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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667473/harnessing-neuroplasticity-modern-approaches-and-clinical-future
#1
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667190/age-related-changes-in-late-i-waves-influence-motor-cortex-plasticity-induction-in-older-adults
#2
George M Opie, John Cirillo, John G Semmler
KEYPOINTS SUMMARY: The response to neuroplasticity interventions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is reduced in older adults, which may be due, in part, to age-related alterations in interneuronal (I-wave) circuitry. The current study investigated age-related changes in interneuronal characteristics and whether they influence motor cortical plasticity in older adults. While I-wave recruitment was unaffected by age, there was a shift in the temporal characteristics of the late, but not early I-waves...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666575/combining-mental-training-and-physical-training-with-goal-oriented-protocols-in-stroke-rehabilitation-a-feasibility-case-study
#3
Xin Zhang, Ahmed M Elnady, Bubblepreet K Randhawa, Lara A Boyd, Carlo Menon
Stroke is one of the leading causes of permanent disability in adults. The literature suggests that rehabilitation is key to early motor recovery. However, conventional therapy is labor and cost intensive. Robotic and functional electrical stimulation (FES) devices can provide a high dose of repetitions and as such may provide an alternative, or an adjunct, to conventional rehabilitation therapy. Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) could augment neuroplasticity by introducing mental training. However, mental training alone is not enough; but combining mental with physical training could boost outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665490/smaller-hippocampal-volume-in-current-but-not-in-past-depression-in-comparison-to-healthy-controls-minor-evidence-from-an-older-adults-sample
#4
Ismaïl Bensassi, Jorge Lopez-Castroman, Jerome J Maller, Chantal Meslin, Marilyn Wyart, Karen Ritchie, Philippe Courtet, Sylvaine Artero, Raffaella Calati
BACKGROUND: Structural neuroimaging studies revealed a consistent pattern of volumetric reductions in both hippocampus (HC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of individuals with major depressive episode(s) (MDE). This study investigated HC and ACC volume differences in currently depressed individuals (n = 150), individuals with a past lifetime MDE history (n = 79) and healthy controls (n = 287). METHODS: Non-demented individuals were recruited from a cohort of community-dwelling older adults (ESPRIT study)...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665223/an-adaptive-semantic-matching-paradigm-for-reliable-and-valid-language-mapping-in-individuals-with-aphasia
#5
Stephen M Wilson, Melodie Yen, Dana K Eriksson
Research on neuroplasticity in recovery from aphasia depends on the ability to identify language areas of the brain in individuals with aphasia. However, tasks commonly used to engage language processing in people with aphasia, such as narrative comprehension and picture naming, are limited in terms of reliability (test-retest reproducibility) and validity (identification of language regions, and not other regions). On the other hand, paradigms such as semantic decision that are effective in identifying language regions in people without aphasia can be prohibitively challenging for people with aphasia...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664964/monitoring-for-myelopathic-progression-with-multiparametric-quantitative-mri
#6
Allan R Martin, Benjamin De Leener, Julien Cohen-Adad, Sukhvinder Kalsi-Ryan, David W Cadotte, Jefferson R Wilson, Lindsay Tetreault, Aria Nouri, Adrian Crawley, David J Mikulis, Howard Ginsberg, Eric M Massicotte, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Patients with mild degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) are often managed non-operatively, and surgery is recommended if neurological progression occurs. However, detection of progression is often subjective. Quantitative MRI (qMRI) directly measures spinal cord (SC) tissue changes, detecting axonal injury, demyelination, and atrophy. This longitudinal study compared multiparametric qMRI with clinical measures of progression in non-operative DCM patients. METHODS: 26 DCM patients were followed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664743/motor-learning-triggers-neuroplastic-processes-while-awake-and-during-sleep
#7
Nicole Wenderoth
Behavioral changes characteristic for motor learning result from synaptic plasticity within the sensorimotor system. This review summarizes how the central nervous system responds rapidly to motor activity while awake. It then discusses evidence for the hypothesis that sleep is essential for both stabilizing previously acquired motor memories and maintaining the brain's efficacy to undergo plastic changes to learn new skills.
April 16, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661156/synergic-trial-synchronizing-exercises-remedies-in-gait-and-cognition-a-multi-centre-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial-to-improve-gait-and-cognition-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Quincy J Almeida, Amer M Burhan, Richard Camicioli, Julien Doyon, Sarah Fraser, Karen Li, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Laura Middleton, Susan Muir-Hunter, William McIlroy, José A Morais, Frederico Pieruccini-Faria, Kevin Shoemaker, Mark Speechley, Akshya Vasudev, G Y Zou, Nicolas Berryman, Maxime Lussier, Leanne Vanderhaeghe, Louis Bherer
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise, cognitive training, and vitamin D are low cost interventions that have the potential to enhance cognitive function and mobility in older adults, especially in pre-dementia states such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Aerobic and progressive resistance exercises have benefits to cognitive performance, though evidence is somewhat inconsistent. We postulate that combined aerobic exercise (AE) and progressive resistance training (RT) (combined exercise) will have a better effect on cognition than a balance and toning control (BAT) intervention in older adults with MCI...
April 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660023/radiation-induces-age-dependent-deficits-in-cortical-synaptic-plasticity
#9
Die Zhang, Wei Zhou, Thanh Thai Lam, Connie Weng, Lawrence Bronk, Duo Ma, Qiang Wang, Joseph G Duman, Patrick M Dougherty, David R Grosshans
Background: Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction is a significant side effect of cranial irradiation for brain tumors. Clinically, pediatric patients are more vulnerable than adults. However, the underlying mechanisms of dysfunction, including reasons for age dependence, are still largely unknown. Previous studies have focused on the loss of hippocampal neuronal precursor cells and deficits in memory. However, survivors may also experience deficits in attention, executive function, or other non-hippocampal-dependent cognitive domains...
April 6, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659469/alloknesis-and-hyperknesis-mechanisms-assessment-methodology-and-clinical-implications-of-itch-sensitization
#10
Hjalte Holm Andersen, Tasuku Akiyama, Leigh Ann Nattkemper, Antoinette van Laarhoven, Jesper Elberling, Gil Yosipovitch, Lars Arendt-Nielsen
Itch and pain share numerous mechanistic similarities. Patients with chronic itch conditions (for instance atopic dermatitis or neuropathic itch), often experience symptoms such as mechanical alloknesis and hyperknesis. These dysesthesias are analoguous to the pain-associated phenomena allodynia and hyperalgesia, which are often observed, e.g., in neuropathic pain conditions. Mechanical itch dysesthesias represent abnormal sensory states (caused by neuroplastic changes) wherein considerable itch is evoked, for instance by light cutaneous stimuli such as from clothing (alloknesis), or where increased itch is perceived in response to normally itch-evoking stimuli (hyperknesis)...
April 11, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656951/auditory-system-target-engagement-during-plasticity-based-interventions-in-schizophrenia-a-focus-on-modulation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-type-glutamate-receptor-function
#11
REVIEW
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Neal R Swerdlow, Walter Dunn, Sophia Vinogradov
Cognitive deficits are predictive of long-term social and occupational functional deficits in schizophrenia but are currently without gold-standard treatments. In particular, augmentation of auditory cortical neuroplasticity may represent a rate-limiting first step before addressing higher-order cognitive deficits. We review the rationale for N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) modulators as treatments for auditory plasticity deficits in schizophrenia, along with potential serum and electroencephalographic target engagement biomarkers for NMDAR function...
February 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656427/exercise-training-abrogates-age-dependent-loss-of-hypothalamic-oxytocinergic-circuitry-and-maintains-high-parasympathetic-activity
#12
Carla R Santos, Adriana Ruggeri, Alexandre Ceroni, Lisete C Michelini
Neuroanatomical studies associating neuronal tract tracing and immunohistochemistry identified reciprocal (ascending noradrenergic/descending oxytocinergic, OTergic) connections between brainstem cardiovascular nuclei and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). Previous functional studies indicated that exercise training (T) augmented the expression/activity of OTergic pathway and improve the autonomic control of the heart. Knowing that ageing is associated with autonomic dysfunction and sinoaortic denervation blocked T-induced beneficial effects, we hypothesized that T was able to reduce age-dependent impairment by improving the afferent signaling to PVN and augmenting OTergic modulation of cardiovascular control...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656032/bioenergetics-and-synaptic-plasticity-as-potential-targets-for-individualizing-treatment-for-depression
#13
REVIEW
J Blair Price, Carrie Bronars, Sophie Erhardt, Kathyrn R Cullen, Lilly Schwieler, Michael Berk, Ken Walder, Sean L McGee, Mark A Frye, Susannah J Tye
Disruptions of bioenergetic signaling and neurogenesis are hallmarks of depression physiology and are often the product of dysregulation of the inflammatory, stress-response, and metabolic systems. These systems are extensively interrelated at the physiological level, yet the bulk of the literature to date addresses pathophysiological mechanisms in isolation. A more integrated understanding of the etiology, progression, and treatment response profiles of depression is possible through wider consideration of relevant preclinical and clinical studies that examine the result of disruptions in these systems...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651241/intra-and-inter-regional-priming-of-ipsilateral-human-primary-motor-cortex-with-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-does-not-induce-consistent-neuroplastic-effects
#14
Michael Do, Melissa Kirkovski, Charlotte B Davies, Soukayna Bekkali, Linda K Byrne, Peter G Enticott
Human responses to non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques can be highly variable. Recently, priming protocols involving a conditioning round of NIBS applied to a target brain region prior to the application of a test protocol have shown promise in inducing more reliable effects. We investigated whether intra- or inter-regional priming of the left primary motor cortex (M1) using continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) can induce consistent, and reliable modulation of corticospinal excitability. Twenty healthy adults (six males) underwent four cTBS protocols...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651240/cognitive-neuroscience-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-its-clinical-translation
#15
REVIEW
Katya Rubia
This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643762/persistent-adult-neuroimmune-activation-and-loss-of-hippocampal-neurogenesis-following-adolescent-ethanol-exposure-blockade-by-exercise-and-the-anti-inflammatory-drug-indomethacin
#16
Ryan P Vetreno, Colleen J Lawrimore, Pamela J Rowsey, Fulton T Crews
Alcohol abuse and binge drinking are common during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by heightened neuroplasticity. Animal studies reveal that adolescent ethanol exposure decreases hippocampal neurogenesis that persists into adulthood, but the mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Using a rodent model of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-days on/2-days off from postnatal day [P]25 to P55), we tested the hypothesis that AIE-induced upregulation of neuroimmune signaling contributes to the loss of hippocampal neurogenesis in adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628040/-patterns-of-brain-ageing
#17
Carlos Fernández Viadero, Rosario Verduga Vélez, Dámaso Crespo Santiago
Neuroplasticity lends the brain a strong ability to adapt to changes in the environment that occur during ageing. Animal models have shown alterations in neurotransmission and imbalances in the expression of neural growth factor. Changes at the morphometric level are not constant. Volume loss is related to alterations in neuroplasticity and involvement of the cerebral neuropil. Although there are no conclusive data, physical exercise improves the molecular, biological, functional and behavioural-cognitive changes associated with brain ageing...
June 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626490/beyond-good-and-evil-a-putative-continuum-sorting-hypothesis-for-the-functional-role-of-probdnf-bdnf-propeptide-mbdnf-in-antidepressant-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Cassiano R A F Diniz, Plinio C Casarotto, Leonardo Resstel, R L Joca Sâmia
Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder are assumed to be maladaptive responses to stress and antidepressants are thought to counteract such responses by increasing BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) levels. BDNF acts through TrkB (tropomyosin-related receptor kinase B) and plays a central role in neuroplasticity. In contrast, both precursor proBDNF and BDNF propeptide (another metabolic product from proBDNF cleavage) have a high affinity to p75 receptor (p75R) and usually convey apoptosis and neuronal shrinkage...
April 4, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625236/statistical-learning-of-multisensory-regularities-is-enhanced-in-musicians-an-meg-study
#19
Evangelos Paraskevopoulos, Nikolas Chalas, Panagiotis Kartsidis, Andreas Wollbrink, Panagiotis Bamidis
The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify the neural correlates of audiovisual statistical learning, while disentangling the differential contributions of uni- and multi-modal statistical mismatch responses in humans. The applied paradigm was based on a combination of a statistical learning paradigm and a multisensory oddball one, combining an audiovisual, an auditory and a visual stimulation stream, along with the corresponding deviances. Plasticity effects due to musical expertise were investigated by comparing the behavioral and MEG responses of musicians to non-musicians...
April 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625071/human-hippocampal-neurogenesis-persists-throughout-aging
#20
Maura Boldrini, Camille A Fulmore, Alexandria N Tartt, Laika R Simeon, Ina Pavlova, Verica Poposka, Gorazd B Rosoklija, Aleksandar Stankov, Victoria Arango, Andrew J Dwork, René Hen, J John Mann
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis declines in aging rodents and primates. Aging humans are thought to exhibit waning neurogenesis and exercise-induced angiogenesis, with a resulting volumetric decrease in the neurogenic hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region, although concurrent changes in these parameters are not well studied. Here we assessed whole autopsy hippocampi from healthy human individuals ranging from 14 to 79 years of age. We found similar numbers of intermediate neural progenitors and thousands of immature neurons in the DG, comparable numbers of glia and mature granule neurons, and equivalent DG volume across ages...
April 5, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
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