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Lars Erik Bartels, Peter Jepsen, Anders Tøttrup, Hendrik Vilstrup, Jens Frederik Dahlerup
BACKGROUND: Colonic diverticular disease is a common disorder with increasing incidence in Western societies. The intestinal microbiome may be among etiological factors. Helicobacter pylori may protect against some intestinal diseases, and incidence of H. pylori is decreasing in Western societies. Thus, we aimed to determine whether H. pylori is associated to decreased prevalence of registered colonic diverticular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a historical cohort study, patients were enrolled from primary health care centers after urea breath test for H...
March 16, 2017: Helicobacter
Steven F Moss
Gastric cancer has long been recognized to be accompanied and preceded by chronic gastritis, lasting decades. Arguably, the most important development in our understanding of gastric cancer pathogenesis over the past 50 years has been the realization that, for most cases of gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori is the cause of the underlying gastritis. Gastritis can promote gastric carcinogenesis, typically via the Correa cascade of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Nested case-control studies have shown that H pylori infection increases the risk of gastric cancer significantly, both of the intestinal and diffuse subtypes, and that H pylori is responsible for approximately 90% of the world's burden of noncardia gastric cancer...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Richard H Hunt, Mohammad Yaghoobi
The esophagus and stomach are host to their own population of bacteria, which differs in health and disease. Helicobacter pylori uniquely colonizes only gastric mucosa, but an increasing number of bacteria is now isolated from the gastric juice and gastric mucosa, including Lactobacillus. The presence of H pylori alters populations of other gastric bacteria with a marked reduction in diversity. Alterations in intragastric acidity may be the cause or the consequence of changes in the microbial populations of the stomach...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
K M Brawner, R Kumar, C A Serrano, T Ptacek, E Lefkowitz, C D Morrow, D Zhi, K R Kyanam-Kabir-Baig, L E Smythies, P R Harris, P D Smith
The intestinal microbiome in early life influences development of the mucosal immune system and predisposition to certain diseases. Because less is known about the microbiome in the stomach and its relationship to disease, we characterized the microbiota in the stomachs of 86 children and adults and the impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on the bacterial communities. The overall composition of the gastric microbiota in children and adults without H. pylori infection was similar, with minor differences in only low abundance taxa...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
Hongkai Bi, Lei Zhu, Jia Jia, Liping Zeng, John E Cronan
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the upper gastrointestinal tract in humans, and the presence of this pathogen in the gut microbiome increases the risk of peptic ulcers and stomach cancer. H. pylori depends on unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis for maintaining membrane structure and function. Although some of the H. pylori enzymes involved in UFA biosynthesis are functionally homologous with the enzymes found in Escherichia coli, we show here that an enzyme HP0773, now annotated as FabX, uses an unprecedented backtracking mechanism to not only dehydrogenate decanoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) in a reaction that parallels that of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, the first enzyme of the fatty acid β-oxidation cycle, but also isomerizes trans-2-decenoyl-ACP to cis-3-decenoyl-ACP, the key UFA synthetic intermediate...
December 22, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
Laura Llorca, Guillermo Pérez-Pérez, Pedro Urruzuno, Maria Josefa Martinez, Tadasu Iizumi, Zhan Gao, Jiho Sohn, Jennifer Chung, Laura Cox, Aurea Simón-Soro, Alex Mira, Teresa Alarcón
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach of approximately 50% of the world's population, and increases the risk of several gastric diseases. The goal of this study is to compare the gastric microbiota in pediatric patients with and without H. pylori colonization. METHODS: We studied 51 children who underwent gastric endoscopy because of dyspeptic symptoms (18 H. pylori positive and 33 negative). Gastric biopsies were obtained for rapid urease test, culture, histology and DNA extraction...
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Upsornsawan Itthitaetrakool, Porntip Pinlaor, Somchai Pinlaor, Chariya Chomvarin, Rungtiwa Dangtakot, Apisit Chaidee, Chotechana Wilailuckana, Arunnee Sangka, Aroonlug Lulitanond, Puangrat Yongvanit
Adults of Opisthorchis viverrini reside in the biliary system, inducing inflammation of bile ducts and cholangitis, leading to hepatobiliary disease (HBD) including cholangiocarcinoma. O. viverrini infection also has major implications for the bacterial community in bile ducts and liver. To investigate this in chronic O. viverrini infection (≥ 8 months p.i.), bacterial genomic DNA from livers of hamsters and from worms was investigated using culture techniques, PCR for Helicobacter spp. and high-throughput next-generation sequencing targeting the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene...
2016: PloS One
Daniela Keilberg, Yana Zavros, Benjamin Shepherd, Nina R Salama, Karen M Ottemann
Gland colonization may be one crucial route for bacteria to maintain chronic gastrointestinal infection. We developed a quantitative gland isolation method to allow robust bacterial population analysis and applied it to the gastric pathobiont Helicobacter pylori After infections in the murine model system, H. pylori populations multiply both inside and outside glands in a manner that requires the bacteria to be motile and chemotactic. H. pylori is able to achieve gland densities averaging 25 to 40 bacteria/gland after 2 to 4 weeks of infection...
October 11, 2016: MBio
Kathryn P Haley, Jennifer A Gaddy
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of greater than 50% of the world's human population making it arguably one of the most successful bacterial pathogens. Chronic H. pylori colonization results in gastritis in nearly all patients; however in a subset of people, persistent infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk for more severe disease outcomes including B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and invasive adenocarcinoma. Research aimed at elucidating determinants that mediate disease progression has revealed genetic differences in both humans and H...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Mamoudou Maiga, Keira Cohen, Bocar Baya, Geetha Srikrishna, Sophia Siddiqui, Moumine Sanogo, Anou M Somboro, Bassirou Diarra, Mariam H Diallo, Varun Mazumdar, Christian Yoder, Susan Orsega, Michael Belson, Hamadoun Kassambara, Drissa Goita, Robert L Murphy, Sounkalo Dao, Michael Polis, Souleymane Diallo, Graham S Timmins, Lori Dodd, Ashlee M Earl, William R Bishai
Detection of bacterial urease activity has been utilized successfully to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) also possesses an active urease, it is unknown whether detection of mycobacterial urease activity by oral urease breath test (UBT) can be exploited as a rapid point of care biomarker for tuberculosis (TB) in humans. We enrolled 34 individuals newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 46 healthy subjects in Bamako, Mali and performed oral UBT, mycobacterial sputum culture and H...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Ge Wang, Judith Romero-Gallo, Stéphane L Benoit, M Blanca Piazuelo, Ricardo L Dominguez, Douglas R Morgan, Richard M Peek, Robert J Maier
UNLABELLED: A known virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori that augments gastric cancer risk is the CagA cytotoxin. A carcinogenic derivative strain, 7.13, that has a greater ability to translocate CagA exhibits much higher hydrogenase activity than its parent noncarcinogenic strain, B128. A Δhyd mutant strain with deletion of hydrogenase genes was ineffective in CagA translocation into human gastric epithelial AGS cells, while no significant attenuation of cell adhesion was observed...
August 16, 2016: MBio
Marcis Leja, Haitham Amal, Ieva Lasina, Roberts Skapars, Armands Sivins, Guntis Ancans, Ivars Tolmanis, Aigars Vanags, Juozas Kupcinskas, Rima Ramonaite, Salam Khatib, Shifaa Bdarneh, Rasha Natour, Areen Ashkar, Hossam Haick
Volatile organic compound (VOC) testing in breath has potential in gastric cancer (GC) detection. Our objective was to assess the reproducibility of VOCs in GC, and the effects of conditions modifying gut microbiome on the test results. Ten patients with GC were sampled for VOC over three consecutive days; 17 patients were sampled before and after H. pylori eradication therapy combined with a yeast probiotic; 61 patients were sampled before and after bowel cleansing (interventions affecting the microbiome)...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Christian Schulz, Kerstin Schütte, Peter Malfertheiner
The discovery of Helicobacter pylori changed the traditional view of the stomach as a hostile organ to bacterial survival. H. pylori induces chronic gastritis, which has the potential to progress to severe complications such as peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia. The development of modern nucleotide sequencing techniques and new biocomputational tools allow the possibility of studying the diversity and complexity of the microbiome in the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract and overcome the limitations of culturing techniques...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Bumjo Oh, Ji Won Kim, Bong-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Probiotic supplementation is utilized to alleviate the side effects associated with antibiotic therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection. Several studies have described the effects of administration of probiotics on the gut microbiota during antibiotic therapy. However, most of these studies have focused on specific bacteria, thereby providing limited information on the functional roles of the altered microbiota. Therefore, we examined the impact of probiotic supplementation on the structure and functional dynamics of the gut microbiota during H...
December 2016: Helicobacter
Theresa Wan-Chen Yap, Han-Ming Gan, Yin-Peng Lee, Alex Hwong-Ruey Leow, Ahmad Najib Azmi, Fritz Francois, Guillermo I Perez-Perez, Mun-Fai Loke, Khean-Lee Goh, Jamuna Vadivelu
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori protects against some metabolic and immunological diseases in which the development of these diseases coincide with temporal or permanent dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of H. pylori eradication on the human gut microbiome. METHODS: As part of the currently on-going ESSAY (Eradication Study in Stable Adults/Youths) study, we collected stool samples from 17 H. pylori-positive young adult (18-30 years-old) volunteers...
2016: PloS One
Cong He, Zhen Yang, Nonghua Lu
The development of new nucleotide sequencing techniques and advanced bioinformatics tools has opened the field for studying the diversity and complexity of the gastrointestinal microbiome independent of traditional cultural methods. Owing largely to the gastric acid barrier, the human stomach was long thought to be sterile. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori, the gram-negative bacterium that infects upwards of 50% of the global population, has started a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the stomach as an ecologic niche for bacteria...
October 2016: Helicobacter
Vesa-Matti Pohjanen, Olli-Pekka Koivurova, Seppo E Niemelä, Riitta A Karttunen, Tuomo J Karttunen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and interleukin 6 polymorphism -174 (rs1800795) in dyslipidemia. DESIGN: Case-control study comparing serum lipids between H. pylori positive and negative patients and controlling for IL-6 -174 polymorphism, age, sex and smoking. SETTING: 3 hospitals performing outpatient endoscopies in the city of Oulu, Finland. PARTICIPANTS: 199 adult patients with dyspepsia symptoms fulfilling Rome criteria originating from ethnically Finnish population...
January 18, 2016: BMJ Open
Ilva Daugule, Jelizaveta Zavoronkova, Daiga Santare
Recently a lot of literature has been published about the possible preventive action of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) against allergy. The present review summarizes research data about the association between H. pylori and allergic diseases, as well as discusses possible hypotheses about the preventive action of H. pylori against atopy. There is evidence from observational studies to support a weak inverse association between prevalence of H. pylori infection and allergy. However, confounders like some unidentified socioeconomic factors, antibiotic use and others could bias the association...
December 26, 2015: World Journal of Methodology
Wenji Xu, Zhongshu Liu, Quncha Bao, Zhikan Qian
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most prevalent malignant tumor and the sixth leading cause of cancer mortality throughout the world. Despite the technical developments in diagnosis and treatment, the 5-year survival rate is still low. The etiology of EC remains poorly understood; multiple risk factors may be involved and account for the great variation in EC incidence in different geographic regions. SUMMARY: Infection with carcinogenetic pathogens has been proposed as a risk factor for EC...
May 2015: Gastrointestinal Tumors
Gerald Holtmann, Nicholas J Talley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Structural causes are absent in more than 50% of patients with symptoms referred to the gastroduodenal region when routine diagnostic tests are applied. New knowledge holds the prospect that targeted therapy may more optimally manage subsets of these patients with functional dyspepsia. RECENT FINDINGS: An understanding of gut-to-brain and brain-to-gut pathways in functional dyspepsia is expanding. Minimal mucosal inflammation with eosinophils (and in some cases mast cells) characterized by ultrastructural changes in the duodenum appears to be present in a substantial subgroup of functional dyspepsia patients as identified now by investigators globally...
November 2015: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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