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HIV and vulvar cancer

Eric Sven Kroeber, Assefa Mathewos, Tigeneh Wondemagegnehu, Abreha Aynalem, Tufa Gemechu, Swantje Piszczan, Genebo Timotewos, Adamu Addissie, Andreas Wienke, Susanne Unverzagt, Christoph Thomssen, Ahmedin Jemal, Eva Johanna Kantelhardt
Vulvar cancer (VC) is strongly associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infections and immunosuppression (e.g., HIV). However, there is limited information on VC patient characteristics and survival in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia, where chronic HPV and HIV infections are prevalent. The aim of this study is to provide a first view on VC patient characteristics in a sub-Saharan African setting.We present a retrospective analysis of records of 86 VC patients diagnosed between January 2010 and October 2015 at Addis Ababa University Hospital and other major health facilities in Ethiopia...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Julisa Chamorro Lascasas Ribalta, Mariana Vendramin Mateussi, Neila Maria de Góis Speck
OBJECTIVE:  A vulvar squamous intraepithelial lesion is deemed to be a preceding lesion to vulvar cancer, especially in women aged under 40 years, holders of an acquired or idiopathic immunosuppression. Several treatments have been used to treat these lesions. One of the aesthetically acceptable therapeutic methods is the CO2 laser vaporization. METHODS:  In a transversal study, 46 records of immunosuppressed women bearing a vulvar low grade and/or high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion were selected out of the retrospective analysis, computing age, date of record, date of vulvar lesion treatment with CO2 laser, the time elapsed between the first and the last visit (in months), the number of visits, the presence or absence of condylomatous lesions in other female lower genital tract sites and whether or not recurrences and persistence of intraepithelial lesions have been noticed during the follow-up...
January 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Patricia S Rantshabeng, Sikhulile Moyo, Natasha O Moraka, Andrew Ndlovu, Iain J MacLeod, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Ishmael Kasvosve
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) associated malignancies are the leading cause of cancer death in Botswana. We sought to determine causative HPV types in patients with anogenital malignancies in Botswana to inform vaccine strategy. METHODS: We used formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks from patients diagnosed with anal, penile and vulvar squamous cell carcinomas between the years, 2014 and 2016. Presence of HPV 16, 18, or other high-risk (HR) types was detected using Abbott m2000 real-time PCR platform...
November 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Bridget K M Lekoane, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson, Themba G Ginindza
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of HPV vaccines, the incidence of HPV-related cancers (cervical, penile, anal, vulvar, vagina, head, and neck) in sub-Saharan Africa has been rising. The increasing incidence of these HPV-related cancers has been attributed to changes in lifestyle-related risk factors, most notably sexual behavior. The main objective of this study is to map evidence on the distribution of HIV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a scoping review to explore, describe, and map literature on the distribution of HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa...
November 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
Surbhi Grover, Sebathu Philip Chiyapo, Priya Puri, Mohan Narasimhamurthy, Babe Eunice Gaolebale, Neo Tapela, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Mukendi K A Kayembe, Thabo Moloi, Ponatshego Andrew Gaolebale
Purpose: Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the most common cancer diagnosed in women in Botswana. Most women present with locally advanced disease, requiring chemotherapy and radiation. Care co-ordination requires input from a multidisciplinary team (MDT) to deliver appropriate, timely treatment. However, there are limited published examples of MDT implementation in LMICs. Methods: In May 2015, a weekly MDT clinic for gynecologic cancer care was initiated at Botswana's national referral facility...
October 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
Kimberly L Levinson, David J Riedel, Laureen S Ojalvo, Wesley Chan, Ana M Angarita, Amanda N Fader, Anne F Rositch
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gynecologic cancer treatments in HIV-infected women for adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines and to describe survival by adherence to guidelines. DESIGN: Beyond cervical cancer, there are little data on treatment and outcomes for these women. This is a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected women with gynecologic cancers. METHODS: HIV-infected women with gynecologic cancers from 2000 to 2015 were identified at two urban, comprehensive cancer centers...
January 14, 2018: AIDS
Nicolò Clemente, Lara Alessandrini, Emanuela Vaccher, Antonino De Paoli, Monica Buttignol, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Francesco Sopracordevole
RATIONALE: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been shown to be at increased risk for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection of the anogenital tract. Furthermore, in the last decades, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased the longevity of these patients who now live long enough to develop HPV-related cancers; hence, the impact of HPV infection on HIV-positive patients is of increasing concern. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported the case of an HIV-positive female patient on HAART with a good virological and immunological response and with a long history of HPV-related intraepithelial and invasive lesions of the anogenital tract...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kenneth O Simbiri, Christopher K Williams, Marcella Macaluso, Antonio Giordano
The objectives of the African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC), includes bringing products of decades of advances in cancer research to African populations through local and international collaboration. The consistent and huge growth in participation in the conferences and the diversity of the nations is a witness to the success of the organization thus far. The theme for the Tenth AORTIC International Conference on Cancer in Africa in Morocco in 2015 was "Road map to Cancer Control in Africa" and topics of discussion of paramount importance for low- and middle-income African countries included childhood cancers such as BL, cancers of the cervix, breast, and prostate; cancers associated with HIV-infection such as cervical, vulvar, and anal; as well as cancer care challenges associated with palliative care...
September 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Michelle A Hieger, Jamiee L Afeld, Kirk L Cumpston, Brandon K Wills
Methemoglobinemia can cause life-threatening hypoxia associated with cyanosis and dyspnea not responsive to oxygen. We present a case of recurrent methemoglobinemia because of occult use of topical benzocaine to the vulva. A 47-year-old female with medical history of vulvar cancer and HIV undergoing chemoradiation was sent by the oncology clinic to the emergency department for worsening dyspnea, fatigue, hypoxia to 78% on room air, and gradual onset of cyanosis over the past week. A methemoglobin (MetHb) level was 49%...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
Nayi Zongo, Nina Korsaga-Somé, Amandine Banata Gang-Ny, Edgar Ouangré, Maurice Zida, Aimé Sosthène Ouédraogo, Aboubacar Hirrhum Bambara, Augustin Tozoula Bambara, Si Simon Traore, Pascal Niamba, Adama Traoré, Ahmadou Dem
BACKGROUND: Vulvar cancer is a rare gynaecological cancer. In Burkina Faso, the diagnosis of vulvar cancers is delayed and the prognosis is poor. However, no specific study on vulvar cancers has been conducted at the moment. This work aimed to study the characteristics of these cancers. METHODS: This is a prospective study on histologically confirmed primary cancers of the vulva diagnosed between 1st January 2013 and 30th June 2015. The demographic and clinical aspects were studied at the Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital of Ouagadougou (CHU-YO)...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Michelle Vichnin, Paolo Bonanni, Nicola P Klein, Suzanne M Garland, Stan L Block, Susanne K Kjaer, Heather L Sings, Gonzalo Perez, Richard M Haupt, Alfred J Saah, Fabio Lievano, Christine Velicer, Rosybel Drury, Barbara J Kuter
BACKGROUND: A quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) type 6/11/16/18 vaccine (GARDASIL/SILGARD®) has been licensed in many countries around the world for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers and precancers, as well as external genital warts causally related to HPV types 6/11/16/18. Across 7 phase 3 clinical trials involving more than 29,000 males and females ages 9-45 years, vaccination was generally well tolerated. Because of its expected public health benefit in reducing cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, the vaccine has been implemented in the national vaccination programs of several countries, with over 178 million doses distributed worldwide...
September 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
A A Chokoeva, G Tchernev, J C Cardoso, J W Patterson, I Dechev, S Valkanov, M Zanardelli, T Lotti, U Wollina
Malignant tumors of the female reproductive system are a serious health and social problem, as they are the second most common cause of death among women, after breast cancer. Their incidence has increased dramatically during recent years, probably due to the different sexual habits and changes in the prevalence of HIV/ AIDS and HPV virus carriers, among other factors. Vulvar tumors represent only 4% of all gynecological neoplasms, and they are fourth in frequency after tumors of the cervix, uterus, and ovary...
June 2015: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Cristina Brickman, Joel M Palefsky
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with essentially all cervical cancers, 80-90 % of anal cancers, and a high proportion of oropharyngeal, vaginal, penile, and vulvar cancers. Malignancy is preceded by the development of precancerous lesions termed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Men and women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at high risk of HPV-related malignancies. The incidence of anal cancer in particular has markedly risen during the antiretroviral era due to the increased longevity of patients with HIV and the absence of anal malignancy screening programs...
March 2015: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Kenneth O Simbiri, Hem C Jha, Mukendi K Kayembe, Carrie Kovarik, Erle S Robertson
BACKGROUND: Oncoviruses such as HPV, KSHV, and EBV have been reported in patients with HIV infection and AIDS. How oncovirus-associated cancers rise in AIDS patients has not been fully established. The purpose of our study was to identify the viral agents in vulvar cancer and to assess their contribution to pathogenesis. METHOD: We retrospectively identified a total of 13 vulva tissue samples from HIV-1 positive and 9 vulvar samples from HIV-1 negative patients from the Botswana National Health Laboratory in Gaborone, Botswana, a Southern African country with a high incidence of HIV...
2014: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Martha Tesfalul, Kenneth Simbiri, Chikoti M Wheat, Didintle Motsepe, Hayley Goldbach, Kathleen Armstrong, Kathryn Hudson, Mukendi K Kayembe, Erle Robertson, Carrie Kovarik
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of select oncogenic viruses within vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) and their association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status in women in Botswana, where the national HIV prevalence is the third highest in the world. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of biopsy-confirmed VSCC specimens and corresponding clinical data was conducted in Gaborone, Botswana. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) viral testing were done for Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus (HPV) strains, and Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, and PCR viral testing alone was done for John Cunningham virus...
May 2014: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Shiwen Peng, Liwen Song, Jayne Knoff, Joshua W Wang, Yung-Nien Chang, Drew Hannaman, T-C Wu, Ronald D Alvarez, Richard Bs Roden, Chien-Fu Hung
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are particularly problematic for HIV + and solid organ transplant patients with compromised CD4+ T cell-dependent immunity as they produce more severe and progressive disease compared to healthy individuals. There are no specific treatments for chronic HPV infection, resulting in an urgent unmet need for a modality that is safe and effective for both immunocompromised and otherwise normal patients with recalcitrant disease. DNA vaccination is attractive because it avoids the risks of administration of live vectors to immunocompromised patients, and can induce potent HPV-specific cytotoxic T cell responses...
March 4, 2014: Cell & Bioscience
K L P Nguessan, D B Mian, K Kasse, S Boni
Vulvar cancers are uncommon, represented in 90% of cases by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The reduction of the frequency and the severity proceed by recognition of precancerous or beginning lesions. They occur most often in the third age in postmenopausal women. The diagnosis is almost difficult and often late and therefore prognosis is severe. Conditions for diagnosis and treatment are difficult in underdeveloped countries due to the inaccessibility of proper equipment in the healthcare system. The authors report a case of SCC diagnosed late in a young human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) women who have been treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical surgery of the vulva...
2013: European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology
Siriwan Tangjitgamol, Kongsak Loharamtaweethong, Thaovalai Thawaramara, Saranya Chanpanitkitchot
We report an exaggerated dermatological inflammatory condition in an immunocompromised patient. The patient was a 51-year-old woman who had HIV infection and a history of cervical cancer. Three years after highly active antiretroviral therapy with an improved immune status, and 2 years after remission of cervical cancer, she developed verrucous perineal masses. Provisional diagnosis was recurrent cervical cancer or primary vulvar cancer. Pathological features revealed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia associated with herpes viral infection...
January 2014: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Keith J Falter Ii, Marina Frimer, Dan Lavy, Robert Samuelson, Shohreh Shahabi
The Centers for Disease Control currently report cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal and some head and neck cancers as human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. Only cervical cancer is listed amongst acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illnesses. All of these cancers may represent progression of the immunocompromised state with the inability to eradicate viral infection. This study reports the case of a 27-year old HIV positive female presenting with a persistent right vulvar exophytic lesion...
April 15, 2013: Rare Tumors
Zekayi Kutlubay, Burhan Engin, Tuba Zara, Yalçın Tüzün
Anogenital malignancies and premalignancies are an important personal/public health problem due to their effects on individuals' physical, mental, and sexual health. Also, due to their etiological association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, anogenital malignancies and premalignancies constitute an immense public health burden. In addition to HPV infection, immunosuppression, HIV infection, chronic dermatoses, such as lichen sclerosis, previous radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatments, and smoking, are the other important etiopathologic factors in the development of anogenital malignancies and premalignancies...
July 2013: Clinics in Dermatology
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