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Non accidental injury

Cameron A Elliott, Vijay Ramaswamy, Francois D Jacob, Tejas Sankar, Vivek Mehta
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. In these patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the test of choice to describe the extent of microstructural injury. CASE PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION: In this case series, we describe novel acute and chronic MRI findings in four infants (6-19 months) with small, unilateral subdural hematomas in whom the etiology of head injury was suspicious for non-accidental trauma (NAT)...
October 20, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Omar N Pathmanaban, Kerry A Burke, Paul Leach, John Thorne, Ian D Kamaly-Asl
BACKGROUND: Positional plagiocephaly is the most common cause of cranial asymmetry. The underlying cause of Chiari-1 malformation has many possible theories, and anecdotally some pediatric neurosurgeons have had experience of severe cases of positional brachycephaly with Chiari-1. However, to date there have been no published cases linking non-synostotic plagiocephaly with Chiari-1 malformation. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 18-month-old boy presented with a head injury...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Paige A Culotta, James E Crowe, Quynh-Anh Tran, Jeremy Y Jones, Amy R Mehollin-Ray, H Brandon Tran, Marcella Donaruma-Kwoh, Cristina T Dodge, Elizabeth A Camp, Andrea T Cruz
BACKGROUND: Young children with suspected abusive head trauma often receive skull radiographs to evaluate for fractures as well as computed tomography (CT) of the head to assess for intracranial injury. Using a CT as the primary modality to evaluate both fracture and intracranial injury could reduce exposure to radiation without sacrificing performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity of CT head with (3-D) reconstruction compared to skull radiographs to identify skull fractures in children with suspected abusive head trauma...
October 15, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Katie Dhingra, Parveen Ali
Non-suicidal self-injury is a common behaviour in adolescents and young adults, and may be associated with mental health disorders, risk of suicidal behaviour (ideation and attempts), and a need for clinical services. Nurses, in particular those working in emergency departments and mental health settings, have a crucial role in the assessment, treatment and care of individuals who have self-injured. It is essential for nurses to assess an individual's risk of more serious harm or accidental death, regardless of intent...
September 28, 2016: Nursing Standard
Cristen N Litz, David J Ciesla, Paul D Danielson, Nicole M Chandler
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of non-accidental trauma (NAT) patients compared to other trauma (OT) patients across the state of Florida. In addition, NAT and OT patients with a mechanism of injury of assault were further analyzed. METHODS: A statewide database was reviewed from January 2010 to December 2014 for patients aged 0-18years who presented following trauma. Patients were sorted by admitting diagnosis into two groups: rule out NAT and all other diagnoses...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Emily Youngblom, Mitzi Leah Murray, Peter H Byers
Genetic testing can be used to determine if unexplained fractures in children could have resulted from a predisposition to bone fractures, e.g., osteogenesis imperfecta. However, uncertainty is introduced if a variant of unknown significance (VUS) is identified. Proper interpretation of VUS in these situations is critical because of its influence on clinical care and in court rulings. This study sought to understand how VUS are interpreted and used by practitioners when there is a differential diagnosis including both osteogenesis imperfecta and non-accidental injury...
September 2016: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Ceri Elisabeth Battle, Vanessa Evans, Karen James, Katherine Guy, Janet Whitley, Phillip Adrian Evans
BACKGROUND: Variation in the incidence and mechanism of thermal injury has been reported in different age groups in children. The aim of this study was to report the incidence, mechanisms, and environmental factors of all burns presentations to the emergency department (ED) of a regional burns centre over a 7-year period. METHODS: A retrospective, chart review study of all burns presentations to the ED of a regional burns centre in South Wales was conducted. All children recorded as having sustained a burn or scald, aged less than 16 years were included in the analysis...
2016: Burns and trauma
Panagiota Vlachogianni, Maria Volosyraki, Maria Stefanidou, Sabine Krueger-Krasagakis, George Evangelou, Vrettos Haniotis, Diamantis Kofteridis, Sofia Maraki, Konstantin Krasagakis
INTRODUCTION: Soft tissue infections with Mycobacterium avium complex are more likely to appear in immunocompromised patients. However, they may rarely arise in non-immunosuppressed individuals. AIM: To present the case of an ear infection with Mycobacterium avium in the absence of demonstrable immunosuppression. CASE REPORT: Clinical case description, blood tests, routine histology and tissue cultures. DISCUSSION: A female, apparent immunocompetent patient presented with a 6-month reddish, oedematous and painless lesion with fine scaling in the right ear...
April 2016: Folia Medica
K Halliday, K Drinkwater, D C Howlett
AIM: To compare paediatric radiology provision across the UK with national standards published by the Department of Health and the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Audit standards and indicators for paediatric imaging were derived from "Delivering quality imaging services for children",(1) "Standards for imaging in cases of suspected non-accidental injury"(2) and "Improving paediatric interventional radiology services"(3) and agreed jointly by the Clinical Radiology Audit Committee and the British Society of Paediatric Radiology...
August 4, 2016: Clinical Radiology
Z H Wei, X Q Xie, F Liu, P Wang, J Wang, Y L Gao, J T Su, J Du, Q P Liu, X H Deng
OBJECTIVE: To fill up the absence of data on causes of death of urban residents in Beijing during 1965-1974 and provide evidence for the similar study in other areas. METHODS: All possible sources for death data during 1965-1974 were identified through expert consultations and record search. Stratified sampling was conducted to collect the death data of urban residents during this period in Beijing. The mortality rate, death cause constituent and rank of death causes were used in this descriptive analysis...
July 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Janelle Gravesande, Julie Richardson
PURPOSE: To identify the non-pharmacological risk factors for falling in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). METHODS: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies and before/after studies was conducted. Eligible studies identified non-pharmacological risk factors for falling in older adults with DM2. Medline, Embase, Pubmed and CINAHL were searched for relevant studies published through December 2015...
July 6, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Nyla Alam Khan, Vincent Lam, Andrew Rickett, Fiona Dickinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Nida P Intarapanich, Emily C McCobb, Robert W Reisman, Elizabeth A Rozanski, Pichai P Intarapanich
Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are often difficult to distinguish from non-accidental injury (NAI). This retrospective case-control study compared animals with known MVA trauma against those with known NAI. Medical records of 426 dogs and cats treated after MVA and 50 after NAI were evaluated. Injuries significantly associated with MVA were pelvic fractures, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, abrasions, and degloving wounds. Injuries associated with NAI were fractures of the skull, teeth, vertebrae, and ribs, scleral hemorrhage, damage to claws, and evidence of older fractures...
July 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Forhad H Chowdhury, Mohammod Raziul Haque, Zahed Hossain, Noman Khaled Chowdhury, Sarwar Murshed Alam, Mainul Haque Sarker
OBJECT: Penetrating non-missile injury to head is far less common in comparison to missile penetrating injury. Here we describe our experiences of management of 17 cases of non-missile injury to head, which is probably the largest series in the literature. We also highlight on simple surgical steps and techniques of removal of in situ objects (weapon) in the penetrating wound that were not previously described. METHOD: We retrogradely studied the non-missile, low velocity penetrating injury of head cases that were admitted and managed in our department...
June 24, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Laura A Leaman, William L Hennrikus, James J Bresnahan
PURPOSE: Fractures are the second most common presentation of child abuse following soft-tissue bruising and burns. It is often difficult to determine potential abuse in a child presenting with a non-rib fracture(s) and without soft-tissue injuries. METHODS: One hundred and fifteen consecutive patients aged ≤2 years who presented with a fracture between January 2010 and June 2012 to our emergency department (ED) or pediatric fracture clinic were retrospectively analyzed...
August 2016: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
Emma Barrett, Suzanne Denieffe, Michael Bergin, Martina Gooney
AIM & OBJECTIVES: To explore paediatric nurses' views of caring for infants who have suffered non-accidental injury. BACKGROUND: Children less than 2 years of age are at greater risk of serious abuse than those in any other age group. An infants' physical and mental immaturity makes them especially vulnerable. Abuse in this age group is often caused by a parent who does not report the abuse. The experience of caring for abused children is recognised as being both personally and professionally challenging...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
William B Blackburne, J Neil Waddell, Michael V Swain, Ricardo J Alves de Sousa, Jules A Kieser
This study investigated the structural, biomechanical and fractographic features of rib fractures in a piglet model, to test the hypothesis that fist impact, apart from thoracic squeezing, may result in lateral costal fractures as observed in abused infants. A mechanical fist with an accelerometer was constructed and fixed to a custom jig. Twenty stillborn piglets in the supine position were impacted on the thoracic cage. The resultant force versus time curves from the accelerometer data showed a number of steps indicative of rib fracture...
September 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Erica I Hodgman, Rachel A Pastorek, Melody R Saeman, Michael W Cripps, Ira H Bernstein, Steven E Wolf, Karen J Kowalske, Brett D Arnoldo, Herb A Phelan
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric burns due to abuse are unfortunately relatively common, accounting for 5.8-8.8% of all cases of abuse annually. Our goal was to evaluate our 36-year experience in the evaluation and management of the victims of abuse in the North Texas area. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database containing records on all admissions from 1974 through 2010 was queried for all patients aged less than 18 years. Patients admitted for management of a non-burn injury were excluded from the analysis...
August 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
K Nygaard, A S Thiara, C Tronstad, M A Ringdal, A E Fiane
BACKGROUND: Vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) is widely used to enhance venous blood return from patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This vacuum can accidentally reach the oxygenator of the heart-lung machine and draw gas bubbles into the blood. This is known as bubble transgression (BT) and may cause air emboli in the arterial blood line. In order to avoid BT and minimize the risk of patient injury, knowledge of oxygenator tolerance to vacuum load is critical. Thus, the main aim of this thesis was to investigate how much vacuum a membrane oxygenator can withstand before BT appears...
May 25, 2016: Perfusion
Sara Bousema, Helene G Stas, Marjolijn H van de Merwe, Irma M M H Oen, Martin G A Baartmans, Margriet E van Baar
International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013...
September 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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