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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463476/defibulation-a-visual-reference-and-learning-tool
#1
Jasmine Abdulcadir, Sandra Marras, Lucrezia Catania, Omar Abdulcadir, Patrick Petignat
Female genital mutilation type III (infibulation) is achieved by narrowing the vaginal orifice by creating a covering seal, accomplished by cutting and appositioning the labia minora and/or labia majora, with or without clitoral excision. Infibulation is responsible for significant urogynecological, obstetrical, and psychosexual consequences that can be treated with defibulation (or de-infibulation), an operation that opens the infibulation scar, exposing the vulvar vestibule, vaginal orifice, external urethral meatus, and eventually the clitoris...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423307/the-importance-of-the-bulbocavernosus-reflex
#2
REVIEW
Jean Gabriel Previnaire
The BCR consists of the contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscle in response to squeezing the glans penis or clitoris, and is mediated through the pudendal nerve. In case of a complete lesion, the presence of BCR is indicative of intact S2-S4 spinal reflex arcs and loss of supraspinal inhibition, determining an upper motor neuron (UMN) lesion, its absence a lower motor neuron (LMN) lesion. The BCR further helps distinguish conus medullaris from cauda equina syndromes. Sensory or motor function in the most caudal sacral segments, not BCR, defines the sacral sparing as part of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI)...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391219/spinal-cord-neuronal-components-involved-in-the-reflex-activity-of-female-rat-pubococcygeus-motoneurons
#3
O Lara-García, M Lara-García, D Perez-Hernandez, E Cuevas, M Martínez-Gómez, P Pacheco
Evoked EMG reflex activity from the pubococcygeus muscle of female Wistar rats has been reported, but has not been carefully analyzed. Here, we studied this reflex activity through mechanical stimulation of the clitoris, perigenital skin, caudal vagina and foot, all of which produced bilateral reflex multiunit electromyographic (MEMG) tonic "on" activity and displayed a rapid adaptation. However, deep vagina and cervical stimulation did not modify MEMG baseline activity even if it was combined with clitoris, perigenital skin and foot stimulation...
January 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375780/the-baubellum-is-more-developmentally-and-evolutionarily-labile-than-the-baculum
#4
Michael Lough-Stevens, Nicholas G Schultz, Matthew D Dean
Understanding the evolutionary forces that influence sexual dimorphism is a fundamental goal in biology. Here, we focus on one particularly extreme example of sexual dimorphism. Many mammal species possess a bone in their penis called a baculum. The female equivalent of this bone is called the baubellum and occurs in the clitoris, which is developmentally homologous to the male penis. To understand the potential linkage between these two structures, we scored baculum/baubellum presence/absence across 163 species and analyzed their distribution in a phylogenetic framework...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373631/physiological-and-anatomical-outputs-of-rat-genital-cortex
#5
Constanze Lenschow, Michael Brecht
Rat somatosensory genital cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic representation of the penis in males and the clitoris in females. Genital cortex microstimulation-evoked movements of legs, trunk and genitals, which showed sex-specific differences related to mating behaviors and included thrusting in males and lordosis-like movements in females. Erections/tumescence of penis or clitoris could not be evoked, however. Anterograde tracer injections into penis/clitoris cortex revealed eleven corticocortical and 10 subcortical projection targets, which were qualitatively similar in both sexes...
January 24, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315635/association-between-paternal-alcohol-consumption-before-conception-and-anogenital-distance-of-offspring
#6
Ruilan Xia, Longmei Jin, Dekun Li, Hong Liang, Fen Yang, Jianping Chen, Wei Yuan, Maohua Miao
BACKGROUND: There are limited studies on the effects of paternal alcohol consumption, before conception, on the reproductive development of offspring. Anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the center of the anus to the genitals, is a sensitive biomarker of reproductive hormone abnormalities during the critical developmental window. The relationship between paternal alcohol consumption and AGD of human offspring has not been studied yet. METHODS: This cohort study included 1,292 pregnant women recruited in Shanghai...
January 6, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245259/efficacy-of-pudendal-nerve-block-for-alleviation-of-catheter-related-bladder-discomfort-in-male-patients-undergoing-lower-urinary-tract-surgeries-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Li Xiaoqiang, Zhang Xuerong, Liu Juan, Bechu Shelley Mathew, Yin Xiaorong, Wan Qin, Luo Lili, Zhu Yingying, Luo Jun
BACKGROUND: Catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) to an indwelling urinary catheter is defined as a painful urethral discomfort, resistant to conventional opioid therapy, decreasing the quality of postoperative recovery. According to anatomy, the branches of sacral somatic nerves form the afferent nerves of the urethra and bladder triangle, which deriving from the ventral rami of the second to fourth sacral spinal nerves, innervating the urethral muscles and sphincter of the perineum and pelvic floor; as well as providing sensation to the penis and clitoris in males and females, which including the urethra and bladder triangle...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232631/ambiguous-genitalia-a-social-dilemma-in-bangladesh-a-case-report
#8
Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, Rashidul Anwar, Arnab Saha
INTRODUCTION: Ambiguous Genitalia is a form of birth defect in which sex of the newborn cannot be readily distinguishable because of atypical appearance of the external genitalia. CASE REPORT-CLINICAL FINDINGS: The patient, an 8 months old baby, was identified as a female baby since birth; but, some senior members of their neighborhood raised confusion regarding sex differentiation of the child. On examination, there was enlarged clitoris or micropenis, bifid scrotum or labioscrotal fold, and separate presence of urethral and vaginal orifices...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225952/thirty-year-trends-in-the-prevalence-and-severity-of-female-genital-mutilation-a-comparison-of-22-countries
#9
Alissa Koski, Jody Heymann
Introduction: Female genital mutilation (FGM) harms women's health and well-being and is widely considered a violation of human rights. The United Nations has called for elimination of the practice by 2030. Methods: We used household survey data to measure trends in the prevalence of FGM in 22 countries. We also examined trends in the severity of the practice by measuring changes in the prevalence of flesh removal, infibulation and symbolic 'nicking' of the genitals...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198508/the-g-spot-is-not-a-structure-evident-on-macroscopic-anatomic-dissection-of-the-vaginal-wall
#10
Nathan Hoag, Janet R Keast, Helen E O'Connell
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists in the literature regarding the presence or absence of an anatomic "G-spot." However, few studies have examined the detailed topographic or histologic anatomy of the putative G-spot location. AIM: To determine the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall and present detailed, systematic, accessible findings from female cadaveric dissections to provide anatomic clarity with respect to this location. METHODS: Systematic anatomic dissections were performed on 13 female cadavers (32-97 years old, 8 fixed and 5 fresh) to characterize the gross anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall...
December 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155806/anogenital-distance-as-a-phenotypic-signature-through-infancy
#11
Lærke Priskorn, Jørgen H Petersen, Niels Jørgensen, Henriette B Kyhl, Marianne S Andersen, Katharina M Main, Anna-Maria Andersson, Niels E Skakkebaek, Tina K Jensen
BACKGROUND: Anogenital distance (AGD) has been suggested to represent a phenotypic signature reflecting in utero androgen action. However, it is not known whether an individual's AGD at birth correlates to AGD later in life. We investigate correlations of AGD between 3 and 18 months and asses reproducibility of measurements. METHODS: We measured AGD from anus to scrotum (AGDas) and penis (AGDap) in 407 boys, and to posterior fourchette (AGDaf) and clitoris (AGDac) in 282 girls...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142769/plexiform-neurofibroma-of-clitoris
#12
Dhanya Yesodharan, Bindu Sudarsanan, Annie Jojo, Mohan Abraham, Nisha Bhavani, Hima Mathews, Sheela Nampoothiri
The most frequent genital presentation of neurofibromatosis in females is clitoromegaly. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1 with clitoral plexiform neurofibromatosis. Clitoroplasty was done, and the histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. Though rare, plexiform neurofibroma of clitoris should always be considered as a differential diagnosis in children with clitoromegaly before embarking on detailed investigations.
December 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036939/female-genital-mutilation-reconstruction-a-preliminary-report
#13
Catherine S Chang, David W Low, Ivona Percec
Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is internationally recognized as a violation of human rights. Though rarely discussed, FGM is prevalent, affecting hundreds of millions of females worldwide. Objectives: We believe that is important for plastic surgeons to be informed and prepared to address the surgical and emotional needs of these women. We present our experience on treatment of women subjected to FGM. Methods: Three consecutive patients were treated by our clitoral restoration procedure...
September 1, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983459/infantile-hemangioma-of-the-clitoris-presenting-as-a-clitoral-mass-a%C3%A2-case-report
#14
P E Nichols, J E Michaud, M H Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951863/a-case-of-granular-cell-tumor-of-the-clitoris-in-a-postmenopausal-woman
#15
Ji-Won Min, Yun-Sook Kim
Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a rare soft tissue tumor that derived from Schwann cells. Most are benign, less than 2% are malignant and, in the malignant cases, the prognosis of survival is poor. Most of these tumors are less than 3 cm in size, and they are more common in black women. The disease usually occurs in the 40s to the 60s and occurs after menopause, but there are few cases reported in adolescence. A 45-year-old woman visited the outpatient clinic with a solid mass that developed 2 years ago and present to date on the left side of the clitoris...
August 2017: Journal of Menopausal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942447/anogenital-distance-in-term-newborns-in-kumasi-ghana
#16
Serwah Bonsu Asafo-Agyei, Emmanuel Ameyaw, Jean-Pierre Chanoine, Margaret Zacharin, Samuel Blay Nguah, Olumide Olatokunbo Jarrett
BACKGROUND: Anogenital distance (AGD) is a simple noninvasive measure of foetal androgen exposure. This study was done to generate normative data on AGD in Ghanaian newborns. METHODS: AGD was measured in 644 male and 612 female term newborns; including the distance between the anterior base of the penis and the centre of the anus, the posterior base of the penis and the centre of the anus, and the posterior base of the scrotum and the centre of the anus (ASD) in males and the distance from the anus to the fourchette (AF) and from the anus to the base of the clitoris in females...
September 22, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922561/reconciling-female-genital-circumcision-with-universal-human-rights
#17
John-Stewart Gordon
One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913836/female-reproductive-system-morphology-of-crab-eating-fox-cerdocyon-thous-and-cryopreservation-of-genetic-material-for-animal-germplasm-bank-enrichment
#18
L C Machado, K C S Roballo, F S Cury, C E Ambrósio
The sprawl of the urbanization and road network process without building ecological corridors contributes to the high mortality rates and a threat to the population decline of wild species such as the crab-eating fox. A strategy for the ex situ conservation is the study of the reproductive biology of the species and cryopreservation of their genetic heritage through the formation of an animal germplasm bank. This research is in accordance with the principles adopted by Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation...
September 15, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894728/treatment-of-the-enlarged-clitoris
#19
REVIEW
Martin Kaefer, Richard C Rink
Management of the enlarged clitoris, because of its import for sexual function, has been and remains one of the most controversial topics in pediatric urology. Early controversy surrounding clitoroplasty resulted from many factors including an incomplete understanding of clitoral anatomy and incorrect assumptions of the role of the clitoris in sexual function. With a better understanding of anatomy and function, procedures have evolved to preserve clitoral tissue, especially with respect to the neurovascular bundles...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838354/the-medical-care-of-the-neovagina-of-transgender-women-a-review
#20
Vincent J Cornelisse, Rosemary A Jones, Christopher K Fairley, Sonia R Grover
For transgender women, genital adjustment surgery involves removal of the natal reproductive organs and creation of a neovagina, vulva and clitoris. We conducted a review of the medical literature in order to summarise the issues that can affect the health of the neovagina in the long term, and to make recommendations on how to manage these issues.
August 25, 2017: Sexual Health
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