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Daniela Keilberg, Yana Zavros, Benjamin Shepherd, Nina R Salama, Karen M Ottemann
: Gland colonization may be one crucial route for bacteria to maintain chronic gastrointestinal infection. We developed a quantitative gland isolation method to allow robust bacterial population analysis and applied it to the gastric pathobiont Helicobacter pylori After infections in the murine model system, H. pylori populations multiply both inside and outside glands in a manner that requires the bacteria to be motile and chemotactic. H. pylori is able to achieve gland densities averaging 25 to 40 bacteria/gland after 2 to 4 weeks of infection...
October 11, 2016: MBio
Kathryn P Haley, Jennifer A Gaddy
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of greater than 50% of the world's human population making it arguably one of the most successful bacterial pathogens. Chronic H. pylori colonization results in gastritis in nearly all patients; however in a subset of people, persistent infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk for more severe disease outcomes including B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and invasive adenocarcinoma. Research aimed at elucidating determinants that mediate disease progression has revealed genetic differences in both humans and H...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Mamoudou Maiga, Keira Cohen, Bocar Baya, Geetha Srikrishna, Sophia Siddiqui, Moumine Sanogo, Anou M Somboro, Bassirou Diarra, Mariam H Diallo, Varun Mazumdar, Christian Yoder, Susan Orsega, Michael Belson, Hamadoun Kassambara, Drissa Goita, Robert L Murphy, Sounkalo Dao, Michael Polis, Souleymane Diallo, Graham S Timmins, Lori Dodd, Ashlee M Earl, William R Bishai
Detection of bacterial urease activity has been utilized successfully to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) also possesses an active urease, it is unknown whether detection of mycobacterial urease activity by oral urease breath test (UBT) can be exploited as a rapid point of care biomarker for tuberculosis (TB) in humans. We enrolled 34 individuals newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 46 healthy subjects in Bamako, Mali and performed oral UBT, mycobacterial sputum culture and H...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Ge Wang, Judith Romero-Gallo, Stéphane L Benoit, M Blanca Piazuelo, Ricardo L Dominguez, Douglas R Morgan, Richard M Peek, Robert J Maier
UNLABELLED: A known virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori that augments gastric cancer risk is the CagA cytotoxin. A carcinogenic derivative strain, 7.13, that has a greater ability to translocate CagA exhibits much higher hydrogenase activity than its parent noncarcinogenic strain, B128. A Δhyd mutant strain with deletion of hydrogenase genes was ineffective in CagA translocation into human gastric epithelial AGS cells, while no significant attenuation of cell adhesion was observed...
2016: MBio
Marcis Leja, Haitham Amal, Ieva Lasina, Roberts Skapars, Armands Sivins, Guntis Ancans, Ivars Tolmanis, Aigars Vanags, Juozas Kupcinskas, Rima Ramonaite, Salam Khatib, Shifaa Bdarneh, Rasha Natour, Areen Ashkar, Hossam Haick
Volatile organic compound (VOC) testing in breath has potential in gastric cancer (GC) detection. Our objective was to assess the reproducibility of VOCs in GC, and the effects of conditions modifying gut microbiome on the test results. Ten patients with GC were sampled for VOC over three consecutive days; 17 patients were sampled before and after H. pylori eradication therapy combined with a yeast probiotic; 61 patients were sampled before and after bowel cleansing (interventions affecting the microbiome)...
2016: Journal of Breath Research
Christian Schulz, Kerstin Schütte, Peter Malfertheiner
The discovery of Helicobacter pylori changed the traditional view of the stomach as a hostile organ to bacterial survival. H. pylori induces chronic gastritis, which has the potential to progress to severe complications such as peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia. The development of modern nucleotide sequencing techniques and new biocomputational tools allow the possibility of studying the diversity and complexity of the microbiome in the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract and overcome the limitations of culturing techniques...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Bumjo Oh, Ji Won Kim, Bong-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Probiotic supplementation is utilized to alleviate the side effects associated with antibiotic therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection. Several studies have described the effects of administration of probiotics on the gut microbiota during antibiotic therapy. However, most of these studies have focused on specific bacteria, thereby providing limited information on the functional roles of the altered microbiota. Therefore, we examined the impact of probiotic supplementation on the structure and functional dynamics of the gut microbiota during H...
March 18, 2016: Helicobacter
Theresa Wan-Chen Yap, Han-Ming Gan, Yin-Peng Lee, Alex Hwong-Ruey Leow, Ahmad Najib Azmi, Fritz Francois, Guillermo I Perez-Perez, Mun-Fai Loke, Khean-Lee Goh, Jamuna Vadivelu
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori protects against some metabolic and immunological diseases in which the development of these diseases coincide with temporal or permanent dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of H. pylori eradication on the human gut microbiome. METHODS: As part of the currently on-going ESSAY (Eradication Study in Stable Adults/Youths) study, we collected stool samples from 17 H. pylori-positive young adult (18-30 years-old) volunteers...
2016: PloS One
Cong He, Zhen Yang, Nonghua Lu
The development of new nucleotide sequencing techniques and advanced bioinformatics tools has opened the field for studying the diversity and complexity of the gastrointestinal microbiome independent of traditional cultural methods. Owing largely to the gastric acid barrier, the human stomach was long thought to be sterile. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori, the gram-negative bacterium that infects upwards of 50% of the global population, has started a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the stomach as an ecologic niche for bacteria...
October 2016: Helicobacter
Vesa-Matti Pohjanen, Olli-Pekka Koivurova, Seppo E Niemelä, Riitta A Karttunen, Tuomo J Karttunen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and interleukin 6 polymorphism -174 (rs1800795) in dyslipidemia. DESIGN: Case-control study comparing serum lipids between H. pylori positive and negative patients and controlling for IL-6 -174 polymorphism, age, sex and smoking. SETTING: 3 hospitals performing outpatient endoscopies in the city of Oulu, Finland. PARTICIPANTS: 199 adult patients with dyspepsia symptoms fulfilling Rome criteria originating from ethnically Finnish population...
2016: BMJ Open
Ilva Daugule, Jelizaveta Zavoronkova, Daiga Santare
Recently a lot of literature has been published about the possible preventive action of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) against allergy. The present review summarizes research data about the association between H. pylori and allergic diseases, as well as discusses possible hypotheses about the preventive action of H. pylori against atopy. There is evidence from observational studies to support a weak inverse association between prevalence of H. pylori infection and allergy. However, confounders like some unidentified socioeconomic factors, antibiotic use and others could bias the association...
December 26, 2015: World Journal of Methodology
Wenji Xu, Zhongshu Liu, Quncha Bao, Zhikan Qian
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most prevalent malignant tumor and the sixth leading cause of cancer mortality throughout the world. Despite the technical developments in diagnosis and treatment, the 5-year survival rate is still low. The etiology of EC remains poorly understood; multiple risk factors may be involved and account for the great variation in EC incidence in different geographic regions. SUMMARY: Infection with carcinogenetic pathogens has been proposed as a risk factor for EC...
May 2015: Gastrointestinal Tumors
Gerald Holtmann, Nicholas J Talley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Structural causes are absent in more than 50% of patients with symptoms referred to the gastroduodenal region when routine diagnostic tests are applied. New knowledge holds the prospect that targeted therapy may more optimally manage subsets of these patients with functional dyspepsia. RECENT FINDINGS: An understanding of gut-to-brain and brain-to-gut pathways in functional dyspepsia is expanding. Minimal mucosal inflammation with eosinophils (and in some cases mast cells) characterized by ultrastructural changes in the duodenum appears to be present in a substantial subgroup of functional dyspepsia patients as identified now by investigators globally...
November 2015: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
R H Hunt, M Camilleri, S E Crowe, E M El-Omar, J G Fox, E J Kuipers, P Malfertheiner, K E L McColl, D M Pritchard, M Rugge, A Sonnenberg, K Sugano, J Tack
The stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials, including our nutrition, have to negotiate this organ first, and as such, the stomach is arguably the most important segment within the GI tract. The unique biological function of gastric acid secretion not only initiates the digestive process but also acts as a first line of defence against food-borne microbes...
October 2015: Gut
Alevtina Gall, Jutta Fero, Connor McCoy, Brian C Claywell, Carissa A Sanchez, Patricia L Blount, Xiaohong Li, Thomas L Vaughan, Frederick A Matsen, Brian J Reid, Nina R Salama
BACKGROUND: The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased nearly five-fold over the last four decades in the United States. Barrett's esophagus, the replacement of the normal squamous epithelial lining with a mucus-secreting columnar epithelium, is the only known precursor to EAC. Like other parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the esophagus hosts a variety of bacteria and comparisons among published studies suggest bacterial communities in the stomach and esophagus differ...
2015: PloS One
Yalda Khosravi, Shih Wee Seow, Arlaine Anne Amoyo, Kher Hsin Chiow, Tuan Lin Tan, Whye Yen Wong, Qian Hui Poh, Ignatius Mario Doli Sentosa, Ralph M Bunte, Sven Pettersson, Mun Fai Loke, Jamuna Vadivelu
Helicobacter pylori, is an invariably commensal resident of the gut microbiome associated with gastric ulcer in adults. In addition, these patients also suffered from a low grade inflammation that activates the immune system and thus increased shunting of energy to host defense mechanisms. To assess whether a H. pylori infection could affect growth in early life, we determined the expression levels of selected metabolic gut hormones in germ free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice with and without the presence of H...
2015: Scientific Reports
Christian Schulz, Nadine Koch, Kerstin Schütte, Dietmar H Pieper, Peter Malfertheiner
The discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) changed the dogma of the stomach as a sterile organ. H. pylori is an obligate pathogen in the human stomach and recognized as a definite carcinogen. Extensive research on the interaction of this bacterium with the gastric mucosa has been performed over the past three decades. The development of new nucleotide sequencing techniques and new biocomputational tools has opened the field for studying the diversity and complexity of the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract independently of cultural methods...
March 2015: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Laura Llorca Otero, Victoria E Ruiz, Guillermo I Perez Perez
The isolation of Helicobacter pylori from the human stomach produced significant changes in how gastroenterologists, immunologists, epidemiologists, pathologists and microbiologists have approached gastro-duodenal diseases in the last half of the XX century. However, research of this organism has progressed greatly in the first decade of this century, evidence suggest that H. pylori is associated with disease only in humans older than 40 years, while, the lack of H. pylori colonization is associated with the emergence of new diseases, particularly in younger individuals...
December 2014: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Loris R Lopetuso, Franco Scaldaferri, Francesco Franceschi, Antonio Gasbarrini
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex and dynamic network with interplay between various gut mucosal cells and their defence molecules, the immune system, food particles, and the resident microbiota. This ecosystem acts as a functional unit organized as a semipermeable multi-layer system that allows the absorption of nutrients and macromolecules required for human metabolic processes and, on the other hand, protects the individual from potentially invasive microorganisms. Commensal microbiota and the host are a unique entity in a continuum along the GI tract, every change in one of these players is able to modify the whole homeostasis...
December 2014: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Gerald Holtmann, Nicholas J Talley
The stomach has distinct functions in relation to the ingestion and handling of solids and liquids. These functions include storage of the food before it is gradually emptied into the duodenum, mechanical crushing of larger food particles to increase the surface area, secretion of an acidic enzyme rich gastric juice and mixing the ingested food with the gastric juice. In addition, the stomach 'senses' the composition of the gastric content and this information is passed via the vagal nerve to the lateral hypothalamus and the limbic system, most likely as palatability signals that influence eating behaviour...
December 2014: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
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