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Cerebral cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241173/surgical-management-of-gliomas-in-eloquent-cortex
#1
Sherise D Ferguson, Ian E McCutcheon
Gliomas located in eloquent cortex impose a unique surgical obstacle. The oncological benefit of aggressive resection must be balanced with preservation of functional tissue and optimization of surgical outcome. Technical advances in preoperative functional imaging, refinement of intraoperative mapping, and conceptual understanding of cerebral plasticity have significantly improved the outcome of this patient population.
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240808/altered-cerebral-hemodyamics-and-cortical-thinning-in-asymptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis
#2
Randolph S Marshall, Iris Asllani, Marykay A Pavol, Ying-Kuen Cheung, Ronald M Lazar
Cortical thinning is a potentially important biomarker, but the pathophysiology in cerebrovascular disease is unknown. We investigated the association between regional cortical blood flow and regional cortical thickness in patients with asymptomatic unilateral high-grade internal carotid artery disease without stroke. Twenty-nine patients underwent high resolution anatomical and single-delay, pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging with partial volume correction to assess gray matter baseline flow...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239330/expression-of-ng2-and-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-in-the-developing-neonatal-rat-brain
#3
Ping Li, Heng-Xi Li, Hong-Yan Jiang, Lie Zhu, Hai-Ying Wu, Jin-Tao Li, Jiang-Hua Lai
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is a marker of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the central nervous system. NG2 is also considered a marker of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. However, whether there are differences in the distribution and morphology of oligodendrocyte precursor cells labeled by NG2 or PDGFRα in the developing neonatal rat brain remains unclear. In this study, by immunohistochemical staining, NG2 positive (NG2+) cells were ubiquitous in the molecular layer, external pyramidal layer, internal pyramidal layer, and polymorphic layer of the cerebral cortex, and corpus callosum, external capsule, piriform cortex, and medial septal nucleus...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239212/sarcoma-family-kinase-activity-is-required-for-cortical-spreading-depression
#4
Fan Bu, Yan Wang, Liwen Jiang, Dongqing Ma, John P Quinn, Minyan Wang
Objectives Sarcoma family kinase activity is associated with multiple diseases including ischemia and cancer; however, its role in the mechanism of migraine aura has been less well characterised. This study aims to investigate whether sarcoma family kinase is required for cortical spreading depression. Methods Cortical spreading depression was induced by topical application of K+ to the cerebral cortex and was monitored using electrophysiology in rats, and intrinsic optical signal in mouse brain slices. Drugs were perfused into the contralateral cerebral ventricle for pharmacological manipulations in rats...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238291/modulation-of-neocortical-development-by-early-neuronal-activity-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#5
REVIEW
Sergei Kirischuk, Anne Sinning, Oriane Blanquie, Jenq-Wei Yang, Heiko J Luhmann, Werner Kilb
Animal and human studies revealed that patterned neuronal activity is an inherent feature of developing nervous systems. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the mechanisms generating early electrical activity patterns and their impact on structural and functional development of the cerebral cortex. All neocortical areas display distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, intermittent spontaneous activity is synchronized within small neuronal networks, becoming more complex with further development...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238290/intermittent-fasting-protects-against-alzheimer-s-disease-possible-through-restoring-aquaporin-4-polarity
#6
Jingzhu Zhang, Zhipeng Zhan, Xinhui Li, Aiping Xing, Congmin Jiang, Yanqiu Chen, Wanying Shi, Li An
The impairment of amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance in the brain plays a causative role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Polarity distribution of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is important to remove Aβ from brain. AQP4 polarity can be influenced by the ratio of two AQP4 isoforms M1 and M23 (AQP4-M1/M23), however, it is unknown whether the ratio of AQP4-M1/M23 changes in AD. Histone deacetylase 3 has been reported to be significantly increased in AD brain. Moreover, evidence indicated that microRNA-130a (miR-130a) possibly mediates the regulation of histone deacetylase 3 on AQP4-M1/M23 ratio by repressing the transcriptional activity of AQP4-M1 in AD...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237482/extraction-of-amplifiable-dna-from-embalmed-human-cadaver-tissue
#7
Lindsay Gielda, Stefanie Rigg
OBJECTIVE: The expansion of molecular techniques in medical diagnosis, forensics, and education requires the development of improved techniques of DNA extraction from fixed tissues. Cadaver tissues are not commonly used for genetic analysis due to DNA degradation resulting from the embalming fixation. Modification of existing techniques of tissue disruption combined with phenol-chloroform treatment was done to produce an efficient method of extracting amplifiable DNA of high quality and quantity from non-paraffin embedded embalmed cadaver tissue...
December 13, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235509/in-vivo-metabolic-imaging-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Caroline Guglielmetti, Austin Chou, Karen Krukowski, Chloe Najac, Xi Feng, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Susanna Rosi, Myriam M Chaumeil
Complex alterations in cerebral energetic metabolism arise after traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, methods allowing for metabolic evaluation are highly invasive, limiting our understanding of metabolic impairments associated with TBI pathogenesis. We investigated whether 13C MRSI of hyperpolarized (HP) [1-13C] pyruvate, a non-invasive metabolic imaging method, could detect metabolic changes in controlled cortical injury (CCI) mice (n = 57). Our results show that HP [1-13C] lactate-to-pyruvate ratios were increased in the injured cortex at acute (12/24 hours) and sub-acute (7 days) time points after injury, in line with decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, suggesting impairment of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235507/blood-brain-glucose-transfer-in-alzheimer-s-disease-effect-of-glp-1-analog-treatment
#9
Michael Gejl, Birgitte Brock, Lærke Egefjord, Kim Vang, Jørgen Rungby, Albert Gjedde
There are fewer than normal glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). When reduced expression of transporters aggravates the symptoms of AD, the transporters become a potential target of therapy. The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) in AD, and GLP-1 may serve to raise transporter numbers. We hypothesized that the GLP-1 analog liraglutide would prevent the decline of CMRglc in AD by raising blood-brain glucose transfer, depending on the duration of disease...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234277/investigating-the-usability-and-acute-effects-of-a-bedside-video-console-to-prefrontal-cortical-activity-alterations-a-preclinical-study-in-healthy-elderly
#10
Ruud H Knols, Jaap Swanenburg, Dino De Bon, Federico Gennaro, Martin Wolf, Bernard Krüger, Dominique Bettex, Eling D de Bruin
Elderly people at risk of developing cognitive decline; e.g., following surgery, may benefit from structured, challenging, and repetitive cognitive video training. This study assessed usability and acute effects of a newly developed bedside console (COPHYCON). Fifteen healthy elderly individuals performed a one-time 80-min intervention, including cognitive video games aimed at improving awareness and selective attention. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (Technology Acceptance Model) were assessed together with measures of the achieved game level, reaction times, (in-) correct responses during ALERT and SELECT game play...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234089/impact-of-treatment-on-resting-cerebral-blood-flow-and-metabolism-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#11
A L van der Straten, D Denys, G A van Wingen
Neurobiological models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that its clinical symptoms such as repetitive thoughts and behaviors are related to hyperactivity in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit. Small scale neuroimaging studies have shown that treatment of OCD is associated with reduced activity across different brain structures within this circuitry. We performed the first meta-analysis of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies that investigated cerebral blood flow or glucose metabolism in patients with OCD before and after pharmacological or psychological treatment...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#12
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233033/influence-of-age-on-arsenic-induced-behavioral-and-cholinergic-perturbations-amelioration-with-zinc-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol
#13
M R Kumar, G R Reddy
This study was planned to determine arsenic (As) (10 mg/kg body weight given through oral gavage) induced behavioral and cholinergic perturbations in three different age groups of rats; young (postnatal day 21), adult (3 months), and aged (18 months) at 7 days post-acute exposure ( n = 6 for each of the four groups of all three age points). Further, we also evaluated the ameliorative effect of essential metal zinc (Zn; 0.02% through drinking water) and an antioxidant, α-tocopherol (vitamin E; 125 mg/kg body weight through oral gavage) against As-induced neurotoxicity...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232968/altered-cerebellar-functional-connectivity-in-remitted-bipolar-disorder-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#14
Ying Wang, Shuming Zhong, Guanmao Chen, Tao Liu, Lianping Zhao, Yao Sun, Yanbin Jia, Li Huang
OBJECTIVES: Several recent studies have reported a strong association between the cerebellar structural and functional abnormalities and psychiatric disorders. However, there are no studies to investigate possible changes in cerebellar functional connectivity in bipolar disorder. This study aimed to examine the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern of patients with remitted bipolar disorder II, in particular in the cerebellum. METHODS: A total of 25 patients with remitted bipolar disorder II and 25 controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests...
December 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232839/agarwood-essential-oil-displays-sedative-hypnotic-effects-through-the-gabaergic-system
#15
Shuai Wang, Canhong Wang, Deqian Peng, Xinmin Liu, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo, Jianhe Wei
Although agarwood has been used as a tranquilizer in Asian countries for hundreds of years, the underlying pharmacological basis is still unclear. This study investigated the sedative-hypnotic effect of agarwood essential oil (AEO) using locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleeping assays in mice. Single (1-day) and multiple (7- and 14-days) administrations of 60 mg/kg AEO generated significant sedative effect on inhibiting locomotor activity and hypnotic effect on pentobarbital-induced sleeping in mice...
December 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231507/-effect-of-acupuncture-treatment-on-gene-expression-of-neurotransmitters-of-brain-tissue-in-rats-with-post-stroke-depression
#16
Wei Xiao, Xianbao Zhang, Zhen Wang, Yan Wang, Xiaoli Guo, Ling He, Fajun Liang, Huixing Hu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of acupuncture on mRNA of the neurotransmitter serotonin transporter (5-HTT), 5-HT1Areceptor (5-HT1AR), norepinephrineα2 receptor (NEα2R) in brain tissue in rats with post-stroke depression. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a medication group and an acupuncture group, 10 rats in each one. The model of post-stroke depression was established by occlusion of middle cerebral artery and chronic unpredictable mild stress method...
June 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230982/-the-role-of-cbs-in-injury-time-estimation-after-brain-contusion
#17
Y Chu, G X Han, Y Q Wang, H Y Shan, X P Chen, L Y Tao, M Y Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To observe the changes of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) expression in the cerebral cortex after brain contusion at different times. METHODS: An experimental model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice was established by an improved weight-drop device. Then Western blotting and immunohistochemical examination were used to detect the CBS expression in cerebral cortex around injury at different time points (1 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 7 d)...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230053/stress-induced-unfolded-protein-response-contributes-to-zika-virus-associated-microcephaly
#18
Ivan Gladwyn-Ng, Lluís Cordón-Barris, Christian Alfano, Catherine Creppe, Thérèse Couderc, Giovanni Morelli, Nicolas Thelen, Michelle America, Bettina Bessières, Férechté Encha-Razavi, Maryse Bonnière, Ikuo K Suzuki, Marie Flamand, Pierre Vanderhaeghen, Marc Thiry, Marc Lecuit, Laurent Nguyen
Accumulating evidence support a causal link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during gestation and congenital microcephaly. However, the mechanism of ZIKV-associated microcephaly remains unclear. We combined analyses of ZIKV-infected human fetuses, cultured human neural stem cells and mouse embryos to understand how ZIKV induces microcephaly. We show that ZIKV triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response in the cerebral cortex of infected postmortem human fetuses as well as in cultured human neural stem cells...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229923/eml1-loss-impairs-apical-progenitor-spindle-length-and-soma-shape-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#19
Sara Bizzotto, Ana Uzquiano, Florent Dingli, Dmitry Ershov, Anne Houllier, Guillaume Arras, Mark Richards, Damarys Loew, Nicolas Minc, Alexandre Croquelois, Anne Houdusse, Fiona Francis
The ventricular zone (VZ) of the developing cerebral cortex is a pseudostratified epithelium that contains progenitors undergoing precisely regulated divisions at its most apical side, the ventricular lining (VL). Mitotic perturbations can contribute to pathological mechanisms leading to cortical malformations. The HeCo mutant mouse exhibits subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), likely to be initiated by progenitor delamination from the VZ early during corticogenesis. The causes for this are however, currently unknown...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229555/reduced-cerebrovascular-reactivity-and-increased-resting-cerebral-perfusion-in-rats-exposed-to-a-cafeteria-diet
#20
Mariana Gomez-Smith, Rafal Janik, Evelyn M Lake, Lynsie A M Thomason, Conner Adams, Matthew S Jeffers, Bojana Stefanovic, Dale Corbett
To better understand the effects of a diet high in fat, sugar, and sodium on cerebrovascular function, Sprague Dawley rats were chronically exposed to a Cafeteria diet. Resting cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity were quantified using continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, structural changes to the cerebrovasculature and susceptibility to ischemic lesion were examined. Compared to control animals fed standard chow (SD), Cafeteria diet (CAF) rats exhibited increased resting brain perfusion in the hippocampus and reduced cerebrovascular reactivity in response to 10% inspired CO2 challenges in both the hippocampus and the neocortex...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
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