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Cerebral cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646547/a-dual-fluorescence-reporter-in-the-eomes-locus-for-live-imaging-and-medium-term-lineage-tracing
#1
Simone Probst, Ray A Daza, Natalie Bader, Jonas F Hummel, Matthias Weiß, Yakup Tanriver, Robert F Hevner, Sebastian J Arnold
The T-box transcription factor Eomes (also known as Tbr2) shows short-lived expression in various localized domains of the embryo, including epiblast cells during gastrulation and intermediate progenitor cells in the cerebral cortex. In these tissues Eomes fulfills crucial roles for lineage specification of progenitors. To directly observe Eomes-dependent cell lineages in the living embryo, we generated a novel dual-fluorescence reporter allele that expresses a membrane-bound tdTomato protein for investigation of cell morphology and a nuclear GFP for cell tracing...
June 24, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646260/salt-appetite-and-the-influence-of-opioids
#2
Craig M Smith, Andrew J Lawrence
Due to the biological importance of sodium and its relative scarcity within many natural environments, 'salt appetite' has evolved whereby dietary salt is highly sought after and palatable when tasted. In addition to peripheral responses, salt depletion is detected within the brain via circumventricular organs and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2) neurons to increase salt appetite. Salt appetite is comprised of two main components. One component is the incentive salience or motivation for salt (i...
June 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645069/controlled-single-bubble-cavitation-collapse-results-in-jet-induced-injury-in-brain-tissue
#3
Saranya Canchi, Karen Kelly, Yu Hong, Michael A King, Ghatu Subhash, Malisa Sarntinoranont
Multiscale damage due to cavitation is considered as a potential mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI) associated with explosion. In this study, we employed a TBI relevant hippocampal ex vivo slice model to induce bubble cavitation. Placement of single reproducible seed bubbles allowed control of size, number, and tissue location to visualize and measure deformation parameters. Maximum strain value was measured at 45 µs after bubble collapse, presented with a distinct contour and coincided temporally and spatially with the liquid jet...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642635/virtual-screening-following-rational-drug-design-based-approach-for-introducing-new-anti-amyloid-beta-aggregation-agent
#4
Garshasb Rigi, Mohammad Vala Ashdar Nakhaei, Hoda Eidipour, Arshia Najimi, Fahimeh Tajik, Niloufar Taher, Kamran Yarahmadi
Amyloid β (Aβ) sheets aggregations is the main reason of Alzheimer disease. The interacting areas between monomers are residue number 38 to 42. Inhibition of interaction between Aβ molecules prevents plaque formation. In the present study, we have performed a high-throughput virtual screening among ZINC database and top 1000 hits were checked again regarding binding affinity by AutoDock software. Top 4 successive second step screening hits was considered for drug design purpose against aggregation site of Aβ molecules...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642177/protective-functions-of-pj34-a-parp-inhibitor-is-related-to-down-regulation-of-calpain-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-a-mouse-model-of-tbi
#5
Xiaogang Tao, Xuetao Chen, Zonggang Hou, Shuyu Hao, Baiyun Liu
OBJECTIVES: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), calpain, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) are reported to participate in inflammatory reactions in pathological conditions and are involved in traumatic brain injury. The objective of this study was to investigate whether PARP participated in inflammation related to calpain and NF-κB in a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI). METHODS: PJ34 (10 mg/kg), a selective PARP inhibitor, was administered intraperitoneally 5 min and 8 h after experimental CCI...
June 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641491/nicotine-and-cigarette-smoke-modulate-nrf2-bdnf-dopaminergic-signal-and-neurobehavioral-disorders-in-adult-rat-cerebral-cortex
#6
Nibedita Naha, D N Gandhi, A K Gautam, J Ravi Prakash
BACKGROUND: Nicotine and cigarette smoking (CS) are associated with addiction behavior, drug-seeking, and abuse. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association especially, the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), dopamine (DA), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in the cerebral cortex, are not fully known. Therefore, we hypothesized that overexpression of BDNF and DA, and suppression of Nrf2 contribute to several pathological and behavioral alterations in adult cerebral cortex...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641161/postural-control-in-blind-individuals-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Rodolfo Borges Parreira, Luanda André Collange Grecco, Claudia Santos Oliveira
Postural control (PC) requires the interaction of the three sensory systems for a good maintenance of the balance, and in blind people, lack of visual input can harm your PC. Thus the objective is to perform a literature review concerning role of sight in the maintenance of PC and the adaptation of brain structures when vision is absent. Studies were searched from Pubmed, and EMBASE that included individuals with congenital blindness. Articles studying person with acquired blindness or low vision was excluded from this review...
June 12, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639431/decrease-in-oxidative-stress-parameters-after-post-ischaemic-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-administration-in-the-hippocampus-of-rats-exposed-to-focal-cerebral-ischaemia
#8
Jasenka Mršić-Pelčić, Kristina Pilipović, Goran Pelčić, Dinko Vitezić, Gordana Župan
Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) is a multifunctional drug with antioxidant potential. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of its action are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rhEpo on the brain infarct volume as well as on the levels of the neuronal damage, oxidative stress parameters and active caspase-3, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions in the hippocampi of rats exposed to the right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 hr...
June 21, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638719/abnormal-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-and-functional-connectivity-of-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-patients-with-leukoaraiosis
#9
Rongchuan Cheng, Honglin Qi, Yong Liu, Shifu Zhao, Chuanming Li, Chen Liu, Jian Zheng
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the cerebral function deficits in patients with leukoaraiosis (LA) and the correlation with white matter hyperintensity (WMH) using functional MRI (fMRI) technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with LA and 30 volunteers were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) scanning. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of rs-fMRI signals for the two groups was compared using two-sample t tests...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638364/impact-of-neuronal-membrane-damage-on-the-local-field-potential-in-a-large-scale-simulation-of-cerebral-cortex
#10
David L Boothe, Alfred B Yu, Pawel Kudela, William S Anderson, Jean M Vettel, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Within multiscale brain dynamics, the structure-function relationship between cellular changes at a lower scale and coordinated oscillations at a higher scale is not well understood. This relationship may be particularly relevant for understanding functional impairments after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when current neuroimaging methods do not reveal morphological changes to the brain common in moderate to severe TBI such as diffuse axonal injury or gray matter lesions. Here, we created a physiology-based model of cerebral cortex using a publicly released modeling framework (GEneral NEural SImulation System) to explore the possibility that performance deficits characteristic of blast-induced mTBI may reflect dysfunctional, local network activity influenced by microscale neuronal damage at the cellular level...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638332/commentary-skilled-bimanual-training-drives-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy
#11
COMMENT
Deborah J Serrien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638030/-characteristics-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Ju G Homenko, D S Susin, G V Kataeva, Ju A Irishina, I G Zavolokov
AIM: To study the relationship between early cognitive impairment symptoms and cerebral glucose metabolism in different brain regions (according to the positron emission tomography (PET) data) in Parkinson's disease (PD) in order to increase the diagnostic and treatment efficacy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups of patients with PD (stage I-III), including 11 patients without cognitive disorders and 13 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), were examined. The control group included 10 age-matched people with normal cognition...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637973/neural-mechanisms-of-nociception-during-orthodontic-treatment
#13
Masayuki Kobayashi, Eri Horinuki
Orthodontic tooth movement is accompanied by inflammatory responses in the periodontal ligament. Chemical mediators such as interleukin-1β have key roles in nociception around teeth. Such nociceptive inputs to the periodontal ligament continue for several days and potentially induce plastic changes in higher brain regions, including the cerebral cortex. This review summarizes research on orthodontic treatment-induced modulation of neural activities in the central nervous system. Furthermore, we describe our recent findings on the spatiotemporal effects of orthodontic treatment in the somatosensory and insular cortices...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637937/herpes-simplex-encephalitis-presenting-as-stroke-like-symptoms-with-atypical-mri-findings-and-lacking-cerebrospinal-fluid-pleocytosis
#14
Shintaro Tsuboguchi, Takahiro Wakasugi, Yoshitaka Umeda, Maiko Umeda, Mutsuo Oyake, Nobuya Fujita
A 73-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of right hemiparesis and was diagnosed as having cerebral infarction on the basis of diffusion-weighted brain MRI, which demonstrated lesions in the left parietal cortex. On the 3rd day, the patient developed right upper limb myoclonus, aphasia, and disturbance of consciousness with high fever. On the 6th day, she was transferred to our hospital with suspected viral encephalitis, and treatment with acyclovir was started. By the 6th day, the lesions detected by MRI had expanded to the gyrus cinguli, insula and thalamus, but not to the temporal lobe...
June 21, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637812/sensitivity-of-neurons-in-the-middle-temporal-area-of-marmoset-monkeys-to-random-dot-motion
#15
Tristan A Chaplin, Benjamin J Allitt, Maureen A Hagan, Nicholas Sc Price, Ramesh Rajan, Marcello G P Rosa, Leo L Lui
Neurons in the Middle Temporal area (MT) of the primate cerebral cortex respond to moving visual stimuli. The sensitivity of MT neurons to motion signals can be characterized by using random-dot stimuli, in which the strength of the motion signal is manipulated by adding different levels of noise (elements that move in random directions). In macaques, this has allowed the calculation of "neurometric" thresholds. We characterized the responses of MT neurons in sufentanil/nitrous oxide anesthetized marmoset monkeys, a species which has attracted considerable recent interest as an animal model for vision research...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635875/-disturbances-of-gait-and-postural-stability-in-chronic-cerebral-ischemia
#16
N N Vakhnina, V V Zakharov
Disturbances of gait and postural stability are characteristic of the chronic progressive vascular lesion of the brain observed in moderate to severe stages of cerebrovascular disease. Disconnections between the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum due to the damage of the white matter (vascular leukoencephalopathy) underlie disturbances of gait and postural stability (shorter stride length, wider gait). There are difficulties in starting with possible stoppings during the walking, waiting in front of small barriers as well as difficulties in concentration (e...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634745/prolactin-function-and-putative-expression-in-the-brain
#17
REVIEW
Erika Alejandra Cabrera-Reyes, Ofelia Limón-Morales, Nadia Alejandra Rivero-Segura, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Marco Cerbón
INTRODUCTION: Prolactin is a peptide hormone mainly synthetized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, but also by extrapituitary tissues, such as mammary gland, decidua, prostate, skin, and possibly the brain. Similarly, prolactin receptor is expressed in the pituitary gland, many peripheral tissues, and in contrast to prolactin, its receptor has been consistently detected in several brain regions, such as cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, among others...
June 20, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633495/estradiol-protects-against-cardio-respiratory-dysfunctions-and-oxidative-stress-in-intermittent-hypoxia
#18
Sofien Laouafa, Alexandra Ribon-Demars, François Marcouiller, Damien Roussel, Aida Bairam, Vincent Pialoux, Vincent Joseph
Study Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that estradiol (E2) protects against cardio-respiratory disorders and oxidative stress induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in adult female rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley female rats (230-250g) were ovariectomized (OVX) and implanted with osmotic pumps delivering vehicle (Veh) or E2 (0.5 mg/kg/day). After 14 days of recovery, the rats were exposed to chronic CIH (21%-10% O2 - 8 hours/day - 10 cycles/hour) or room air (RA)...
June 19, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633023/the-insular-cortex
#19
Nadine Gogolla
Whether you see the person you are in love with, try to listen to your own heartbeat, suffer from a headache, or crave for a chocolate cookie, one part of your brain is sure to increase its activity strongly: the insular cortex. The insular cortex, or 'insula' for short, is part of the cerebral cortex. J.C. Reil, a German neurologist, first named this brain structure in the early 19(th) century. Subsequent research findings have implicated the insula in an overwhelming variety of functions ranging from sensory processing to representing feelings and emotions, autonomical and motor control, risk prediction and decision-making, bodily- and self-awareness, and complex social functions like empathy...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632467/effects-of-a-single-session-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-upper-limb-movements-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-randomized-sham-controlled-study
#20
Renata Calhes Franco Moura, Cibele Santos, Luanda Collange Grecco, Giorgio Albertini, Veronica Cimolin, Manuela Galli, Claudia Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Motor impairment in children with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP) is generally more prominent in the affected upper limb, leading to limitations in hand function stemming from deficiencies in motor coordination and selective motor control as well as muscle weakness, slower execution of movements and deficient integration of sensory-motor information. OBJECTIVE: Determine the effect of a single session of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with functional training on the spatiotemporal variables of upper arm movements in children with spastic hemiparesis...
February 25, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
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