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Neonatal imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430713/a-national-survey-of-neonatologists-barriers-and-prerequisites-to-introduce-point-of-care-ultrasound-in-neonatal-icus
#1
Hussnain S Mirza, Gregory Logsdon, Anoop Pulickal, Mark Stephens, Rajan Wadhawan
Point-of-care (POC) ultrasound refers to the use of portable imaging. Although POC ultrasound is widely available to the neonatologists in Australia and Europe, neonatologists in the United States report limited availability. Our objective was to seek the US neonatologists' perception of barriers and prerequisites in adopting POC ultrasound in neonatal intensive care units. An online survey link was sent via e-mail to 3000 neonatologists included in the database maintained by the American Academy of Pediatrics...
April 20, 2017: Ultrasound Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424763/airway-problems-in-neonates-a-review-of-the-current-investigation-and-management-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Quen Mok
Airway problems in the neonatal population are often life threatening and raise challenging issues in diagnosis and management. The airway problems can result from congenital or acquired lesions and can be broadly classified into those causing obstruction or those due to an abnormal "communication" in the airway. Many different investigations are now available to identify the diagnosis and quantify the severity of the problem, and these tests can be simple or invasive. Bronchography and bronchoscopy are essential to determine the extent and severity of the airway problem and to plan treatment strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424010/olfactory-development-part-1-function-from-fetal-perception-to-adult-wine-tasting
#3
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat, Xing-Chang Wei
Discrimination of odorous molecules in amniotic fluid occur after 30 weeks' gestation; fetuses exhibit differential responses to maternal diet. Olfactory reflexes enable reliable neonatal testing. Olfactory bulbs can be demonstrated reliably by MRI after 30 weeks' gestation, and their hypoplasia or aplasia also documented by late prenatal and postnatal MRI. Olfactory axons project from nasal epithelium to telencephalon before olfactory bulbs form. Fetal olfactory maturation remains incomplete at term for neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and persistence of the transitory fetal ventricular recess...
May 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422948/beyond-the-uterine-environment-nonhuman-primate-model-to-investigate-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes-following-chronic-intrauterine-infection
#4
Meredith A Kelleher, Zheng Liu, Xiaojie Wang, Christopher D Kroenke, Lisa A Houser, Brandy L Dozier, Lauren D Martin, Ken B Waites, Cindy McEvoy, Robert L Schelonka, Peta L Grigsby
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine infection is a significant cause of early preterm birth. We have developed a fetal-neonatal model in the rhesus macaque to determine the impact of chronic intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma parvum on early neonatal reflexes and brain development. METHODS: Time-mated, pregnant rhesus macaques were randomized to be inoculated with U. parvum (serovar 1; 10(5)cfu) or control media at ~120 dGA. Neonates were delivered by elective hysterotomy at 135-147 dGA (term=167d) stabilized and cared for in our nonhuman primate neonatal intensive care unit...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419634/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-and-elastography-imaging-of-the-neonatal-brain-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Christopher Bailey, Thierry A G M Huisman, Robert M de Jong, Misun Hwang
Neonates presenting with neurologic symptoms require rapid, noninvasive imaging with high spatial resolution and tissue contrast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the most sensitive and specific imaging modality for evaluation of neurological pathology. This modality does come with several challenges in the neonatal population, namely, the need to transport a possibly critically sick neonate to the MRI suite and the necessity of the neonate to remain still for a significant length of time, occasionally requiring sedation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417514/enlarged-cavum-septi-pellucidi-and-vergae-in-the-fetus-a-cause-for-concern
#6
Yoona K Ho, Michelle Turley, Krishelle L Marc-Aurele, Marilyn C Jones, Elise Housman, Dawn Engelkemier, Lorene E Romine, Paritosh C Khanna, Dolores H Pretorius
OBJECTIVES: To investigate fetal cases identified at our institution to determine whether an enlarged cavum septi pellucidi or cavum vergae is associated with other fetal abnormalities and whether its presence warrants more detailed investigation of the fetus. METHODS: In a retrospective study, 15 high- and low-risk patients undergoing prenatal sonography who had an enlarged cavum septi pellucidi or cavum vergae identified were reviewed. Data were collected for the sonographic study indication, gestation age at diagnosis of a prominent cavum, and associated anomalies...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417474/first-trimester-sonographic-evaluation-of-palatine-clefts-a-novel-diagnostic-approach
#7
Selvaraj Ravi Lakshmy, Selvaraj Deepa, Nity Rose, Senthilkumar Mookan, Joy Agnees
OBJECTIVES: Sonographic evaluation of the palate is a difficult task, and most palatine clefts are diagnosed in the neonatal period because of the limitations of 2-dimensional (2D) sonography. The objective is to describe a sonographic technique based on 2D markers for screening of palatine clefts during the nuchal translucency scan and to assess the ability of 3-dimensional (3D) sonography in imaging the normal and abnormal palate. METHODS: A total of 2014 women who enrolled for first-trimester screening were included in this prospective study...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417039/a-true-human-tail-in-a-neonate-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Mahesh K Pillai, Smitha T Nair
A true human tail is a benign vestigial caudal cutaneous structure composed of adipose, connective tissue, muscle, vessels, nerves and mechanoreceptors. A true human tail can be distinguished from a pseudotail as the latter is commonly associated with underlying spinal dysraphism, which requires specialised management. True human tails are very rare, with fewer than 40 cases reported to date. We report a healthy one-day-old male newborn who was referred to the Bharath Hospital, Kottayam, Kerala, India, in 2014 with a cutaneous appendage arising from the lumbosacral region...
February 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410946/right-atrial-dysfunction-in-the-fetus-with-severely-regurgitant-tricuspid-valve-disease-a-potential-source-of-cardiovascular-compromise
#9
Lisa W Howley, Nee Scze Khoo, Anita J Moon-Grady, Sonali S Patel, Fayeza Alrais, Wayne Tworetzky, Timothy Colen, Paul Brooks, Jean Trines, Tiina Ojala, Lisa K Hornberger
BACKGROUND: In severe right heart obstruction (RHO), redistribution of cardiac output to the left ventricle (LV) is well tolerated by the fetal circulation. Although the same should be true of severely regurgitant tricuspid valve disease (rTVD) with reduced or no output from the right ventricle, affected fetuses more frequently develop hydrops or suffer intrauterine demise. We hypothesized that right atrium (RA) function is altered in rTVD but not in RHO, which could contribute to differences in outcomes...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409761/the-question-of-whether-or-not-to-perform-therapeutic-hypothermia-a-case-of-neonatal-spinal-cord-injury
#10
K Yokoi, S Kobayashi, K Muramatsu, S Suzuki, H Gotou
Neonatal spinal cord injury is an extremely rare perinatal complication that often occurs concurrently with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), further complicating diagnosis of spinal cord injury. Although therapeutic hypothermia for moderate to severe HIE is widely recommended in Japan, it is difficult to determine whether it satisfies the neurological findings-related entry criteria in some patients.We describe a female infant with neonatal spinal cord injury after forceps delivery, who underwent therapeutic hypothermia upon diagnosis of HIE...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408336/hospital-acquired-urinary-tract-infections-in-neonatal-icu-patients-is-voiding-cystourethrogram-necessary
#11
Aeen M Asghar, Traci Leong, Christopher S Cooper, Angela M Arlen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the radiographic findings of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients diagnosed with hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: Children with no preexisting genitourinary anomalies undergoing a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for culture-documented urinary tract infection (UTI) during NICU admission were identified. Demographics, microbiology results and imaging findings were evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-seven NICU patients underwent VCUG during the study period...
April 10, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407270/comparison-of-diagnostic-accuracy-for-the-low-type-imperforate-anus-between-prone-cross-table-radiography-and-sonography
#12
Takahiro Hosokawa, Mayumi Hosokawa, Yutaka Tanami, Shinya Hattori, Yumiko Sato, Yujiro Tanaka, Hiroshi Kawashima, Eiji Oguma, Yoshitake Yamada
OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic accuracy for the low-type imperforate anus between prone cross-table radiography and sonography. METHODS: We included 20 neonates with imperforate anus: 13 with a surgically proven low type and 7 with an intermediate or high type. The distance between the distal rectal pouch and the perineum (pouch-perineum distance) was measured by both sonography and prone cross-table radiography. A previously established pouch-perineum distance of 10 mm was used as the cutoff for diagnosis of a low-type imperforate anus...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406562/development-of-pelvic-sexual-dimorphism-in-hylobatids-testing-the-obstetric-constraints-hypothesis
#13
Christoph P E Zollikofer, Marc Scherrer, Marcia S Ponce de León
Pelvic sexual dimorphism in primates is typically seen as the result of female-specific adaptations to obstetric constraints, which arise from the tight fit between the neonate head and the maternal pelvis. However, it remains debated to which extent pelvic dimorphism is a correlate of obstetric constraints, of body size dimorphism, and/or of other factors. Also, little is known on how pelvic dimorphism develops. Here we use methods of biomedical imaging and geometric morphometrics to address these questions in two hylobatid species, Hylobates lar and Symphalangus syndactylus...
May 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397227/-prenatal-diagnosis-and-follow-up-of-a-case-with-lowe-syndrome-caused-by-interstitial-deletion-of-xq25-26
#14
Xiangyu Zhu, Jie Li, Tong Ru, Ruifang Zhu, Chenyan Dai, Wanjun Wang, Yali Hu
OBJECTIVE: To report on a sporadic case of Lowe syndrome diagnosed prenatally with ultrasound examination and genetic testing. METHODS: Detailed sonographic fetal screening was performed by an experienced sonographer at 32 weeks of gestation. Fetal cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied to detect potential brain abnormality. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was conducted on amniotic fluid sample from the fetus and peripheral blood sample from the mother...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396109/association-of-unilateral-renal-agenesis-with-adverse-outcomes-in-pregnancy-a-matched-cohort-study
#15
Jessica Kendrick, John Holmen, Zhiying You, Gerard Smits, Michel Chonchol
BACKGROUND: Data regarding the effect of a solitary kidney during pregnancy have come from studies of living kidney donors. We evaluated the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a single kidney from renal agenesis. STUDY DESIGN: Matched cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Using data from 7,079 childbirths from an integrated health care delivery system from 1996 through 2015, we identified births from women with renal agenesis...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394816/brain-mri-findings-in-pediatric-patients-post-ecmo
#16
Venessa L Pinto, Sumit Pruthi, Ashly C Westrick, Chevis N Shannon, Brian C Bridges, Truc M Le
Neurologic complications can occur with ECMO due to several factors. Prior studies identified neonates as having unique risk factors and neuro-imaging findings post-ECMO. The aim of this study is to describe brain MRI findings of pediatric patients treated with ECMO. We conducted a retrospective study of non-neonatal pediatric patients who underwent a comprehensive brain MRI after ECMO, between January 2000 and July 2015. We identified 47 pediatric patients in the study cohort with a median age of 8 months (IQR 3-170mo) and a median ECMO run duration of 7...
April 6, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393486/paediatric-lumbar-punctures-how-do-paediatric-and-emergency-doctors-differ
#17
Chee Cheen Yeong, Simon S Craig, John A Cheek
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to identify any differences between emergency physicians and emergency trainees and paediatricians and paediatric trainees in performing paediatric lumbar punctures (LPs). METHODS: Anonymous cross-sectional electronic survey was distributed to emergency physicians, emergency trainees, paediatricians and paediatric trainees within three hospitals of a single public health network. There were four standardised clinical scenarios (neonate, infant, young child and adolescent), with accompanying questions relating to neurological evaluation and imaging prior to LP, the use of written consent forms and parental presence during the procedure...
April 9, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391250/confirmation-of-mutations-in-prosc-as-a-novel-cause-of-vitamin-b6-dependent-epilepsy
#18
Barbara Plecko, Markus Zweier, Anaïs Begemann, Deborah Mathis, Bernhard Schmitt, Pasquale Striano, Martina Baethmann, Stella Maria Vari, Francesca Beccaria, Federico Zara, Lisa M Crowther, Pascal Joset, Heinrich Sticht, Sorina Mihaela Papuc, Anita Rauch
Vitamin-B6-dependent epilepsies are a heterogenous group of treatable disorders due to mutations in several genes (ALDH7A1, PNPO, ALPL or ALDH4A1). In neonatal seizures, defects in ALDH7A1 and PNPO explain a major fraction of cases. Very recently biallelic mutations in PROSC were shown to be a novel cause in five families. We identified four further unrelated patients harbouring a total of six different mutations, including four novel disease mutations. Vitamin B6 plasma profiles on pyridoxine did not enable the differentiation of patients with PROSC mutations...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391001/three-dimensional-mitral-valve-morphology-and-age-related-trends-children-and-young-adults-with-structurally-normal-hearts-using-transthoracic-echocardiography
#19
Matthew A Jolley, Sunil J Ghelani, Adi Adar, David M Harrild
BACKGROUND: The mitral valve has a complex three-dimensional (3D) morphology that is incompletely described by two-dimensional echocardiography (echo). Three-dimensional echo provides a more robust tool to analyze the mitral valve. The shape of the mitral annulus and leaflets, and differences with age, have not been described by 3D echo in normal children. Our objective was to characterize and quantify the 3D mitral valve morphology in children with normal transthoracic echocardiograms over a broad spectrum of age and to identify differences in valve shape with age...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387639/effect-of-intravenous-administration-of-contrast-media-on-serum-creatinine-levels-in-neonates
#20
Maria A Bedoya, Ammie M White, J Christopher Edgar, Madhura Pradhan, Elisabeth L Raab, James S Meyer
Purpose To assess the effect of intravenous contrast media on renal function in neonates. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained with waiver of consent. Electronic health records from January 2011 to April 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Measures of renal function were obtained in inpatient neonates who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging or computed tomography (CT) and for whom serum creatinine (Cr) levels were obtained within 72 hours before imaging and at least one time after imaging (>1 day after administration of contrast material)...
April 6, 2017: Radiology
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