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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828187/exercise-promotes-neuroplasticity-in-both-healthy-and-depressed-brains-an-fmri-pilot-study
#1
Joanne Gourgouvelis, Paul Yielder, Bernadette Murphy
Memory impairments are a frequently reported cognitive symptom in people suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) and often persist despite antidepressant therapy. Neuroimaging studies have identified abnormal hippocampal activity during memory processes in MDD. Exercise as an ad-on treatment for MDD is a promising therapeutic strategy shown to improve mood, cognitive function, and neural structure and function. To advance our understanding of how exercise impacts neural function in MDD, we must also understand how exercise impacts healthy individuals without MDD...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826800/increased-inflammation-promotes-ventricular-arrhythmia-through-aggravating-left-stellate-ganglion-remodeling-in-a-canine-ischemia-model
#2
Menglong Wang, Shuyan Li, Xiaoya Zhou, Bing Huang, Liping Zhou, Xuefei Li, Guannan Meng, Shenxu Yuan, Yuhong Wang, Zhuo Wang, Songyun Wang, Lilei Yu, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Increased inflammation was found in the left stellate ganglion (LSG) in patients with malignant ventricular arrhythmia (VA). However, the role of inflammation in LSG remodeling is unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether exogenous interleukin-1β (IL-1β) could aggravate VA through regulating LSG remodeling. METHODS: Twenty-four canines who received saline (Control, n=8), IL-1β injection into the LSG (n=8) or IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-Ra) pre-injection plus IL-1β injection (n=8) were included...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826712/preservation-of-motor-function-after-resection-of-lower-grade-glioma-at-the-precentral-gyrus-and-prediction-by-pre-surgical-fmri-and-meg-a-case-report
#3
Nobuyuki Izutsu, Manabu Kinoshita, Takufumi Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko Nakanishi, Mio Sakai, Haruhiko Kishima
Intra-axial brain tumors located at anatomically eloquent areas are challenging conditions. It is often difficult to pursue maximum extent of resection of the tumor in these locations. On the other hand, neuroplasticity takes place in some patients with low-grade glioma and the primary neural functions are known to sometimes shift from conventional "eloquent cortices". In the presented case, the authors detected shift of primary motor function from the precentral gyrus to the postcentral gyrus on magnetoencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in a patient suffering from a lower-grade glioma located at the precentral gyrus...
August 4, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821922/homeostatic-plasticity-in-human-extrastriate-cortex-following-a-simulated-peripheral-scotoma
#4
Matthew A Gannon, Stephanie M Long, Nathan A Parks
Neuroimaging and patient work over the past decade have indicated that, following retinal deafferentation, the human visual cortex undergoes a large-scale and enduring reorganization of its topography such that the classical retinotopic organization of deafferented visual cortex remaps to represent non-classical regions of visual space. Such long-term visual reorganization is proposed to occur through changes in the functional balance of deafferented visual circuits that engage more lasting changes through activity-dependent neuroplasticity...
August 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821674/how-auditory-experience-differentially-influences-the-function-of-left-and-right-superior-temporal-cortices
#5
Tae Twomey, Dafydd Waters, Cathy J Price, Samuel Evans, Mairéad MacSweeney
To investigate how hearing status, sign language experience and task demands influence functional responses in the human superior temporal cortices (STC) we collected fMRI data from deaf and hearing participants (male and female), who either acquired sign language early or late in life. Our stimuli in all tasks were pictures of objects. We varied the linguistic and visuospatial processing demands in three different tasks that involved decisions about (1) the sublexical (phonological) structure of the British Sign Language (BSL) signs for the objects; (2) the semantic category of the objects; and (3) the physical features of the objects...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819863/effects-of-testosterone-treatment-on-hypothalamic-neuroplasticity-in-female-to-male-transgender-individuals
#6
Georg S Kranz, Andreas Hahn, Ulrike Kaufmann, Martin Tik, Sebastian Ganger, René Seiger, Allan Hummer, Christian Windischberger, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is used to measure gray matter tissue density and white matter fiber organization/directionality. Recent studies show that DWI also allows for assessing neuroplastic adaptations in the human hypothalamus. To this end, we investigated a potential influence of testosterone replacement therapy on hypothalamic microstructure in female-to-male (FtM) transgender individuals. 25 FtMs were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 4 months past treatment start and compared to 25 female and male controls...
August 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819066/neuroplasticity-of-selective-attention-research-foundations-and-preliminary-evidence-for-a-gene-by-intervention-interaction
#7
Elif Isbell, Courtney Stevens, Eric Pakulak, Amanda Hampton Wray, Theodore A Bell, Helen J Neville
This article reviews the trajectory of our research program on selective attention, which has moved from basic research on the neural processes underlying selective attention to translational studies using selective attention as a neurobiological target for evidence-based interventions. We use this background to present a promising preliminary investigation of how genetic and experiential factors interact during development (i.e., gene × intervention interactions). Our findings provide evidence on how exposure to a family-based training can modify the associations between genotype (5-HTTLPR) and the neural mechanisms of selective attention in preschool children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds...
August 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818006/the-role-of-the-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-in-recovery-of-aphasia-after-stroke
#8
Riemke G A de Boer, Kerstin Spielmann, Majanka H Heijenbrok-Kal, Rick van der Vliet, Gerard M Ribbers, W Mieke E van de Sandt-Koenderman
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is assumed to play a role in mediating neuroplasticity after stroke. Carriers of the function-limiting Val66Met (rs6265) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may have a downregulation in BDNF secretion, which may lead to a poorer prognosis after stroke compared to noncarriers in motor learning and motor function recovery. The present study investigates whether this polymorphism may also affect the recovery of poststroke aphasia (ie, language impairment)...
August 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813934/a-hybrid-brain-machine-interface-based-on-eeg-and-emg-activity-for-the-motor-rehabilitation-of-stroke-patients
#9
Andrea Sarasola-Sanz, Nerea Irastorza-Landa, Eduardo Lopez-Larraz, Carlos Bibian, Florian Helmhold, Doris Broetz, Niels Birbaumer, Ander Ramos-Murguialday
Including supplementary information from the brain or other body parts in the control of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) has been recently proposed and investigated. Such enriched interfaces are referred to as hybrid BMIs (hBMIs) and have been proven to be more robust and accurate than regular BMIs for assistive and rehabilitative applications. Electromyographic (EMG) activity is one of the most widely utilized biosignals in hBMIs, as it provides a quite direct measurement of the motion intention of the user...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813801/therapeutic-effects-of-an-anti-gravity-locomotor-training-alterg-on-postural-balance-and-cerebellum-structure-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#10
A H Rasooli, P M Birgani, Sh Azizi, A Shahrokhi, M M Mirbagheri
We evaluated the therapeutic effects of anti-gravity locomotor treadmill (AlterG) training on postural stability in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and spasticity, particularly in the lower extremity. AlterG can facilitate walking by reducing the weight of CP children by up to 80%; it can also help subjects maintain an appropriate posture during the locomotor AlterG training. Thus, we hypothesized that AlterG training, for a sufficient period of time, has a potential to produce cerebellum neuroplasticity, and consequently result in an effective permanent postural stability...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811558/cross-modal-plasticity-in-the-deaf-enhances-processing-of-masked-stimuli-in-the-visual-modality
#11
Seema Prasad, Gouri Shanker Patil, Ramesh Kumar Mishra
Compensatory changes as a result of auditory deprivation in the deaf lead to higher visual processing skills. In two experiments, we explored if such brain plasticity in the deaf modulates processing of masked stimuli in the visual modality. Deaf and normal-hearing participants responded to targets either voluntarily or by instruction. Masked primes related to the response were presented briefly before the targets at the center and the periphery. In Experiment 1, targets appeared only at the foveal region whereas, in Experiment 2, they appeared both at the fovea and the periphery...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807619/neuroplasticity-related-mechanisms-underlying-the-antidepressant-like-effects-of%C3%A2-traditional-herbal-medicines
#12
REVIEW
Yafit Hirshler, Ravid Doron
Traditional herbal medicine can offer efficacious and safe alternative pharmacotherapies for depression. The ability of an herbal medicine to produce neuroadaptive processes, that enhance neuroplasticity and cellular resilience in response to chronic stress, may point to its antidepressant potential. We suggest that among many investigated herbal medicines, those that can enhance neuroplasticity may have stronger therapeutic potential. The current article presents a summary of traditional herbal medicines, which are thought to exert antidepressant-like effects in chronic stress models via neuroplasticity enhancement...
August 11, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807409/a-decade-of-imaging-surgeons-brain-function-part-i-terminology-techniques-and-clinical-translation
#13
REVIEW
Hemel Narendra Modi, Harsimrat Singh, Guang-Zhong Yang, Ara Darzi, Daniel Richard Leff
BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging has the potential to deepen our understanding of technical and nontechnical skill acquisition in surgeons, particularly as established assessment tools leave unanswered questions about inter-operator differences in ability that seem independent of experience. METHODS: In this first of a 2-part article, we aim to utilize our experience in neuroimaging surgeons to orientate the nonspecialist reader to the principles of brain imaging...
August 11, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807166/neurobiology-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Gang Chen, Xiaoyan Guo
Major depressive disorder, or depression, becomes a serious public health problem globally. As current mainstream conventional antidepressants have limitations in unsatisfied response and remission rate, late onset of efficacy and side effects, increasing attention has been drawn to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in which mixture of herbs is commonly prescribed after the clinicians make pattern identification for diagnosis. Here, the principle of herbal formulation for TCM (Chinese herbal medicine, CHM) on depression as well as some clinical outcome research is briefly introduced...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799518/a-neurodevelopment-and-neuroplasticity-based-framework-for-early-intervention-in-psychotic-disorders
#15
E Bora
In recent years there has been growing interest in early intervention in psychotic disorders and a number of clinical and research programmes have been developed. The clinical staging model has been an essential part of early intervention as it provides the rationale of existing programmes. In medicine, clinical staging is a valuable approach in disorders where primary pathology is progressive in nature. However, the clinical staging model of psychosis has been proposed without establishing first that schizophrenia is a primarily progressive disorder...
August 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799488/environment-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-an-update-on-mirna-role
#16
Margherita Ferrante, Gea Oliveri Conti
INTRODUCTION: The importance of neurodegenerative diseases on the management of public health is growing and the real role of the environment and miRNA in their occurrence is still unclear. miRNA can affect significantly the regulatory network. The complex variety and gene-regulatory capacity of miRNAs is particularly valuable in the brain, being a very complex organ with a functional specialization of neurons highly adaptable to environmental stimuli. In particular a miRNAs role is demonstrated in neurological diseases as the effect to toxic and mutagenic substances exposure by the environment...
August 11, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798672/learning-morse-code-alters-microstructural-properties-in-the-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-a-dti-study
#17
Lara Schlaffke, Alexander Leemans, Lauren M Schweizer, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
Learning relies on neuroplasticity, which has mainly been studied in gray matter (GM). However, there is mounting evidence indicating a critical role of white matter changes involved in learning processes. One of the most important learning processes in human development is language acquisition. However, due to the length of this learning process, it has been notoriously difficult to investigate the underlying neuroplastic changes. Here, we report a novel learning paradigm to assess the role of white matter plasticity for language acquisition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795657/body-system-effects-of-a-multi-modal-training-program-targeting-chronic-motor-complete-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Katie Gant, Kathleen Nagle, Rachel Cowan, Edelle Field-Fote, Mark Nash, Jochen Kressler, Christine K Thomas, Mabelin Castellanos, Eva Widerstrom-Noga, Kimberly D Anderson
The safety and efficacy of pharmacologic and cellular transplantation strategies are currently being evaluated in people with spinal cord injury. In studies of people with chronic spinal cord injuries, it is thought that functional recovery will be best achieved when drug or cell therapies are combined with rehabilitation protocols. However, any functional recovery due to the therapy may be confounded by the conditioned state of the body and by training-induced effects on neuroplasticity. For this reason, we sought to investigate the effects of a multi-modal training program on several body systems...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795168/changes-in-brain-behavior-relationships-following-a-3-month-pilot-cognitive-intervention-program-for-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
S Porter, I J Torres, W Panenka, Z Rajwani, D Fawcett, A Hyder, N Virji-Babul
Facilitating functional recovery following brain injury is a key goal of neurorehabilitation. Direct, objective measures of changes in the brain are critical to understanding how and when meaningful changes occur, however, assessing neuroplasticity using brain based results remains a significant challenge. Little is known about the underlying changes in functional brain networks that correlate with cognitive outcomes in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of an intensive three month cognitive intervention program in individuals with chronic TBI and to evaluate the effects of this intervention on brain-behavioral relationships...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790302/formation-and-suppression-of-acoustic-memories-during-human-sleep
#20
Thomas Andrillon, Daniel Pressnitzer, Damien Léger, Sid Kouider
Sleep and memory are deeply related, but the nature of the neuroplastic processes induced by sleep remains unclear. Here, we report that memory traces can be both formed or suppressed during sleep, depending on sleep phase. We played samples of acoustic noise to sleeping human listeners. Repeated exposure to a novel noise during Rapid Eye Movements (REM) or light non-REM (NREM) sleep leads to improvements in behavioral performance upon awakening. Strikingly, the same exposure during deep NREM sleep leads to impaired performance upon awakening...
August 8, 2017: Nature Communications
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