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Neonatal imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329979/imaging-of-neck-masses-in-the-neonate
#1
Amina Ben Salem, Abir Khalfalli, Saida Jerbi, Wissem Harzallah, Fatma-Zohra Chioukh, Chiraz Hafsa, Ines Mezhoud
INTRODUCTION: Neck masses occurring in the neonatal period and early infancy consist of vascular tumors, vascular malformations, benign and malignant soft tissue tumors and other developmental lesions. Although some lesions can be diagnosed on clinical grounds, others can only be diagnosed by imaging. Beyond diagnosis, imaging plays a significant role in evaluating the location and extent of a lesion for possible intervention. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Clinical series descriptive study with a retrospective examination of neonates with masses of the neck...
March 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328531/provider-variability-in-the-initial-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-congenital-hypothyroidism
#2
Luke Cielonko, Tyler Hamby, John S Dallas, Luke Hamilton, Don P Wilson
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and expeditious treatment of newborns with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is necessary to avoid mental retardation. METHODS: A survey of 44 practitioners in the southern US was conducted to better understand common practices regarding neonatal CH and the findings were compared with current guidelines in the US and Europe. RESULTS: Responses indicated some consensus that 10-15 μg of thyroid hormone/kg/day was the appropriate dosage...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325581/prenatal-prediction-of-pulmonary-hypoplasia
#3
REVIEW
Jourdan E Triebwasser, Marjorie C Treadwell
Pulmonary hypoplasia, although rare, is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Conditions associated with pulmonary hypoplasia include those which limit normal thoracic capacity or movement, including skeletal dysplasias and abdominal wall defects; those with mass effect, including congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pleural effusions; and those with decreased amniotic fluid, including preterm, premature rupture of membranes, and genitourinary anomalies. The ability to predict severe pulmonary hypoplasia prenatally aids in family counseling, as well as obstetric and neonatal management...
March 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324003/biliary-anomalies-in-patients-with-hnf1b-diabetes
#4
Jarno Lt Kettunen, Helka Parviainen, Päivi J Miettinen, Martti Färkkilä, Marjo Tamminen, Pia Salonen, Eila Lantto, Tiinamaija Tuomi
Context: The clinical spectrum of organogenetic anomalies associated with HNF1B mutations is heterogeneous. Besides cystic kidney disease, diabetes, and various other manifestations, odd cases of mainly neonatal and post-transplant cholestasis have been described. The biliary phenotype is incompletely defined. Objective: To systematically characterize HNF1B-related anomalies in the bile ducts by imaging with MRI or MRCP. Setting and Patients: Fourteen patients with HNF1B mutations in the catchment area of the Helsinki University hospital were evaluated with upper abdominal MRI and MRCP...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318741/neonatal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-without-sedation-correlates-with-injury-severity-in-brachial-plexus-birth-palsy
#5
Andrea S Bauer, Peter Y Shen, Anna E Nidecker, Paul S Lee, Michelle A James
PURPOSE: Which infants with brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) should undergo microsurgical plexus reconstruction remains controversial. The current gold standard for the decision for plexus reconstruction is serial clinical examinations, but this approach obviates the possibility of early surgical treatment. We hypothesize that a new technique using 3-dimensional volumetric proton density magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without sedation can evaluate the severity of BPBP injury earlier than serial clinical examinations...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314224/image-guided-system-endoscopic-drainage-of-orbital-abscess-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-an-infant
#6
Tan Chai-Lee, Sanjeevan Nadarajah, Baharudin Abdullah, Irfan Mohamad, Thevagi Maruthamuthu, Chandran Nadarajan, Talib Norain, Ismail Shatriah
INTRODUCTION: The management of orbital abscesses in neonates and infants is very challenging. Surgical drainage of the abscess is aimed at removing the pus and preventing blindness. We describe a case of orbital abscess in an infant that was caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and that was successfully drained with image-guided endoscopic surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 39-day-old infant presented with progressive right maxillary swelling complicated by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus orbital abscess...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304105/ultrasound-elastography-of-the-neonatal-brain-preliminary-study
#7
Hyun Gi Kim, Moon Sung Park, Jung-Dong Lee, Seon Young Park
OBJECTIVES: To determine the ultrasound elasticity of the brain in neonates METHODS: Strain elastography was performed in 21 healthy neonates (mean gestational age [GA], 34 weeks; range, 28-40 weeks). Elastographic scores were assigned to the following structures on a 5-point color scale (1-5): ventricle, periventricular white matter, caudate, subcortical, cortical gray matter, and subdural space. Three elastographic images were evaluated in each patient, and median elastographic scores were calculated...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302746/current-interventional-and-surgical-management-of-congenital-heart-disease-specific-focus-on-valvular-disease-and-cardiac-arrhythmias
#8
Kimberly A Holst, Sameh M Said, Timothy J Nelson, Bryan C Cannon, Joseph A Dearani
Successful outcome in the care of patients with congenital heart disease depends on a comprehensive multidisciplinary team. Surgery is offered for almost every heart defect, despite complexity. Early mortality for cardiac surgery in the neonatal period is ≈10% and beyond infancy is <5%, with 90% to 95% of patients surviving with a good quality of life into the adult years. Advances in imaging have facilitated accurate diagnosis and planning of interventions and surgical procedures. Similarly, advances in the perioperative medical management of patients, particularly with intensive care, has also contributed to improving outcomes...
March 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301882/infantile-hemangioma-of-the-posterior-fossa-in-a-newborn-early-management-and-long-term-follow-up
#9
Elsa Haine, Annick Sevely, Sergio Boetto, Marie-Bernadette Delisle, Claude Cances
A 21-day-old male infant was admitted with signs of intracranial hypertension. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a voluminous mass in the posterior fossa with an intense peripheral enhancement on T1 images with gadolinium. The child was treated secondarily by surgical decompression of the posterior fossa and the lesion was biopsied. The pathological findings indicated infantile hemangioma. Treatment with oral prednisolone was initiated at 3 months, given the lack of tumor involution. Six months after corticotherapy was stopped, repeated MRIs indicated a significant reduction in tumor size and then complete disappearance...
March 16, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300820/children-born-at-32-to-35-weeks-with-birth-asphyxia-and-later-cerebral-palsy-are-different-from-those-born-after-35-weeks
#10
J Garfinkle, P Wintermark, M I Shevell, M Oskoui
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to (1) establish the proportion of cerebral palsy (CP) that occurs with a history suggestive of birth asphyxia in children born at 32 to 35 weeks and (2) evaluate their characteristics in comparison with children with CP born at ⩾36 weeks with such a history. STUDY DESIGN: Using the Canadian CP Registry, children born at 32 to 35 weeks of gestation with CP with a history suggestive of birth asphyxia were compared with corresponding ⩾36 weeks of gestation children...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296740/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-communicating-bronchopulmonary-foregut-malformation-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Hongxia Ren, Liqiong Duan, Baohong Zhao, Xiaoxia Wu, Hongyi Zhang, Caixia Liu
RATIONALE: Communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (CBPFM) is a rare congenital malformation involving both the digestive and respiratory systems. To our best knowledge, most cases of CBPFM reported in the literature were in infancy or adulthood and CBPFM in infantile is even rarer with a high case-fatality rate partly due to misdiagnosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: We presented 2 cases of neonatal CBPFM. A 11-hour male newborn was admitted because of moaning for 7 hours, and a 1-day male newborn was referred to us with profuse foams, choking on breast-milk feeding and facial cyanosis...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295577/higher-growth-fat-and-fat-free-masses-correlate-with-larger-cerebellar-volumes-in-preterm-infants-at-term
#12
Giulia Paviotti, Angela De Cunto, Floriana Zennaro, Giulia Boz, Laura Travan, Gabriele Cont, Jenny Bua, Sergio Demarini
AIM: Smaller cerebellar volumes in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at term have been related to adverse cognitive outcomes and this study evaluated whether these volumes were associated with a growth in body composition during hospital stays. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 42 VLBW infants from an Italian neonatal unit between January 2013 and August 2015. Cerebellar volumes and body composition were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and air-displacement plethysmography, respectively, at 40 weeks of gestational age and anthropometric and nutritional data were collected...
March 12, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295039/deciphering-the-mechanism-of-q145h-sftpc-mutation-unmasks-a-splicing-defect-and-explains-the-severity-of-the-phenotype
#13
Céline Delestrain, Stéphanie Simon, Abdel Aissat, Rachel Medina, Xavier Decrouy, Elodie Nattes, Agathe Tarze, Bruno Costes, Pascale Fanen, Ralph Epaud
Mutations in the gene encoding surfactant protein C (SFTPC) have led to a broad range of phenotypes from neonatal respiratory distress syndrome to adult interstitial lung disease. We previously identified the c.435G>C variant in the SFTPC gene associated with fatal neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in an infant girl. Although this variation is predicted to change glutamine (Q) at position 145 to histidine (H), its position at the last base of exon 4 and the severity of the phenotype suggested that it might also induce a splicing defect...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291024/pavlik-harness-treatment-for-pathological-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip-meeting-the-standard
#14
Qaisar Choudry, Robin W Paton
In the UK, the Pavlik harness is generally the accepted treatment technique for the treatment of neonatal and infant pathological developmental dysplasia of the hip. In 2013, the success rate of the Pavlik harness became an outcome measure from the British Society of Children's Orthopaedic Surgery for appraisal and revalidation with the GMC for paediatric orthopaedic surgery. The standard set requires an 80% success rate, with less than 20% requiring surgery. This study evaluated the outcomes of Pavlik harness treatment in neonates/infants with 'pathological hips' diagnosed by ultrasound imaging in a district general hospital setting...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285896/perinatal-changes-in-fetal-ventricular-geometry-myocardial-performance-and-cardiac-function-in-normal-term-pregnancies
#15
Olga Patey, Michael A Gatzoulis, Basky Thilaganathan, Julene S Carvalho
BACKGROUND: The fetal heart at term is exposed to an increase in hemodynamic work as a consequence of fetal growth, increased circulating volume, and alteration in loading patterns due to maturational changes in fetoplacental circulation. The extent to which these cardiovascular changes influence human fetal and neonatal cardiac adaptation has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate perinatal cardiovascular changes in ventricular geometry and myocardial performance in normal term fetuses...
March 9, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277490/erythropoietin-monotherapy-in-perinatal-asphyxia-with-moderate-to-severe-encephalopathy-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
R R Malla, R Asimi, M A Teli, F Shaheen, M A Bhat
OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (EPO) is neuroprotective after asphyxia in animal studies. The efficacy and safety of EPO monotherapy in term neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is uncertain. STUDY DESIGN: Hundred term neonates with moderate or severe HIE were randomized by random permuted block algorithm to receive either EPO 500 U kg(-1) per dose in 2 ml saline intravenously (50 neonates) on alternate days for a total of five doses with the first dose given by 6 h of age (treatment group) or 2 ml of normal saline (50 neonates) similarly for a total of five doses (placebo group) in a double-blind study...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275563/neonatal-cranial-sonography-ultrasound-findings-in-neonatal-meningitis-a-pictorial-review
#17
REVIEW
Nishant Gupta, Hemal Grover, Itisha Bansal, Kusum Hooda, Joshua M Sapire, Rama Anand, Yogesh Kumar
Neonatal bacterial meningitis is a common manifestation of late onset neonatal sepsis. Cranial sonography (CRS) has a crucial role in assessment of infants with clinical suspicion of bacterial meningitis as well as follows up of its complications. CRS is performed with high frequency transducer through anterior fontanelle in both coronal and sagittal planes. Various sonographic findings range from echogenic and widened sulci, ventriculomegaly, ventriculitis, hydrocephalus, extra-axial fluid collections, cerebritis and brain abscess...
February 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273662/dedifferentiated-fat-cells-as-a-novel-source-for-cell-therapy-to-target-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#18
Alkisti Mikrogeorgiou, Yoshiaki Sato, Taiki Kondo, Tetsuo Hattori, Yuichiro Sugiyama, Miharu Ito, Akiko Saito, Keiko Nakanishi, Masahiro Tsuji, Tomohiko Kazama, Koichiro Kano, Taro Matsumoto, Masahiro Hayakawa
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE) remains a major cause of mortality and persistent neurological disabilities in affected individuals. At present, hypothermia is considered to be the only applicable treatment option, although growing evidence suggests that cell-based therapy might achieve better outcomes. Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells are derived from mature adipocytes via a dedifferentiation strategy called ceiling culture. Their abundance and ready availability might make them an ideal therapeutic tool for the treatment of HIE...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270749/identifying-candidate-genes-that-underlie-cellular-ph-sensitivity-in-serotonin-neurons-using-transcriptomics-a-potential-role-for-kir5-1-channels
#19
Madeleine M Puissant, Gary C Mouradian, Pengyuan Liu, Matthew R Hodges
Ventilation is continuously adjusted by a neural network to maintain blood gases and pH. Acute CO2 and/or pH regulation requires neural feedback from brainstem cells that encode CO2/pH to modulate ventilation, including but not limited to brainstem serotonin (5-HT) neurons. Brainstem 5-HT neurons modulate ventilation and are stimulated by hypercapnic acidosis, the sensitivity of which increases with increasing postnatal age. The proper function of brainstem 5-HT neurons, particularly during post-natal development is critical given that multiple abnormalities in the 5-HT system have been identified in victims of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268807/3d-limb-movement-tracking-and-analysis-for-neurological-dysfunctions-of-neonates-using-multi-camera-videos
#20
Irene Yu-Hua Gu, Grzegorz Sowulewski, Yixiao Yun, Anders Flisberg, Magnus Thordstein
Central nervous system dysfunction in infants may be manifested through inconsistent, rigid and abnormal limb movements. Detection of limb movement anomalies associated with such neurological dysfunctions in infants is the first step towards early treatment for improving infant development. This paper addresses the issue of detecting and quantifying limb movement anomalies in infants through non-invasive 3D image analysis methods using videos from multiple camera views. We propose a novel scheme for tracking 3D time trajectories of markers on infant's limbs by video analysis techniques...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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