobologram analysis using the Loewe additivity drug interaction model...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197808/age-related-alterations-of-the-cd19-complex-and-memory-b-cells-in-children-with-down-syndrome
#15
Ayse Nazli Seckin, Hulya Ozdemir, Ayca Ceylan, Hasibe Artac
Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a high incidence of recurrent respiratory tract infections, leukaemia and autoimmune disorders, suggesting immune dysfunction. The present study evaluated the role of the CD19 complex and memory B cells in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency in children with DS. The expression levels (median fluorescein intensity-MFI) of CD19, CD21 and CD81 molecules on the surface of B cells and memory B cell subsets were studied in 37 patients and 39 healthy controls. Twenty-nine of the DS group had congenital cardiac disease...
February 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188716/-immunological-alterations-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#16
Laura Berrón-Ruiz
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the largest group of symptomatic primary immune deficiencies; it is characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, poor response to vaccines and increased susceptibility to infections. Cellular phenotypes and abnormalities have been described both in adaptive and innate immune response. Several classifications of common variable immunodeficiency are based on defects found on T and B cells, which have been correlated with clinical manifestations. In recent years, significant progress has been made in elucidating the genetic mechanisms that result in a IDCV phenotype...
January 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174692/the-specificity-of-homomeric-clustering-of-cd81-is-mediated-by-its-%C3%AE-loop
#17
Yahya Homsi, Thorsten Lang
Tetraspanins are cell membrane-scaffolding proteins interacting with one another and a repertoire of interaction partners. Through these interactions, they form extended molecular networks as tetraspanin webs or tetraspanin-enriched microdomains. Microscopic data suggest that these networks contain tetraspanin clusters, with poor overlap between clusters formed by different tetraspanins. Here, we investigate the possibility of targeting tetraspanins CD9 or CD151 to clusters formed by the tetraspanin CD81. We find that the δ-loop from the large extracellular domain of CD81 is sufficient for targeting of CD9/CD151 to CD81 clusters...
February 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167787/up-regulation-of-cd81-inhibits-cytotrophoblast-invasion-and-mediates-maternal-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-in-preeclampsia
#18
Li Shen, Zhenyu Diao, Hai-Xiang Sun, Gui-Jun Yan, Zhiqun Wang, Ruo-Tian Li, Yimin Dai, Jingmei Wang, Jie Li, Hailing Ding, Guangfeng Zhao, Mingming Zheng, Pingping Xue, Mo Liu, Yan Zhou, Yali Hu
Preeclampsia (PE) is initiated by abnormal placentation in the early stages of pregnancy, followed by systemic activation of endothelial cells of the maternal small arterioles in the late second or third trimester (TM) of pregnancy. During normal pregnancy, placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) invade the maternal uterine wall and spiral arteries, whereas this process is interrupted in PE. However, it is not known how the malformed placenta triggers maternal endothelial crisis and the associated manifestations...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167780/a-distinct-subset-of-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-induces-activation-and-differentiation-of-b-and-t-lymphocytes
#19
Hong Zhang, Josh D Gregorio, Toru Iwahori, Xiangyue Zhang, Okmi Choi, Lorna L Tolentino, Tyler Prestwood, Yaron Carmi, Edgar G Engleman
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are known mainly for their secretion of type I IFN upon viral encounter. We describe a CD2(hi)CD5(+)CD81(+) pDC subset, distinguished by prominent dendrites and a mature phenotype, in human blood, bone marrow, and tonsil, which can be generated from CD34(+) progenitors. These CD2(hi)CD5(+)CD81(+) cells express classical pDC markers, as well as the toll-like receptors that enable conventional pDCs to respond to viral infection. However, their gene expression profile is distinct, and they produce little or no type I IFN upon stimulation with CpG oligonucleotides, likely due to their diminished expression of IFN regulatory factor 7...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094782/cocaine-enhances-dc-to-t-cell-hiv-1-transmission-by-activating-dc-sign-larg-lsp1-complex-and-facilitating-infectious-synapse-formation
#20
Anil Prasad, Rutuja Kulkarni, Shuxian Jiang, Jerome E Groopman
DC-SIGN is a dendritic cell surface structure which participates in binding and transmission of HIV-1. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that cocaine induces over expression of DC-SIGN and significantly enhances virus transfer from DCs to T-cells by increasing the binding and internalization of HIV-1 in DCs. We found that cocaine activates a DC-SIGN mediated 'signalosome' complex by enhancing its association with LARG and LSP1. Further, LARG was observed to participate in DC-SIGN mediated internalization of HIV-1 in DCs...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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