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Neonatal imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475200/cardiovascular-associations-with-abnormal-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-undergoing-therapeutic-hypothermia-and-rewarming
#1
Kiran S More, Pankaj Sakhuja, Regan E Giesinger, Joseph Y Ting, Matthew Keyzers, Jesal N Sheth, Anie Lapointe, Amish Jain, Aideen M Moore, Steven P Miller, Patrick J McNamara
OBJECTIVE:  This article compares hemodynamic characteristics of neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) receiving therapeutic hypothermia (TH) with normal versus abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS:  Serial echocardiography (echo) was performed within 24 hours, after 48 to 72 hours of cooling, within 24 hours of normothermia, and after starting feeds. Pulmonary hemodynamics, cardiac output, and ventricular function were evaluated...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472305/metabolic-and-hypertensive-complications-of-pregnancy-in-women-with-nephrolithiasis
#2
Jessica Sheehan Tangren, Camille E Powe, Jeffrey Ecker, Kate Bramham, Elizabeth Ankers, S Ananth Karumanchi, Ravi Thadhani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kidney stones are associated with future development of hypertension, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to assess whether stone formation before pregnancy was associated with metabolic and hypertensive complications in pregnancy. We hypothesized that stone formation is a marker of metabolic disease and would be associated with higher risk for maternal complications in pregnancy. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women who delivered infants at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 2006 to 2015...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468002/idiopathic-non-traumatic-facial-nerve-palsy-bell-s-palsy-in-neonates-an-atypical-age-and-management-dilemma
#3
Abdulhafeez M Khair, Khalid Ibrahim
Idiopathic (Bell's) palsy is the commonest cause of unilateral facial paralysis in children. Although being idiopathic by definition, possible infectious, inflammatory, and ischemic triggers have been suggested. Bell's palsy is thought to be responsible for up to three-fourths of cases of acute unilateral facial paralysis worldwide. The diagnosis has to be reached after other causes of acute peripheral palsy have been excluded. However, it is rarely described in neonates and young infants. Steroids may have some role in treatment, but antiviral therapies have doubtful evidence of benefit...
January 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463417/mri-as-a-biomarker-for-mild-neonatal-encephalopathy
#4
Brian H Walsh, Terrie E Inder
Historically, there has been limited neuro-imaging data acquired on infants with mild neonatal encephalopathy (NE). This likely reflects the traditional assumption that these infants had a universally good prognosis. As new evidence has emerged challenging this assumption, there has been a renewed interest in the neuro-imaging findings of these infants. To date, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in infants with mild NE have demonstrated abnormalities in 20-40% of cases suggestive that the injury occurs during the peripartum period with a predominant watershed pattern of injury...
February 17, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463283/neonatal-diagnosis-of-isolated-absence-of-the-right-pulmonary-artery-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Akamin Raymond, Ettore Pedretti, Giuseppina Privitera, Cristina Cicero, Giacomo Biasucci
BACKGROUND: Unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (UAPA) is a rare congenital malformation often associated with other cardiac anomalies; however it may occur as an isolated lesion. Isolated absence of the right pulmonary artery is twice more frequent than that of the left pulmonary artery. Patients with isolated UAPA are usually asymptomatic at birth; thereafter they may develop a progression of symptoms such as exercise intolerance, dyspnea, chest pain, hemoptysis and recurrent pulmonary infections...
February 20, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460076/visual-grading-analysis-of-digital-neonatal-chest-phantom-x-ray-images-impact-of-detector-type-dose-and-image-processing-on-image-quality
#6
M H Smet, L Breysem, E Mussen, H Bosmans, N W Marshall, L Cockmartin
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of digital detector, dose level and post-processing on neonatal chest phantom X-ray image quality (IQ). METHODS: A neonatal phantom was imaged using four different detectors: a CR powder phosphor (PIP), a CR needle phosphor (NIP) and two wireless CsI DR detectors (DXD and DRX). Five different dose levels were studied for each detector and two post-processing algorithms evaluated for each vendor. Three paediatric radiologists scored the images using European quality criteria plus additional questions on vascular lines, noise and disease simulation...
February 19, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455331/newborn-screening-guidelines-for-congenital-hypothyroidism-in-india-recommendations-of-the-indian-society-for-pediatric-and-adolescent-endocrinology-ispae-part-ii-imaging-treatment-and-follow-up
#7
REVIEW
S Sudhanshu, I Riaz, R Sharma, M P Desai, R Parikh, V Bhatia
The Indian Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology has formulated Clinical Practice Guidelines for newborn screening, diagnosis and management of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). This manuscript, part II addresses management and follow-up. RECOMMENDATIONS: Screening should be done for every newborn using cord blood, or postnatal blood ideally at 48 to 72 h of age. Neonates with screen TSH > 20 mIU/L serum units (or >34 mIU/L for samples taken between 24 and 48 h of age) should be recalled for confirmation...
February 17, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448121/neonatal-distal-femoral-physeal-injury-secondary-to-mechanical-trauma-of-birth-a-case-report
#8
Arie Franco, Apeksha Chaturvedi
Physeal injuries occurring secondary to neonatal birth-related trauma are rare entities. Most reported cases of physeal injury involve the distal humerus with only a few published case reports of proximal femoral involvement. So far, we have found only one reported case of neonatal distal femoral epiphysiolysis following Caesarean section. We hereby report a unique case of distal femoral physeal injury with at least partial epiphyseal separation following an uneventful, spontaneous vaginal delivery. Given the uneventful delivery and no known prenatal risk factors, the imaging findings were initially not recognized as being secondary to birth-related injury...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448075/improving-mass-univariate-analysis-of-neuroimaging-data-by-modelling-important-unknown-covariates-application-to-epigenome-wide-association-studies
#9
Bryan Guillaume, Changqing Wang, Joann Poh, Mo Jun Shen, Mei Lyn Ong, Pei Fang Tan, Neerja Karnani, Michael Meaney, Anqi Qiu
Statistical inference on neuroimaging data is often conducted using a mass-univariate model, equivalent to fitting a linear model at every voxel with a known set of covariates. Due to the large number of linear models, it is challenging to check if the selection of covariates is appropriate and to modify this selection adequately. The use of standard diagnostics, such as residual plotting, is clearly not practical for neuroimaging data. However, the selection of covariates is crucial for linear regression to ensure valid statistical inference...
February 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444822/the-protein-kinase-perk-eif2ak3-regulates-proinsulin-processing-not-via-protein-synthesis-but-by-controlling-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperones
#10
Carrie R Sowers, Rong Wang, Rebecca A Bourne, Barbara C McGrath, Jingjie Hu, Sarah C Bevilacqua, James C Paton, Adrienne W Paton, Sophie Collardeau-Frachon, Marc Nicolino, Douglas R Cavener
Loss-of-function mutations of the protein kinase PERK (EIF2AK3) in humans and mice cause permanent neonatal diabetes and severe proinsulin aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), highlighting the essential role of PERK in insulin production in pancreatic β cells. As PERK is generally known as a translational regulator of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), the underlying cause of these β cell defects has often been attributed to derepression of proinsulin synthesis, resulting in proinsulin overload in the ER...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444533/relationship-between-blood-glucose-fluctuation-and-brain-damage-in-the-hypoglycemia-neonates
#11
Yuan Lv, Ling-Ling Zhu, Gui-Hua Shu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between blood glucose fluctuation and brain damage in the hypoglycemia neonates. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study including all neonates hospitalized due to hypoglycemia from September 2013 to August 2016 was performed. All the 58 hypoglycemia infants were divided into two groups-the brain-damaged group and the nonbrain-damaged group, according to head magnetic resonance imaging and/or amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443359/validity-of-the-red-reflex-exam-in-the-newborn-eye-screening-test-cohort
#12
Cassie A Ludwig, Natalia F Callaway, Mark S Blumenkranz, Douglas R Fredrick, Darius M Moshfeghi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The validity of the red reflex exam has yet to be tested against new methods of wide-angle imaging that may improve early detection of neonatal ocular pathology. The authors aimed to determine the validity of the pediatrician's red reflex exam using 130° wide-angle external and fundus digital imaging as a gold standard. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 194 healthy, term newborns enrolled in the Newborn Eye Screening Test study at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital from July 25, 2013, to July 25, 2014...
February 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440285/nutrient-intake-in-the-first-two-weeks-of-life-and-brain-growth-in-preterm-neonates
#13
Juliane Schneider, Céline J Fischer Fumeaux, Emma G Duerden, Ting Guo, Justin Foong, Myriam Bickle Graz, Patric Hagmann, M Mallar Chakravarty, Petra S Hüppi, Lydie Beauport, Anita C Truttmann, Steven P Miller
BACKGROUND: Optimizing early nutritional intake in preterm neonates may promote brain health and neurodevelopment through enhanced brain maturation. Our objectives were (1) to determine the association of energy and macronutrient intake in the first 2 weeks of life with regional and total brain growth and white matter (WM) maturation, assessed by 3 serial MRI scans in preterm neonates; (2) to examine how critical illness modifies this association; and (3) to investigate the relationship with neurodevelopmental outcomes...
February 13, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436246/oscillating-gradient-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-detects-acute-subcellular-structural-changes-in-the-mouse-forebrain-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#14
Dan Wu, Lee J Martin, Frances J Northington, Jiangyang Zhang
The recently developed oscillating-gradient diffusion MRI (OG-dMRI) technique extends our ability to examine brain structures at different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of OG-dMRI in detecting cellular and subcellular structural changes in a mouse model of neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI). Neonatal mice received unilateral HI injury or sham injury at postnatal day 10, followed by in vivo T 2 -weighted and diffusion MRI of the brains at 3-6 h and 24 h after HI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were acquired using conventional pulsed-gradient dMRI (PG-dMRI) and OG-dMRI with oscillating frequencies from 50 to 200 Hz...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435486/transient-receptor-potential-channels-trpm4-and-trpc3-critically-contribute-to-respiratory-motor-pattern-formation-but-not-rhythmogenesis-in-rodent-brainstem-circuits
#15
Hidehiko Koizumi, Tibin T John, Justine X Chia, Mohammad F Tariq, Ryan S Phillips, Bryan Mosher, Yonghua Chen, Ryan Thompson, Ruli Zhang, Naohiro Koshiya, Jeffrey C Smith
Transient receptor potential channel, TRPM4, the putative molecular substrate for Ca2+-activated nonselective cation current (ICAN), is hypothesized to generate bursting activity of pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) inspiratory neurons and critically contribute to respiratory rhythmogenesis. Another TRP channel, TRPC3, which mediates Na+/Ca2+ fluxes, may be involved in regulating Ca2+-related signaling, including affecting TRPM4/ICAN in respiratory pre-BötC neurons. However, TRPM4 and TRPC3 expression in pre-BötC inspiratory neurons and functional roles of these channels remain to be determined...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433417/clinical-findings-and-neurologic-outcome-in-neonatal-encephalopathy-with-white-matter-injury-accompanied-by-rotavirus
#16
Jae Kyun Ku, Young Jin Heo, Keun Soo Lee, Bo Lyun Lee
Our objective was to elucidate the clinical characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonatal encephalopathy with characteristic white matter injury as compared with other injury patterns on magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging. We conducted a retrospective study comparing clinical and laboratory findings, and neurologic outcomes between 17 newborns with diffuse lesions in the periventricular white matter and white matter tract (group I) and 22 newborns with other patterns (group II). Stool samples indicated that 16 neonates (94...
March 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429466/-recurrent-convulsion-and-pulmonary-infection-complicated-by-psychomotor-retardation-in-an-infant
#17
Juan Xiong, Jing Peng, Hao-Lin Duan, Chen Chen, Xiao-Le Wang, Shi-Meng Chen, Fei Yin
A 4-month-old girl developed convulsion in the neonatal period, which was focal motor seizures in the initial stage and later became spasm and tonic spasm. And the girl also had psychomotor retardation and recurrent pulmonary infection. Electroencephalography showed hypsarrhythmia, normal results were obtained from cranial magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid examination, and urine organic acid analysis, as well as the spectral analyses of blood ammonia, blood lactic acid, blood amino acids, and acylcarnitines...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429453/-correlation-between-magnetic-resonance-imaging-score-and-clinical-grading-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#18
Rui-Hua Ba, Jian Mao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) score and clinical grading in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). METHODS: Clinical grading was performed for 61 neonates with HIE according to the HIE clinical grading standard. The modified MRI scoring system was used to determine the injury scores on different MRI sequences. The correlation between HIE imaging score and clinical severity was analyzed. RESULTS: The MRI score in neonates with moderate HIE was significantly lower than that in those with severe HIE (P<0...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427833/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-newborns-with-neonatal-seizures-caused-by-rotavirus-associated-leukoencephalopathy
#19
Kyung Yeon Lee, Young Cheol Weon, Seong Hoon Choi, Ki Won Oh, Hyewon Park
PURPOSE: Rotavirus infection has recently been reported to be associated with seizures accompanied by leukoencephalopathy in newborns. We aimed to determine long-term outcomes and prognostic factors in newborns with neonatal seizures caused by rotavirus-associated leukoencephalopathy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images of 32 patients who fulfilled the following criteria: (1) neonatal seizures, (2) distinctive symmetric cerebral white matter lesions on diffusion-weighted MR images (DWI), (3) rotavirus infection, (4) absence of a specific etiology of seizures, except for the aforementioned DWI lesions, and (5) Korean Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II) assessment after 12 months of age...
February 7, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426807/neonatal-epilepsy-genetics
#20
REVIEW
Erika J T Axeen, Heather E Olson
Neonatal epilepsy genetics is a rapidly expanding field with recent technological advances in genomics leading to an expanding list of genetic disorders associated with neonatal-onset epilepsy. The genetic causes of neonatal epilepsy can be grouped into the following categories: (i) malformations of cortical development, (ii) genetic-metabolic, (iii) genetic-vascular, (iv) genetic-syndromic, and (v) genetic-cellular. Clinically, epilepsy in the neonate shows phenotypic overlap with pathogenic variants in unrelated genes causing similar clinical presentation (locus heterogeneity) and variants in the same gene leading to a wide clinical spectrum ranging from benign familial neonatal seizures to more severe epileptic encephalopathies (variable expressivity)...
January 31, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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