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Neonatal imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679679/activation-of-cyclic-gmp-dependent-protein-kinase-blocks-alcohol-mediated-cell-death-and-calcium-disruption-in-cerebellar-granule-neurons
#1
Dimitrios E Kouzoukas, Ramesh C Bhalla, Nicholas J Pantazis
Alcohol during brain development leads to the widespread neuronal death observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In comparison, the mature brain is less vulnerable to alcohol. Studies into maturation-acquired alcohol resistance uncovered a protective mechanism that reduces alcohol-induced neuronal death through nitric oxide-cGMP-cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (NO-cGMP-cGK) signaling. However, the downstream processes underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Alcohol can disrupt levels of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) in vulnerable neuronal populations to trigger cell death in both in vivo and in vitro models of FASD...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675642/dutch-guideline-for-clinical-foetal-neonatal-and-paediatric-post-mortem-radiology-including-a-review-of-literature
#2
REVIEW
L J P Sonnemans, M E M Vester, E E M Kolsteren, J J H M Erwich, P G J Nikkels, P A M Kint, R R van Rijn, W M Klein
Clinical post-mortem radiology is a relatively new field of expertise and not common practice in most hospitals yet. With the declining numbers of autopsies and increasing demand for quality control of clinical care, post-mortem radiology can offer a solution, or at least be complementary. A working group consisting of radiologists, pathologists and other clinical medical specialists reviewed and evaluated the literature on the diagnostic value of post-mortem conventional radiography (CR), ultrasonography, computed tomography (PMCT), magnetic resonance imaging (PMMRI), and minimally invasive autopsy (MIA)...
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675080/mycotic-cerebral-aneurysm-in-a-premature-infant
#3
John T Meadows, Don Hayes, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Willem Guillermo Calderon-Miranda
Mycotic cerebral aneurysms in neonates are extremely rare and can be difficult to diagnose without a high index of suspicion. We describe a 33-week gestation preterm neonate who developed a mycotic cerebral aneurysm leading to death before repair could be performed. We believe this to be the first literature reported case of a mycotic cerebral aneurysm in a preterm infant. This case revives the ongoing question of when to perform a lumbar puncture in a potentially septic or meningitic infant, while also casting light on maintaining a high index of suspicion for rare intracranial diagnoses that require cranial imaging...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670871/echocardiographic-evaluation-of-ventricular-function-for-the-neonatologist-and-pediatric-intensivist
#4
REVIEW
Cécile Tissot, Yogen Singh, Nicole Sekarski
In the neonatal and pediatric intensive care setting, bedside cardiac ultrasound is often used to assess ventricular dimensions and function. Depending upon the underlying disease process, it is necessary to be able to evaluate the systolic and diastolic function of left and or right ventricles. The systolic function of left ventricle is mostly assessed qualitatively on visual inspection "eye-balling" and quantitatively by measuring circumferential fraction shortening or calculating the ejection fraction by Simpson's planimetry...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669335/antenatal-corticosteroid-exposure-disrupts-myelination-in-the-auditory-nerve-of-preterm-sheep
#5
Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Jennifer Rodger, Alan H Jobe, Suhas G Kallapur, Dorota A Doherty, Boris W Kramer, Matthew S Payne, Michael Archer, Christian Rittenschober, John P Newnham, Yuichiro Miura, Angelika Berger, Stephen G Matthews, Matthew W Kemp
BACKGROUND: Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) improve preterm neonatal outcomes. However, uncertainty remains regarding the safety of ACS exposure for the developing fetus, particularly its neurosensory development. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of single and multiple ACS exposures on auditory nerve development in an ovine model of pregnancy. METHODS: Ewes with a single fetus (gestational age [GA] 100 days) received an intramuscular injection of 150 mg medroxyprogesterone-acetate, followed by intramuscular (i) betamethasone (0...
April 17, 2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664051/predictive-value-of-cranial-ultrasound-for-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-very-preterm-infants-with-brain-injury
#6
Xue-Hua Zhang, Shi-Jun Qiu, Wen-Juan Chen, Xi-Rong Gao, Ya Li, Jing Cao, Jing-Jing Zhang
Background: Compared with full-term infants, very preterm infants are more vulnerable to injury and long-term disability and are at high risk of death. The predictive value of ultrasound and imaging on the neurodevelopment is one of the hot topics. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cranial ultrasound (cUS) variables and neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm infants. Methods: Totally 129 very preterm infants (gestational age ≤28 weeks) in neonatal intensive care unit of Hunan Children's Hospital between January 2012 and November 2014 were included in this retrospective study...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649938/preoperative-physiology-imaging-and-management-of-interrupted-aortic-arch
#7
Kevin Friedman
Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare form of critical neonatal heart disease in which there is lack of continuity between the ascending aorta and the descending thoracic aorta. In the absence of prenatal diagnosis, patients with IAA present in shock when the patent ductus arteriosus closes. Diagnosis can generally be made by echocardiography, and initiation of prostaglandin E1 infusion allows for adequate lower body perfusion prior to surgical repair. Full neonatal repair can be achieved with good outcomes in most cases...
April 1, 2018: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649559/ultrafast-doppler-for-neonatal-brain-imaging
#8
REVIEW
Charlie Demene, Jérôme Mairesse, Jérôme Baranger, Mickael Tanter, Olivier Baud
The emergence of functional neuroimaging has dramatically accelerated our understanding of the human mind. The advent of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging paved the way for the next decades' major discoveries in neuroscience and today remains the "gold standard" for deep brain imaging. Recent improvements in imaging technology have been somewhat limited to incremental innovations of mature techniques instead of breakthroughs. Recently, the use of ultrasonic plane waves transmitted at ultrafast frame rates was shown to highly increase Doppler ultrasound sensitivity to blood flows in small vessels in rodents...
April 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644040/a-rare-case-of-a-lingual-mass-in-a-neonate
#9
Laura Leach, Nico Jonas
A large lingual cyst was noted on the 22-week antenatal ultrasound, which grew in proportion to the foetus on serial imaging. An elective c-section was performed in view of possible airway obstruction, and the neonate initially required oxygen to maintain saturations. Aged 1 month, the baby developed significant breastfeeding difficulties secondary to rapid cyst and secondary tongue enlargement, completely filling the oral cavity. Fifteen millilitres of fluid were aspirated in clinic, resulting in reduction of tongue size and immediate improvement in feeding...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627398/anatomical-investigations-on-intraosseous-access-in-stillborns-comparison-of-different-devices-and-techniques
#10
Zeynep Fuchs, Martin Scaal, Heinz Haverkamp, Friederike Koerber, Thorsten Persigehl, Frank Eifinger
AIM: Intraosseous (IO)-access plays an alternative route during resuscitation. Our study was performed to investigate the successful rate of IO-access in preterm and term stillborns using different devices and techniques. METHODS: The cadavers used were legal donations. 16 stillborns, median: 29.2weeks (IQR 27.2-38.4) were investigated. Two different needles (a: Butterfly needle,21G,Venofix® Fa.Braun; b: Arrow® EZ-IO® 15G, Teleflex,Dublin,Ireland) were used. Needles were inserted i: manually, using a Butterfly needle; ii: manually, using EZ-IO® needle or iii: using a battery-powered semi-automatic drill (Arrow® EZ-IO® )...
April 5, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625846/maturational-changes-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-a-receptors-measured-with-benzodiazepine-binding-of-iodine-123-iomazenil-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography
#11
Satoru Ikemoto, Shin-Ichiro Hamano, Yuko Hirata, Ryuki Matsuura, Kenjiro Kikuchi
BACKGROUND: Iodine 123 (I-123) iomazenil is a specific ligand of the central benzodiazepine receptor, which is a part of the postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor complex. We performed statistical image processing of I-123 iomazenil single-photon emission computed tomography to elucidate maturational changes in the GABAergic system. METHODS: Thirty patients (18 boys and 12 girls, aged 17 days to 14 years) with cryptogenic focal epilepsy were enrolled and underwent I-123 iomazenil single-photon emission computed tomography...
April 3, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622558/characteristic-mr-imaging-findings-of-the-neonatal-brain-in-rasopathies
#12
M N Cizmeci, M Lequin, K D Lichtenbelt, D Chitayat, P Kannu, A G James, F Groenendaal, E Chakkarapani, S Blaser, L S de Vries
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuroimaging features in neonates with RASopathies are rarely reported, and to date, there are no neuroimaging studies conducted in this population. Our aim was to investigate the occurrence of supratentorial and posterior fossa abnormalities on brain MRIs of neonates with a RASopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational case-control study of neonates with a confirmed RASopathy was conducted. The presence of an intraventricular and/or parenchymal hemorrhage and punctate white matter lesions and assessments of the splenium of the corpus callosum, gyrification of the cortical gray matter, and enlargement of the extracerebral space were noted...
April 5, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622488/cerebral-autoregulation-and-conventional-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#13
Melisa Carrasco, Jamie Perin, Jacky M Jennings, Charlamaine Parkinson, Maureen M Gilmore, Raul Chavez-Valdez, An N Massaro, Raymond C Koehler, Frances J Northington, Aylin Tekes, Jennifer K Lee
BACKGROUND: Deviation of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) from the range that optimizes cerebral autoregulatory vasoreactivity (optimal MAP) could increase neurological injury from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We tested whether a global magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain injury score and regional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are associated with optimal MAP in neonates with HIE. METHODS: Twenty-five neonates cooled for HIE were monitored with the hemoglobin volume index...
April 2, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622396/the-distended-fetal-hypopharynx-a-sensitive-and-novel-sign-for-the-prenatal-diagnosis-of-esophageal-atresia
#14
Sarah Tracy, Terry L Buchmiller, Offir Ben-Ishay, Carol E Barnewolt, Susan A Connolly, David Zurakowski, Andrew Phelps, Judy A Estroff
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Although advances have been made in the prenatal diagnosis of esophageal atresia (EA), most neonates are not identified until after birth. The distended hypopharynx (DHP) has been suggested as a novel prenatal sign for EA. We assess its diagnostic accuracy and predictive value on ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both alone and in combination with the esophageal pouch (EP) and secondary signs of EA (polyhydramnios and a small or absent fetal stomach)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621387/diagnostic-accuracy-of-ophthalmoscopy-vs-telemedicine-in-examinations-for-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#15
Hilal Biten, Travis K Redd, Chace Moleta, J Peter Campbell, Susan Ostmo, Karyn Jonas, R V Paul Chan, Michael F Chiang
Importance: Examinations for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are typically performed using binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy. Telemedicine studies have traditionally assessed the accuracy of telemedicine compared with ophthalmoscopy as a criterion standard. However, it is not known whether ophthalmoscopy is truly more accurate than telemedicine. Objective: To directly compare the accuracy and sensitivity of ophthalmoscopy vs telemedicine in diagnosing ROP using a consensus reference standard...
April 5, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621379/fluorescein-angiographic-characteristics-of-macular-edema-during-infancy
#16
Xi Chen, Shwetha Mangalesh, Du Tran-Viet, Sharon F Freedman, Lejla Vajzovic, Cynthia A Toth
Importance: Macular edema during infancy, a subclinical feature identified in premature infants by handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), has been associated with poorer visual acuity and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Features of macular edema on fluorescein angiography (FA) are needed to understand its pathophysiology, but to date have not been reported previously. Objective: To investigate the FA features of macular edema during infancy...
April 5, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615927/hemodynamic-and-metabolic-assessment-of-neonates-with-punctate-white-matter-lesions-using-phase-contrast-mri-and-t2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging-trust-mri
#17
Ying Qi, Peiying Liu, Zixuan Lin, Hanzhang Lu, Xiaoming Wang
The brain's hemodynamic and metabolism of punctate white matter lesions (PWML) is poorly understood due to a scarcity of non-invasive imaging techniques. The aim of this study was to apply new MRI techniques to quantify cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 ), global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen saturation fractions in venous blood (Yv) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in neonates with PWML, for better understanding of the pathophysiology of PWML. Fifty-one newborns were recruited continuously, including 23 neonatal patients with PWML and 28 normal control neonates...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614703/potential-risk-of-clonally-expanded-amnion-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplants-in-contused-spinal-cords
#18
Sankar Venkatachalam, Sridharan Neelamegan, Tetsuhito Okuda, Akiva Marcus, Dale Woodbury, Martin Grumet
OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) promote recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) using adult bone marrow MSC (BM-MSC). Newborn tissues are a convenient source of MSC that does not involve an invasive procedure for cell collection. In this study the authors tested the effects of rat amnion MSC clone (rAM-MSC) in SCI. METHODS: We tested intra-parenchymal injection of a GFP+ rat rAM-MSC clone derived from E18.5 rats in rat SCI and measured behavioral recovery (BBB scores), histology and X-ray opacity...
March 25, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613844/normal-cerebellar-growth-by-using-three-dimensional-us-in-the-preterm-infant-from-birth-to-term-corrected-age
#19
Isabel Benavente-Fernández, Enrique Rodríguez-Zafra, Jesús León-Martínez, Gema Jiménez-Gómez, Estefanía Ruiz-González, Rosalía Campuzano Fernández-Colina, Alfonso M Lechuga-Sancho, Simón P Lubián-López
Purpose To establish cross-sectional and longitudinal reference values for cerebellar size in preterm infants with normal neuroimaging findings and normal 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome by using cranial ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods This prospective study consecutively enrolled preterm infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit from June 2011 to June 2014 with a birth weight of less than or equal to 1500 g and/or gestational age (GA) of less than or equal to 32 weeks. They underwent weekly cranial US from birth to term-equivalent age and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at term-equivalent age...
April 3, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610829/association-of-histologic-chorioamnionitis-with-perinatal-brain-injury-and-early-childhood-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-among-preterm-neonates
#20
Daniel Bierstone, Nienke Wagenaar, Dawn L Gano, Ting Guo, Gregory Georgio, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Jojy Varghese, Hannah C Glass, Catherine Chung, Jefferson Terry, Maarten Rijpert, Ruth E Grunau, Anne Synnes, A James Barkovich, Donna M Ferriero, Manon Benders, Vann Chau, Steven P Miller
Importance: Understanding the role of chorioamnionitis, a major factor leading to preterm birth, in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes may help in identifying potentially modifiable perinatal variables affecting brain health and outcomes among children born preterm. Objective: To evaluate whether histologic chorioamnionitis among neonates born very preterm is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and punctate white matter injury (WMI) or with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes during early childhood...
April 2, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
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