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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226124/epigenetic-and-neural-circuitry-landscape-of-psychotherapeutic-interventions
#1
REVIEW
Christopher W T Miller
The science behind psychotherapy has garnered considerable interest, as objective measures are being developed to map the patient's subjective change over the course of treatment. Prenatal and early life influences have a lasting impact on how genes are expressed and the manner in which neural circuits are consolidated. Transgenerationally transmitted epigenetic markers as well as templates of enhanced thought flexibility versus evasion can be passed down from parent to child. This influences gene expression/repression (impacting neuroplasticity) and kindling of neurocircuitry which can perpetuate maladaptive cognitive processing seen in a number of psychiatric conditions...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223708/comparison-of-neuroplastic-responses-to-cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-and-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-in-subacute-stroke
#2
Pierre Nicolo, Cécile Magnin, Elena Pedrazzini, Gijs Plomp, Anaïs Mottaz, Armin Schnider, Adrian G Guggisberg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) on neural network connectivity and motor recovery in individuals with subacute stroke. DESIGN: Double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: Stroke subjects recruited through a university hospital rehabilitation program. PARTICIPANTS: Stroke inpatients (N=41; mean age 65y, range 28-85; mean weeks poststroke 5, range 2-10) with resultant paresis in the upper extremity (mean Fugl-Meyer score 14, range 3-48)...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218870/loss-of-function-of-neuroplasticity-related-genes-confers-risk-for-human-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#3
Milo R Smith, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Li Li, Rong Chen, Hirofumi Morishita, Joel T Dudley
High and increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders place enormous personal and economic burdens on society. Given the growing realization that the roots of neurodevelopmental disorders often lie in early childhood, there is an urgent need to identify childhood risk factors. Neurodevelopment is marked by periods of heightened experience-dependent neuroplasticity wherein neural circuitry is optimized by the environment. If these critical periods are disrupted, development of normal brain function can be permanently altered, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218004/decoding-of-self-paced-lower-limb-movement-intention-a-case-study-on-the-influence-factors
#4
Dong Liu, Weihai Chen, Ricardo Chavarriaga, Zhongcai Pei, José Del R Millán
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have been applied as new rehabilitation tools for motor disabled individuals. Active involvement of cerebral activity has been shown to enhance neuroplasticity and thus to restore mobility. Various studies have focused on the detection of upper-limb movement intention, while the fewer study has investigated the lower-limb movement intention decoding. This study presents a BMI to decode the self-paced lower-limb movement intention, with 10 healthy subjects participating in the experiment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217283/insulin-mediated-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cns-anatomical-functional-and-temporal-contexts
#5
REVIEW
Carrie R Ferrario, Lawrence P Reagan
For decades the brain was erroneously considered an insulin insensitive organ. Although gaps in our knowledge base remain, conceptual frameworks are starting to emerge to provide insight into the mechanisms through which insulin facilitates critical brain functions like metabolism, cognition, and motivated behaviors. These diverse physiological and behavioral activities highlight the region-specific activities of insulin in the CNS; that is, there is an anatomical context to the activities of insulin in the CNS...
December 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214080/hint1-in-neuropsychiatric-diseases-a-potential-neuroplastic-mediator
#6
REVIEW
Peng Liu, Zhongwei Liu, Jiabei Wang, Xiancang Ma, Yonghui Dang
Although many studies have investigated the functions of histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), its roles in neurobiological processes remain to be fully elucidated. As a member of the histidine triad (HIT) enzyme superfamily, HINT1 is distributed in almost every organ and has both enzymatic and nonenzymatic activity. Accumulating clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that HINT1 may play an important role as a neuroplastic mediator in neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, inherited peripheral neuropathies, mood disorders, and drug addiction...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213232/stress-induced-chronic-visceral-pain-of-gastrointestinal-origin
#7
REVIEW
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson
Visceral pain is generally poorly localized and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. Evidence suggests that long term stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213032/-staging-of-neuroplasticity-alterations-during-epileptogenesis-temporal-lobe-epileply-as-an-example
#8
N V Gulyaeva
Using temporal lobe epilepsy as an example, staging of long term plasticity in the hippocampus is considered. Major stages demonstrating opposite alterations in neuroplasticity are active epileptogenesis and the period of established temporal lobe epilepsy. During the epileptogenesis, multiple events resulting in forming of epileptic neuronal nets occur: changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, increase of aberrant neurogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendrite remodeling, particularly, supported by an excessive enhancement of the BDNF system in specific hippocampal regions...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211649/hearing-shapes-event-related-potentials-reveal-the-time-course-of-auditory-visual-sensory-substitution
#9
Christian Graulty, Orestis Papaioannou, Phoebe Bauer, Michael A Pitts, Enriqueta Canseco-Gonzalez
In auditory-visual sensory substitution, visual information (e.g., shape) can be extracted through strictly auditory input (e.g., soundscapes). Previous studies have shown that image-to-sound conversions that follow simple rules [such as the Meijer algorithm; Meijer, P. B. L. An experimental system for auditory image representation. Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 39, 111-121, 1992] are highly intuitive and rapidly learned by both blind and sighted individuals. A number of recent fMRI studies have begun to explore the neuroplastic changes that result from sensory substitution training...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209263/changes-in-white-matter-connectivity-in-late-second-language-learners-evidence-from-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#10
Eleonora Rossi, Hu Cheng, Judith F Kroll, Michele T Diaz, Sharlene D Newman
Morphological brain changes as a consequence of new learning have been widely established. Learning a second language (L2) is one such experience that can lead to rapid structural neural changes. However, still relatively little is known about how levels of proficiency in the L2 and the age at which the L2 is learned influence brain neuroplasticity. The goal of this study is to provide novel evidence for the effect of bilingualism on white matter structure in relatively proficient but late L2 learners who acquired the second language after early childhood...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209204/reward-circuitry-plasticity-in-pain-perception-and-modulation
#11
REVIEW
Marcos F DosSantos, Brenda de Souza Moura, Alexandre F DaSilva
Although pain is a widely known phenomenon and an important clinical symptom that occurs in numerous diseases, its mechanisms are still barely understood. Owing to the scarce information concerning its pathophysiology, particularly what is involved in the transition from an acute state to a chronic condition, pain treatment is frequently unsatisfactory, therefore contributing to the amplification of the chronic pain burden. In fact, pain is an extremely complex experience that demands the recruitment of an intricate set of central nervous system components...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204664/-central-and-peripheral-aspects-of-noise-induced-hearing-loss
#12
REVIEW
D Basta, M Gröschel, A Ernst
Noise is an important socioeconomic problem in industrialized countries. Development of efficient treatment options for the audiological phenomena resulting from noise-induced hearing loss requires in-depth understanding of the underlying damage mechanisms causing peripheral and central nervous changes. Mechanical damage, ischemia and excitotoxicity are mainly responsible for noise-induced cell death and biophysical changes in the cochlea. Auditory synaptopathy is an additional consequence. Besides these cochlear pathologies, noise exposure leads to extensive changes within the central auditory pathway...
December 4, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201010/microglia-and-brain-plasticity-in-acute-psychosis-and-schizophrenia-illness-course-a-meta-review
#13
REVIEW
Livia J De Picker, Manuel Morrens, Steven A Chance, Delphine Boche
Objective: Schizophrenia poses a tremendous health, social, and economic burden upon patients and society, indicating current treatment options remain inadequate. Recent findings from several lines of evidence have pointed to the importance of immune system involvement in not only premorbid neurodevelopmental but also subsequent symptom generation and aging processes of brain change in schizophrenia. In this meta-review, we use the summarized evidence from recent quantitative systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses of several subspecialties to critically evaluate the hypothesis that immune-related processes shape the symptomatic presentation and illness course of schizophrenia, both directly and indirectly through altered neuroplasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200573/neural-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-schizophrenia-a-case-study-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#14
S Trevor Taylor, Harleen Chhabra, Vanteemar S Sreeraj, Venkataram Shivakumar, Sunil V Kalmady, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, behavioral symptoms, and cognitive deficits. Roughly, 70%-80% of schizophrenia patients experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), with 25%-30% demonstrating resistance to conventional antipsychotic medications. Studies suggest a promising role for add-on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of medication-refractory AVHs. The mechanisms through which tDCS could be therapeutic in such cases are unclear, but possibly involve neuroplastic effects...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198014/inhibition-of-complement-drives-increase-in-early-growth-response-proteins-and-neuroprotection-mediated-by-salidroside-after-cerebral-ischemia
#15
Wenfang Lai, XiuLi Xie, Xiaoqin Zhang, Yingzheng Wang, Kedan Chu, John Brown, Lidian Chen, Guizhu Hong
Salidroside is neuroprotective across a wide therapeutic time-window after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Here, we investigated the role of complement in mediating effects of salidroside after cerebral IRI in rats. Rats were administrated with vehicle or salidroside 50 mg/kg, given daily for either 24 or 48 h, after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h and reperfusion for 1 h. Levels of proteins in ischemic brain were measured by immunofluorescence and western blotting. We observed early increases in the deposition of immunoglobulin M, mannose-binding lectin 2, and annexin IV on cerebral endothelial cells, induction of the complement components C3 and C3a, by 24 h after IRI, and a later significant increase in the complement component C1q by 48 h...
December 2, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197629/pharmacological-modulation-of-hypoxia-induced-respiratory-neuroplasticity
#16
REVIEW
Sara Turner, Kristi Streeter, John Greer, Gordon S Mitchell, David D Fuller
Hypoxia elicits complex cell signaling mechanisms in the respiratory control system that can produce long-lasting changes in respiratory motor output. In this article, we review experimental approaches used to elucidate signaling pathways associated with hypoxia, and summarize current hypotheses regarding the intracellular signaling pathways evoked by intermittent exposure to hypoxia. We review data showing that pharmacological treatments can enhance neuroplastic responses to hypoxia. Original data are included to show that pharmacological modulation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) function can reveal a respiratory neuroplastic response to a single, brief hypoxic exposure in anesthetized mice...
November 29, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191650/cortical-language-areas-and-plasticity-in-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Naomi Chou, Sandra Serafini, Carrie R Muh
Chronic injury to the brain from seizure activity is associated with decreased language skills in pediatric patients, as measured on neuropsychological tests for language function and academic achievement. This makes the study of language in patients with epilepsy clinically necessary. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and direct electrical cortical stimulation have been used to evaluate aspects of cortical language processing in healthy adults and in adults with epilepsy or other neurological insults. Results of these studies help to locate cortical language areas that are involved with modality-specific language processing (visual naming, auditory naming, sentence-completion, and repetition) and the neuroplasticity of language areas in the setting of neurological injury and reorganization...
October 12, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190741/preoperative-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-exploration-of-a-novel-strategy-to-enhance-neuroplasticity-before-surgery-to-control-postoperative-pain-a-randomized-sham-controlled-study
#18
Hugo Ribeiro, Ricardo Bertol Sesterhenn, Andressa de Souza, Ana Claudia de Souza, Monique Alves, Jessica Catarina Machado, Nathalia Bofill Burger, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Luciana Cadore Stefani, Felipe Fregni, Wolnei Caumo
BACKGROUND: An imbalance in the excitatory/inhibitory systems in the pain networks may explain the persistent chronic pain after hallux valgus surgery. Thus, to contra-regulate this dysfunction, the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) becomes attractive. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that two preoperative active(a)-tDCS sessions compared with sham(s)-tDCS could improve the postoperative pain [as indexed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at rest and during walking (primary outcomes)]...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190102/integrative-proteomics-metabolomics-strategy-for-pathological-mechanism-of-vascular-depression-mouse-model
#19
Hongxia Zhao, Hongli Du, Min Liu, Songyan Gao, Na Li, Yufan Chao, Ruiqing Li, Wei Chen, Ziyang Lou, Xin Dong
Vascular depression(VD), a subtype of depression, is caused by vascular diseases or cerebrovascular risk factors. Recently, the proportion of VD patients has increased significantly, which severely affects their quality of life. However, the current pathogenesis of VD has not yet been fully understood, and the basic research is not adequate. In this study, based on the combination of LC-MS-based proteomics and metabolomics, we aimed to establish a protein metabolism regulatory network in a murine VD model to elucidate a more comprehensive impact of VD on organisms...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187252/atypical-non-standard-functions-of-the-microtubule-associated-tau-protein
#20
REVIEW
Ioannis Sotiropoulos, Marie-Christine Galas, Joana M Silva, Efthimios Skoulakis, Susanne Wegmann, Mahmoud Bukar Maina, David Blum, Carmen Laura Sayas, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Eckhard Mandelkow, Maria Grazia Spillantini, Nuno Sousa, Jesus Avila, Miguel Medina, Amrit Mudher, Luc Buee
Since the discovery of the microtubule-associated protein Tau (MAPT) over 40 years ago, most studies have focused on Tau's role in microtubule stability and regulation, as well as on the neuropathological consequences of Tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. In recent years, however, research efforts identified new interaction partners and different sub-cellular localizations for Tau suggesting additional roles beyond its standard function as microtubule regulating protein...
November 29, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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