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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444457/brain-region-specific-responses-of-astrocytes-to-an-in-vitro-injury-and-neurotrophins
#1
Andrea Beatriz Cragnolini, Gonzalo Montenegro, Wilma J Friedman, Daniel Hugo Mascó
Astrocytes are a heterogeneous population of glial cells that react to brain insults through a process referred to as astrogliosis. Reactive astrocytes are characterized by an increase in proliferation, size, migration to the injured zone and release of a plethora of chemical mediators such as NGF and BDNF. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are brain region-associated responses of astrocytes to an injury and to the neurotrophins NGF and BDNF. We used the scratch injury model to study the closure of a wound inflicted on a monolayer of astrocytes obtained from cortex, hippocampus or striatum...
February 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441442/internal-patterned-injuries-in-trauma
#2
Lucia Tattoli, Michael Tsokos, Claas Buschmann
Patterned bruising of the internal organs is unusual. In these cases a cutaneous pattern of bruising is not observed but the underlying tissue may show unusual injuries that may even be recognizable as a tramline pattern. We report the suicide of a 23-year-old man by jumping off a bridge. At autopsy, an unusual finding was "tramline" bruising of the right liver lobe. The "blunt objects" that inflicted the bruising were determined to be the right ribs which were pushed against the liver capsule as a consequence of the extensive thoracic and vertebral trauma after a fall from a height with intermediate impact...
February 13, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434169/different-patterns-in-abdominal-stab-wound-in-the-self-inflicted-and-assaulted-patients-an-observational-analysis-of-single-center-experience
#3
Takeshi Nishimura, Hiroyuki Sakata, Taihei Yamada, Mariko Terashima, Kunihiro Shirai, Isamu Yamada, Joji Kotani
Patterns of penetrating abdominal stab wounds (ASW) may be different according to the mechanism of injury. The purpose of this study was to review and characterize penetrating abdominal stab wounds in self-inflicted wound patients and assaulted patients. We retrospectively analyzed patients with ASW who were admitted to our emergency department from 2007 to 2015. The patients were divided into two groups: self-inflicted wound group and assaulted group. There were 46 stabbing cases in 45 different patients (25 males, 21 females; average age 47 y, range 21 to 85 y)...
July 20, 2017: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433877/self-inflicted-gunshot-wounds-readmission-patterns
#4
Charlotte M Rajasingh, Lakshika Tennakoon, Kristan L Staudenmayer
BACKGROUND: Self-inflicted gunshot wounds (SI-GSWs) are often fatal, but roughly 20% of individuals survive. What happens to survivors after the initial hospitalization is unknown. We hypothesized that the SI-GSW survivors are frequently readmitted and that the pattern of readmission is different from that of the survivors of non-GSW self-harm (SH). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis using the 2013 and 2014 Nationwide Readmission Database. Patients with any diagnosis indicating deliberate SH in the first 6 months of the year were included...
March 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428971/emergence-of-anti-mitochondrial-m2-antibody-in-patient-with-angioimmunoblastic-t-cell-lymphoma
#5
Shun-Ichi Wakabayashi, Takefumi Kimura, Naoki Tanaka, Satoru Joshita, Kazuhito Kawata, Takeji Umemura, Yuki Hiroshima, Hiromitsu Mori, Hikaru Kobayashi, Shuichi Wada, Eiji Tanaka
A 68-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to fever and rash on the neck and extremities. Laboratory findings revealed hepatic dysfunction and positivity for anti-mitochondrial M2 antibody (AMA-M2). Hepatosplenomegaly and systemic lymphadenopathy were detected by enhanced computed tomography. One week after her first visit, hypoxemia, ascites, and Coomb test-positive autoimmune hemolytic anemia had newly appeared in addition to worsened fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy. Results of axillary lymph node, skin, and bone-marrow biopsies led to the diagnosis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), for which CEPP therapy (cyclophosphamide, etoposide, procarbazine, and prednisolone) was initiated...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405185/-the-peculiar-morphological-features-of-the-surface-relief-of-the-major-local-ruptures-of-the-liver-in-the-case-of-a-blunt-injury
#6
I A Dubrovina, S V Leonov, I N Lyutarevich, A A Aulov, A I Dubrovin, A S Mosoyan
The objective of the present study was the comprehensive investigation of morphogenesis of the surface relief of the major local ruptures of the liver in the case of a blunt injury and the obtaining of an additional information on the possibility to use these data for the purposes of forensic medical expertise. We explored the reliefs of the major local ruptures of the liver in the cases of a single fatal blunt injury inflicted in a traffic accident, by kicking or a powerful stroke with the fist. In addition, the threshold hepatic lesions depending on their severity were determined experimentally...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405183/-the-forensic-medical-evaluation-of-the-injuries-inflicted-inside-the-passenger-compartment-of-a-moving-car-equipped-with-the-modern-personal-safety-systems
#7
Yu I Pigolkin, I A Dubrovin, A S Mosoyan, A A Bychkov
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the characteristic features of the injuries inflicted to the victims of a road traffic accident inside the passenger compartment of a moving car equipped with the modern personal safety systems. The materials available for the present work included the lesions documented in 210 drivers and 150 occupants of the car passenger compartments. Both comparative, morphometric and statistical methods were used to analyze the data obtained. The morphometric analysis included identification of the form of the injury, such as extravasation, wounds, fractures, and lesions of the internal organs (e...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402720/a-review-of-upper-limb-injuries-in-bear-maul-victims-consistent-pattern-and-inverse-relation-in-severity-with-facial-and-scalp-injuries
#8
Towseef Ahmad Bhat, Amara Gulzar, Aejaz Ahmad Bhat, Tariq Ahmad Bhat, Zameer Ali
PURPOSE: Bear maul injuries are the most common wild animal inflicted injuries in India. More than 300 bear maul injuries report to our hospital per year. METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients over a period of 1 year reported to our department for orthopaedic management of bear maul injuries. All the patients were referred either from peripheral hospitals or from other surgical departments of our hospital. RESULTS: All the patients had facial/scalp injuries of variable severity...
November 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389917/surveillance-for-violent-deaths-national-violent-death-reporting-system-18-states-2014
#9
Katherine A Fowler, Shane P D Jack, Bridget H Lyons, Carter J Betz, Emiko Petrosky
PROBLEM/CONDITION: In 2014, approximately 59,000 persons died in the United States as a result of violence-related injuries. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) regarding violent deaths from 18 U.S. states for 2014. Results are reported by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, location of injury, method of injury, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 2014...
February 2, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388112/use-of-streptolysin-o-induced-membrane-damage-as-a-method-of-studying-the-function-of-lipid-rafts-during-b-cell-activation
#10
Heather Miller, Wenxia Song
B-lymphocytes have the ability to repair their plasma membranes following injury, such as by bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. The repair process includes the removal of the pore from the inflicted region of the plasma membrane via lipid raft-mediated internalization. Lipid rafts are critical for B cell receptor (BCR) activation. Cholesterol-dependent pore forming bacterial toxins provide a useful tool for examining the role of lipid rafts in B cell activation and the underlying cellular mechanisms...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387876/mortality-rates-after-the-first-diagnosis-of-psychotic-disorder-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#11
Gregory E Simon, Christine Stewart, Bobbi Jo Yarborough, Frances Lynch, Karen J Coleman, Arne Beck, Belinda H Operskalski, Robert B Penfold, Enid M Hunkeler
Importance: Individuals with psychotic disorders have increased mortality, and recent research suggests a marked increase shortly after diagnosis. Objective: To use population-based data to examine overall and cause-specific mortality after first diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used records from 5 integrated health systems that serve more than 8 million members in 5 states. Members aged 16 through 30 years who received a first lifetime diagnosis of a psychotic disorder from September 30, 2009, through September 30, 2015, and 2 comparison groups matched for age, sex, health system, and year of diagnosis were selected from all members making an outpatient visit (general outpatient group) and from all receiving a first diagnosis of unipolar depression (unipolar depression group)...
January 31, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381219/spatial-epidemiology-of-alcohol-and-drug-related-health-problems-among-northern-plains-american-indians-nebraska-and-south-dakota-2007-to-2012
#12
William R Ponicki, Jeffrey A Henderson, Andrew Gaidus, Paul J Gruenewald, Juliet P Lee, Roland S Moore, Sharice Davids, Nick Tilsen
BACKGROUND: Despite high abstinence rates, American Indians experience elevated rates of many alcohol and other drug problems. American Indians also predominantly reside in poor and rural areas, which may explain some observed health disparities. We investigated whether geographic areas including reservations or large American Indian populations exhibited greater incidence of alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations. METHODS: We obtained inpatient hospitalization records for 2 Northern Plain states (Nebraska and South Dakota) for the years 2007 to 2012...
January 30, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374925/-influences-of-ulinastatin-on-acute-lung-injury-and-time-phase-changes-of-coagulation-parameters-in-rats-with-burn-blast-combined-injuries
#13
W Liu, J K Chai
Objective: To explore the influences of ulinastatin on acute lung injury and time phase changes of coagulation parameters in rats with severe burn-blast combined injuries. Methods: One hundred and ninety-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into pure burn-blast combined injury group, ulinastatin+ burn-blast combined injury group, and sham injury group according to the random number table, with 64 rats in each group. Two groups of rats with combined burn-blast injuries were inflicted with moderate blast injuries with the newly self-made explosive device...
January 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374923/-effects-of-microrna-34a-on-regulating-silent-information-regulator-1-and-influence-of-the-factor-on-myocardial-damage-of-rats-with-severe-burns-at-early-stage
#14
X Z Bai, T He, J L Zhang, Y Liu, M Y Cao, J N Zhang, W X Cai, Y H Jia, J H Shi, L L Su, D H Hu
Objective: To explore the effects of microRNA-34a on regulating silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and influence of SIRT1 on myocardial damage of rats with severe burns at early stage. Methods: (1) Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into sham injury (SI) group, simple burns (SB) group and SIRT1 agonist (SA) group according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), with 8 rats in each group. Rats in groups SB and SA were inflicted with 30% total body surface area full-thickness scald (hereinafter referred to as burns) on the back, and rats in group SI were sham injuried on the back...
January 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367172/the-pathology-of-torture
#15
Michael S Pollanen
Detainees may be subjected to torture and extra-judicial execution by State actors and terrorists. But, the pathology of torture has not been well-described. This is due to the lack of autopsies performed on victims of torture, mostly due to the disposal of the bodies of the victims by their torturers. On this basis, the cause of death of detainees subjected to torture is often a matter of speculation or remains obscure. This paper provides an overview of the pathology of torture based on the authour's experience with the autopsies of torture victims...
December 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363384/analysis-of-dental-injuries-with-clinical-implications-a-forensic-case-report
#16
Si-Lei Tan, Shu-Ya Peng, Lei Wan, Jie-Min Chen, Wen-Tao Xia
Dental injuries, especially of the incisors, caused by punches in violent criminal attacks could be seen in daily forensic casework involving the identification of injuries to a living body. Sometimes, when there is neither circumstantial evidence nor information about the surrounding circumstances, it is difficult to discern the cause of these injuries and the manner in which they were inflicted. As an example of clinical forensic medicine, we present the case of a 58-year-old woman whose teeth were injured when fighting with her son-in-law over household affairs with no witnesses present...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363383/a-forensic-evaluation-of-impalement-injuries
#17
Roger W Byard
Impalement injuries transfix a victim in an inescapable or helpless position. A study was undertaken at Forensic Science SA from 2002 to 2016 of all impalement deaths. There were six vehicle accidents (M:F=5:1; age 14-67 years, average age 38.5 years) involving impalements with a tree branch ( n=2; groin and chest), a metal pipe ( n=2; leg and head), a metal bridge railing (groin) and a metal fence post (chest). Two cases (both males, aged 47 and 18 years) had slipped on fences/gates, with impalements of the ankle and groin...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362419/pancreatic-gene-expression-during-recovery-after-pancreatitis-reveals-unique-transcriptome-profiles
#18
Kristy Boggs, Ting Wang, Abrahim I Orabi, Amitava Mukherjee, John F Eisses, Tao Sun, Li Wen, Tanveer A Javed, Farzad Esni, Wei Chen, Sohail Z Husain
It is well known that pancreatic recovery after a single episode of injury such as an isolated bout of pancreatitis occurs rapidly. It is unclear, however, what changes are inflicted in such conditions to the molecular landscape of the pancreas. In the caerulein hyperstimulation model of pancreatitis, the murine pancreas has the ability to recover within one week based on histological appearance. In this study, we sought to characterize by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) the transcriptional profile of the recovering pancreas up to two weeks post-injury...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357207/differences-in-methods-of-self-inflicted-injuries-by-sex-in-wisconsin-2002-2014
#19
Nivedita Nair, Joseph Archer, Alexa Statz, Ousmane Diallo
BACKGROUND: Despite suicide prevention efforts, there remains a high burden of self-inflicted injuries in Wisconsin. OBJECTIVE: Compare methods of suicide and nonfatal self-inflicted injury by sex in Wisconsin over a 12-year period. METHODS: Suicide and nonfatal self-inflicted injury rates in Wisconsin between 2002 and 2014 were compared by sex and method using data from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health. Percentages of total suicides by method of injury for each sex were calculated...
December 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356989/eplerenone-pretreatment-protects-the-myocardium-against-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-through-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt-dependent-pathway-in-diabetic-rats
#20
Umesh B Mahajan, Pradip D Patil, Govind Chandrayan, Chandragouda R Patil, Yogeeta O Agrawal, Shreesh Ojha, Sameer N Goyal
We investigated the eplerenone-induced, PI3K/Akt- and GSK-3β-mediated cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in diabetic rats. The study groups comprising diabetic rats were treated for 14 days with 150 mg/kg/day eplerenone orally and 1 mg/kg wortmannin (PI3K/Akt antagonist) intraperitoneally with eplerenone. On the 15th day, the rats were exposed to I/R injury by 20-min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 30 min of reperfusion. The hearts were processed for biochemical, molecular, and histological investigations...
January 22, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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