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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691468/large-scale-brain-network-associated-with-creative-insight-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-analyses
#1
Takeshi Ogawa, Takatsugu Aihara, Takeaki Shimokawa, Okito Yamashita
Creative insight occurs with an "Aha!" experience when solving a difficult problem. Here, we investigated large-scale networks associated with insight problem solving. We recruited 232 healthy participants aged 21-69 years old. Participants completed a magnetic resonance imaging study (MRI; structural imaging and a 10 min resting-state functional MRI) and an insight test battery (ITB) consisting of written questionnaires (matchstick arithmetic task, remote associates test, and insight problem solving task)...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689641/inducing-different-brain-injury-levels-using-shock-wave-lithotripsy
#2
Afshin A Divani, Pascal Salazar, Manoj Monga, Greg J Beilman, Karen S SantaCruz
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of inducing different severities of shock wave (SW)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) using lithotripsy. METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 36) were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 20) received 5 SW pulses, and group 2 (n = 16) received 15 SWs pulses. The SW pulses were delivered to the right side of the frontal cortex. Neurologic and behavioral assessments (Garcia test, beam walking, rotarod, and elevated plus maze) were performed at the baseline and at 3, 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours after injury...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689406/hyperperfusion-syndrome-after-trapping-with-high-flow-bypass-for-a-giant-paraclinoid-internal-carotid-artery-aneurysm
#3
Masanao Mohri, Toshiya Ichinose, Naoyuki Uchiyama, Kouichi Misaki, Iku Nambu, Yasushi Takabatake, Mitsutoshi Nakada
BACKGROUND: Hyperperfusion syndrome associated with aneurysm surgery is rare. The occurrence of the syndrome after trapping with high-flow bypass has not been described previously. Herein, we present a case of the syndrome occurring after trapping with high-flow bypass of an unruptured giant paraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 68-year-old woman with progressive loss of vision in her left eye. After a diagnosis of a left giant ICA aneurysm, she underwent successful trapping with high-flow bypass...
April 21, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688625/the-use-of-intensity-based-doppler-variance-method-for-single-vessel-response-to-functional-neurovascular-activation
#4
Wen-Chuan Kuo, Yue-Ming Kuo, Jia-Pu Syu, Han-Lin Wang, Chi-Ming Lai, Jia-Wei Chen, Yu-Chun Lo, You-Yin Chen
This study presents one use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT) technique to examine neurovascular coupling effect. Repeated B-scans OCT recording is performed on the rat somatosensory cortex with cranial window preparation while its contra-lateral forepaw is electrically stimulated to activate the neurons in rest. We use an intensity-based Doppler variance (IBDV) algorithm mapped cerebral blood vessels in the cortex, and the temporal alteration in blood perfusion during neurovascular activation is analyzed using the proposed IBDV quantitative parameters...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687372/alterations-in-the-neurobehavioral-phenotype-and-znt3-cb-d28k-expression-in-the-cerebral-cortex-following-lithium-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-the-ameliorative-effect-of-leptin
#5
Hong Ni, Su-Hong Chen, Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin
Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3)-dependent "zincergic" vesicular zinc accounts for approximately 20% of the total zinc content of the mammalian telencephalon. Elevated hippocampal ZnT3 expression is acknowledged to be associated with mossy fiber sprouting and cognitive deficits. However, no studies have compared the long-term neurobehavioral phenotype with the expression of ZnT3 in the cerebral cortex following status epilepticus (SE). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the long-term neurobehavioral phenotype as well as the expression of ZnT3 and calcium homeostasis-related CB-D28k in the cerebral cortex of rats subjected to neonatal SE and to determine the effects of leptin treatment immediately after neonatal SE...
April 23, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687345/modulatory-effects-of-fingolimod-fty720-on-the-expression-of-sphingolipid-metabolism-related-genes-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Henryk Jęśko, Przemysław L Wencel, Walter J Lukiw, Robert P Strosznajder
Sphingolipid signaling disturbances correlate with Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. We examined the influence of FTY720/fingolimod, a sphingosine analog and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator, on the expression of sphingolipid metabolism and signaling genes in a mouse transgenic AD model. Our results demonstrated that AβPP (V717I) transgene led with age to reduced mRNA expression of S1P receptors (S1PRs), sphingosine kinase SPHK2, ceramide kinase CERK, and the anti-apoptotic Bcl2 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, suggesting a pro-apoptotic shift in 12-month old mice...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687266/physiological-and-psychological-determinants-of-whole-body-endurance-exercise-following-short-term-sustained-operations-with-partial-sleep-deprivation
#7
Michail E Keramidas, Magnus Gadefors, Lars-Ove Nilsson, Ola Eiken
PURPOSE: The study examined the effects of short-term field-based military training with partial sleep deprivation on whole-body endurance performance in well-trained individuals. METHODS: Before and after a 2-day sustained operations (SUSOPS), 14 cadets performed a 15-min constant-load cycling at 65% of peak power output (PPO; CLT65 ), followed by an exhaustive constant-load trial at 85% of PPO (CLT85 ). Physiological [oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2 ), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and regional oxygenation (TOI) in the frontal cerebral cortex and vastus lateralis muscle] and psychological [effort perception (RPE), affective valence (FS), and perceived activation (FAS)] variables were monitored during exercise...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686511/effects-of-scrambling-trumpet-creeper-flavone-on-transient-cerebral-ischemia-model-tia-in-rats
#8
Mingsan Miao, Xu Zhang, Fan Zhang, Can Wang, Xiaoyan Fang, Ming Bai, Cuishan Xu, Leshang Teng
To investigate the effects of Scrambling Trumpet Creeper flavone on neurological function score, brain tissue lesion and related biochemical indexes in rat TIA model. Methods: TIA model was induced by tail vein injection of t-butanol (t-BHP). The rats in each administration group were given large, medium and low dose of Scrambling Trumpet Creeper flavone 0.1% CMC suspension, nimodipine and Yangxueqingnao particles group 0.1% CMC suspension, model group and blank group fed the same volume 0.1% CMC. Once a day, continuous administration of 7d...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686262/neuronal-atlas-of-the-dorsal-horn-defines-its-architecture-and-links-sensory-input-to-transcriptional-cell-types
#9
Martin Häring, Amit Zeisel, Hannah Hochgerner, Puneet Rinwa, Jon E T Jakobsson, Peter Lönnerberg, Gioele La Manno, Nilesh Sharma, Lotta Borgius, Ole Kiehn, Malin C Lagerström, Sten Linnarsson, Patrik Ernfors
The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is critical to processing distinct modalities of noxious and innocuous sensation, but little is known of the neuronal subtypes involved, hampering efforts to deduce principles governing somatic sensation. Here we used single-cell RNA sequencing to classify sensory neurons in the mouse dorsal horn. We identified 15 inhibitory and 15 excitatory molecular subtypes of neurons, equaling the complexity in cerebral cortex. Validating our classification scheme in vivo and matching cell types to anatomy of the dorsal horn by spatial transcriptomics reveals laminar enrichment for each of the cell types...
April 23, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683871/sensorimotor-cortex-atrophy-in-patients-with-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy
#10
Lanbo Wang, Bing Yu, Qun Li, Fei Qi, Qiyong Guo
Previous studies have shown compensatory adaptive changes in cerebral functions before surgery in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), especially in the sensorimotor cortices. However, the structural changes in the sensorimotor cortices in patients with CSM remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the volumetric changes in the sensorimotor cortices using morphological MRI and to correlate these changes with clinical scales. We hypothesize that CSM causes atrophy in the sensorimotor cortices, which results in functional changes during CSM progression...
April 20, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682794/genetic-associations-with-childhood-brain-growth-defined-in-two-longitudinal-cohorts
#11
Eszter Szekely, Tae-Hwi Linus Schwantes-An, Cristina M Justice, Jeremy A Sabourin, Philip R Jansen, Ryan L Muetzel, Wendy Sharp, Henning Tiemeier, Heejong Sung, Tonya J White, Alexander F Wilson, Philip Shaw
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are unraveling the genetics of adult brain neuroanatomy as measured by cross-sectional anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (aMRI). However, the genetic mechanisms that shape childhood brain development are, as yet, largely unexplored. In this study we identify common genetic variants associated with childhood brain development as defined by longitudinal aMRI. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were determined in two cohorts: one enriched for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (LONG cohort: 458 participants; 119 with ADHD) and the other from a population-based cohort (Generation R: 257 participants)...
April 22, 2018: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682548/electric-stimulation-of-ear-reduces-the-effect-of-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-pathway-on-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizures-in-rats
#12
En-Tzu Liao, Yi-Wen Lin, Chun-Ping Huang, Nou-Ying Tang, Ching-Liang Hsieh
Epilepsy is a common clinical syndrome with recurrent neuronal discharges in the temporal lobe, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus. Clinical antiepileptic medicines are often ineffective or of little benefit in 30% of epileptic patients and usually cause severe side effects. Emerging evidence indicates the crucial role of inflammatory mediators in epilepsy. The current study investigates the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its underlying mechanisms in kainic acid- (KA-) induced epileptic seizures in rats...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682503/imaging-behavior-and-endocrine-analysis-of-jealousy-in-a-monogamous-primate
#13
Nicole Maninger, Sally P Mendoza, Donald R Williams, William A Mason, Simon R Cherry, Douglas J Rowland, Thomas Schaefer, Karen L Bales
Understanding the neurobiology of social bonding in non-human primates is a critical step in understanding the evolution of monogamy, as well as understanding the neural substrates for emotion and behavior. Coppery titi monkeys ( Callicebus cupreus ) form strong pair bonds, characterized by selective preference for their pair mate, mate-guarding, physiological and behavioral agitation upon separation, and social buffering. Mate-guarding, or the "maintenance" phase of pair bonding, is relatively under-studied in primates...
October 2017: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681928/recovery-of-the-20-hz-rebound-to-tactile-and-proprioceptive-stimulation-after-stroke
#14
Eeva Parkkonen, Kristina Laaksonen, Lauri Parkkonen, Nina Forss
Sensorimotor integration is closely linked to changes in motor-cortical excitability, observable in the modulation of the 20 Hz rhythm. After somatosensory stimulation, the rhythm transiently increases as a rebound that reflects motor-cortex inhibition. Stroke-induced alterations in afferent input likely affect motor-cortex excitability and motor recovery. To study the role of somatosensory afferents in motor-cortex excitability after stroke, we employed magnetoencephalographic recordings (MEG) at 1-7 days, one month, and 12 months in 23 patients with stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory and 22 healthy controls...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681876/null-tdcs-effects-in-a-sustained-attention-task-the-modulating-role-of-learning
#15
Noa Jacoby, Michal Lavidor
The purpose of this study was to investigate sustained attention through modulation of the fronto-cerebral network with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and control participants. Thirty-seven participants (21 with ADHD) underwent three separate sessions (baseline, active tDCS, and sham) and performed the MOXO Continuous Performance Test (CPT). We applied double anodal stimulation of 1.8 mA tDCS for 20 min over the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), with the cathode over the cerebellum...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681807/primary-sensorimotor-cortex-drives-the-common-cortical-network-for-gamma-synchronization-in-voluntary-hand-movements
#16
Gertrúd Tamás, Venkata C Chirumamilla, Abdul R Anwar, Jan Raethjen, Günther Deuschl, Sergiu Groppa, Muthuraman Muthuraman
Background: Gamma synchronization (GS) may promote the processing between functionally related cortico-subcortical neural populations. Our aim was to identify the sources of GS and to analyze the direction of information flow in cerebral networks at the beginning of phasic movements, and during medium-strength isometric contraction of the hand. Methods: We measured 64-channel electroencephalography in 11 healthy volunteers (age: 25 ± 8 years; four females); surface electromyography detected the movements of the dominant hand...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681800/early-retinal-defects-in-fmr1-y-mice-toward-a-critical-role-of-visual-dys-sensitivity-in-the-fragile-x-syndrome-phenotype
#17
Olivier Perche, Chloé Felgerolle, Maryvonne Ardourel, Audrey Bazinet, Arnaud Pâris, Rafaëlle Rossignol, Géraldine Meyer-Dilhet, Anne-Laure Mausset-Bonnefont, Betty Hébert, David Laurenceau, Céline Montécot-Dubourg, Arnaud Menuet, Jean-Charles Bizot, Jacques Pichon, Isabelle Ranchon-Cole, Sylvain Briault
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is caused by a deficiency in Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) leading to global sensorial abnormalities, among which visual defects represent a critical part. These visual defects are associated with cerebral neuron immaturity especially in the primary visual cortex. However, we recently demonstrated that retinas of adult Fmr1 -/y mice, the FXS murine model, present molecular, cellular and functional alterations. However, no data are currently available on the evolution pattern of such defects...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680396/changes-in-canine-cerebral-perfusion-after-accelerated-high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-hf-rtms-a-proof-of-concept-study
#18
R Dockx, C Baeken, R Duprat, F De Vos, J H Saunders, I Polis, K Audenaert, K Peremans
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a treatment for several neuropsychiatric disorders in human beings, but the neurobiological effects of rTMS in dogs have not been investigated to date. A proof of concept study was designed to evaluate the effect of rTMS on cerebral perfusion, measured with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), in dogs. An accelerated high frequency (aHF)-rTMS (20Hz) protocol was applied to the canine left frontal cortex. To accurately target this area, eight dogs underwent a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan before stimulation...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678876/rapid-disinhibition-by-adjustment-of-pv-intrinsic-excitability-during-whisker-map-plasticity-in-mouse-s1
#19
Melanie A Gainey, Joseph W Aman, Daniel E Feldman
Rapid plasticity of layer (L) 2/3 inhibitory circuits is an early step in sensory cortical map plasticity, but its cellular basis is unclear. We show that, in mice of either sex, 1 day whisker deprivation drives rapid loss of L4-evoked feedforward inhibition and more modest loss of feedforward excitation in L2/3 pyramidal (PYR) cells, increasing E-I conductance ratio. Rapid disinhibition was due to reduced L4-evoked spiking by L2/3 parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, caused by reduced PV intrinsic excitability. This included elevated PV spike threshold, associated with an increase in low-threshold, voltage activated delayed rectifier (presumed Kv1) and A-type potassium currents...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678731/age-related-rise-in-lactate-and-its-correlation-with-lactate-dehydrogenase-ldh-status-in-post-mitochondrial-fractions-isolated-from-different-regions-of-brain-in-mice
#20
Siddhartha Datta, Nilkanta Chakrabarti
Rise in brain lactate is the hallmark of ageing. Separate studies report that ageing is associated with elevation of lactate level and alterations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A/B mRNA-expression-ratio in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, age related lactate rise in brain and its association with LDH status and their brain regional variations are still elusive. In the present study, level of lactate, LDH (A and B) activity and LDH-A expression were evaluated in post-mitochondrial fraction of tissues isolated from four different brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra and cerebellum) of young and aged mice...
April 17, 2018: Neurochemistry International
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