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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910473/os-clitoris-in-dogs-17-cases-2009-2017
#1
Scarlett M Sumner, Janet A Grimes, Mandy L Wallace, Chad W Schmiedt
Medical records of 17 client-owned dogs diagnosed with os clitoris on physical examination or diagnostic imaging were reviewed to describe the clinical signs and surgical management of this condition. All dogs were phenotypically female. The most common presenting complaints included an enlarged clitoris ( n = 10), urinary tract infection ( n = 5), and licking of the vulva ( n = 3). Other frequently reported clinical signs included vaginal discharge and/or lower urinary tract signs such as pollakiuria. Ten dogs were surgically managed with os clitorectomy...
June 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908623/male-to-female-gender-confirmation-surgery-intestinal-vaginoplasty
#2
REVIEW
Karel E Y Claes, Piet Pattyn, Salvatore D'Arpa, Cedric Robbens, Stan J Monstrey
The major steps in vaginoplasty are orchiectomy, penile amputation, creation of the neovaginal cavity with lining, and reconstruction of urethral meatus, labia, and clitoris. During pedicled intestinal transfer, an intestinal segment is transferred in a dissected cavity between the bladder and rectum. The bowel harvest is performed by a total laparoscopic technique. It is imperative to create the labia majora and minora, the clitoris, and a clitoral hood to achieve the physiologic and aesthetic equivalent of female external genitalia...
July 2018: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892488/clitoroplasty-a-variant-of-the-technique-by-acimi
#3
Smail Acimi, Mohammed Ali Acimi, Lamia Debbous, Mimouna Bessahraoui, Ibtisseme Bouanani
Objectives: To evaluate the mid-term results of clitoroplasty through the reduction of the length and diameter of the corpus cavernosum, as well as the volume of the glans. Patients and methods: From October 2003 to July 2015, we performed 29 clitoroplasties using the described procedure. The median (range) age of the patients was 18 (3-47) months. After surgery we evaluated the volume of the clitoris, the appearance of glans, and its sensitivity to light touch, pressure, and pain...
June 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870471/the-role-of-androgens-in-the-treatment-of-genitourinary-syndrome-of-menopause-gsm-international-society-for-the-study-of-women-s-sexual-health-isswsh-expert-consensus-panel-review
#4
James A Simon, Irwin Goldstein, Noel N Kim, Susan R Davis, Susan Kellogg-Spadt, Lior Lowenstein, JoAnn V Pinkerton, Cynthia A Stuenkel, Abdulmaged M Traish, David F Archer, Gloria Bachmann, Andrew T Goldstein, Rossella E Nappi, Linda Vignozzi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this consensus document is to broaden the perspective on clinical management of genitourinary syndrome of menopause to include androgens. METHODS: A modified Delphi method was used to reach consensus among the 14 international panelists representing multiple disciplines and societies. RESULTS: Menopause-related genitourinary symptoms affect over 50% of midlife and older women. These symptoms have a marked impact on sexual functioning, daily activities, emotional well-being, body image, and interpersonal relations...
June 4, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804109/clitoromegaly-in-childhood-and-adolescence-behind-one-clinical-sign-a-clinical-sea
#5
Maria L Iezzi, Stefania Lasorella, Gaia Varriale, Luca Zagaroli, Michela Ambrosi, Alberto Verrotti
The clitoris is a highly complex organ whose structure has only been clarified in recent years through the use of modern imaging techniques. Clitoromegaly is an abnormal enlargement of this organ. It may be congenital or acquired and is usually due to an excess of androgens in fetal life, infancy, or adolescence. Obvious clitoromegaly in individuals with ambiguous genitalia is easily identifiable, whereas borderline conditions can pass unnoticed. Case reports of clitoromegaly with or without clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism are quite numerous...
May 26, 2018: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787390/genitourinary-syndrome-of-menopause
#6
Jan L Shifren
Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) describes a collection of exam findings and bothersome symptoms associated with estrogen deficiency involving changes to the labia, introitus, clitoris, vagina, urethra, and bladder. Vulvovaginal atrophy is a component of GSM. GSM is a highly prevalent medical condition with adverse effects on the health and quality of life of midlife women. There are many effective treatment options, including nonhormonal lubricants and moisturizers, physical therapy, low-dose vaginal estrogen therapy, vaginal dehydroepiandrosterone, and oral ospemifene...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767687/hormone-responsive-genes-in-the-shh-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathways-influence-urethral-closure-and-phallus-growth
#7
Yu Chen, Hongshi Yu, Andrew J Pask, Asao Fujiyama, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Geoff Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree
Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) that affect androgen or estrogen activity may disrupt gene regulation during normal phallus development to cause hypospadias or a masculinized clitoris. We treated developing male tammar wallabies with estrogen and females with androgen from day 20-40 postpartum (pp) during the established androgen imprinting window. Administration of estrogen to males inhibited phallus elongation but had no effect on urethral closure and did not significantly depress testicular androgen synthesis...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730432/a-case-of-unusual-clitoromegaly
#8
Tong Wooi Ch'ng, Vatcharapan Umpaichitra
BACKGROUND: Mild degree of clitoromegaly can be associated with patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We describe an unusually significant clitoromegaly in a patient with PCOS. CLINICAL CASE: An 18-year old non-obese female referred for clitoromegaly. Her genitalia exam showed significant clitoral enlargement with a well-formed glans, clitoris measured at 35 mm for length and 10 mm for width. Pelvic ultrasound showed left ovarian cyst. Testosterone level ranged from 28...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684807/development-of-urogenital-system-in-the-spix-cavy-a-model-for-studies-on-sexual-differentiation
#9
Amilton Cesar Dos Santos, Alan James Conley, Moacir Franco de Oliveira, Antônio Chaves de Assis Neto
This study documented, for the first time, the morphological patterns of differentiation of male and female genital organs of Spix cavy (Galea spixii) using histological and ultrastructural analyses, with immuno-localization of steroidogenic enzymes, cytochromes P450 aromatase (P450arom) and 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase (P450c17), involved in the synthesis of estrogens and androgens respectively throughout fetal sexual development. Undifferentiated gonads of Spix cavy develop into ovaries in females after 25 days of gestation (DG), exhibiting P450arom immunoreactivity...
May 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620697/iatrogenic-engorgement-of-the-clitoris-due-to-antidepressants-report-of-a-case
#10
Francesco Raudino, Grazia Buono
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575690/clarification-of-the-innervation-of-the-bladder-external-urethral-sphincter-and-clitoris-a-neuronal-tracing-study-in-female-mongrel-hound-dogs
#11
Mary F Barbe, Sandra M Gomez-Amaya, Danielle M Salvadeo, Neil S Lamarre, Ekta Tiwari, Shalonda Cook, Connor P Glair, Daniel H Jang, Rachel M Ragheb, Akaash Sheth, Alan S Braverman, Michael R Ruggieri
Many studies examining the innervation of genitourinary structures focus on either afferent or efferent inputs, or on only one structure of the system. We aimed to clarify innervation of the bladder, external urethral sphincter (EUS) and clitoris. Retrograde dyes were injected into each end organ in female dogs. Spinal cord, mid-bladder, and spinal, caudal mesenteric, sympathetic trunk and pelvic plexus ganglia were examined for retrograde dye-labeled neurons. Neurons retrogradely labeled from the bladder were found primarily in L7-S2 spinal ganglia, spinal cord lateral zona intermedia at S1-S3 levels, caudal mesenteric ganglia, T11-L2 and L6-S2 sympathetic trunk ganglia, and pelvic plexus ganglia...
March 25, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559206/retrospective-study-of-the-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-clitoral-adhesions-women-s-health-providers-should-routinely-examine-the-glans-clitoris
#12
Leen Aerts, Rachel S Rubin, Michael Randazzo, Sue W Goldstein, Irwin Goldstein
INTRODUCTION: The glans clitoris is covered by a prepuce that normally moves over the glans surface and can be retracted beyond the corona. Clitoral adhesions, ranging from mild to severe, occur when preputial skin adheres to the glans. Physical examination consistent with clitoral adhesions is based on the inability to visualize the entire glans corona. In this closed compartment, the space underneath the adherent prepuce and clitoris can become irritated, erythematous, or infected and can result in sexual dysfunction...
June 2018: Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537732/female-orgasm-and-the-emergence-of-prosocial-empathy-an-evo-devo-perspective
#13
James Kennedy, Mihaela Pavličev
In human females, direct or indirect stimulation of the clitoris plays a central role in reaching orgasm. A majority of women report that penetrative coitus alone is insufficient for triggering orgasm, puzzling researchers who expect orgasm to be an outcome of procreative intercourse. In the present paper, we turn our attention to the evolutionary role that such unreliability of orgasm at coitus might have played in human evolution. We emphasize that we do not thereby attempt an explanation of its origin, but its potential evolutionary effect...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524055/morphometric-and-vascular-modifications-of-the-clitoris-during-pregnancy-a-longitudinal-pilot-study
#14
Cesare Battaglia, Nicola Persico, Isabella Zanetti, Francesca Guasina, Mara Mattioli, Paolo Casadio, Elena Morotti
During pregnancy, women go through a series of physical and emotional changes that may have an impact on their sexuality. The aim of the study was to examine modifications in sexual function during pregnancy by means of translabial ultrasonography and administration of questionnaires on sexual activity. Eighteen healthy and adult (25-35 years) pregnant women without sexual dysfunction and with a stable heterosexual relationship were examined at 10-12, 18-20, and 30-32 weeks of gestation. Patients underwent ultrasonographic translabial clitoral volume and labia minora thickness measurements and color Doppler assessment of the dorsal clitoral and posterior labial arteries...
July 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520678/intraoperative-feasibility-of-bulbocavernosus-reflex-monitoring-during-untethering-surgery-in-infants-and-children
#15
Takeaki Shinjo, Hironobu Hayashi, Tsunenori Takatani, Eishu Boku, Hiroyuki Nakase, Masahiko Kawaguchi
Bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) monitoring is used to assess the integrity of urinary and bowel function. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of BCR monitoring during untethering surgery in infants and children to predict postoperative urinary and bowel dysfunction. The records of 22 patients ranging from 4 days to 10 years old (mean 2.7 ± 3.3 years) were reviewed. Anesthesia was maintained by propofol or sevoflurane/opioid without neuromuscular blockade. BCR waveforms induced by electrical stimulation (20-40 mA, train-of-four pulses with 500 Hz) to the penis or clitoris were recorded from bilateral external anal sphincters...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484212/a-very-rare-case-hpv-negative-vulvar-cancer-in-an-adolescent
#16
Ilker Kahramanoglu, Hasan Turan, Yahya Ozgun Oner, Tugan Bese, Sennur Ilvan, Macit Arvas, Fuat Demirkiran
Carcinoma of the vulva is usually regarded as a disease of older women, with the typical age of 65-85 years. There are a limited number of reports of vulvar cancer cases younger than 30 years. These patients have usually risk factors such as human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and immunosuppression. Herein, we present a case of invasive squamous vulvar cancer in an 18-year-old patient without any risk factor. Vulvar radical local excision and bilateral inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed. The clitoris was preserved during the surgery...
2018: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463476/defibulation-a-visual-reference-and-learning-tool
#17
Jasmine Abdulcadir, Sandra Marras, Lucrezia Catania, Omar Abdulcadir, Patrick Petignat
Female genital mutilation type III (infibulation) is achieved by narrowing the vaginal orifice by creating a covering seal, accomplished by cutting and appositioning the labia minora and/or labia majora, with or without clitoral excision. Infibulation is responsible for significant urogynecological, obstetrical, and psychosexual consequences that can be treated with defibulation (or de-infibulation), an operation that opens the infibulation scar, exposing the vulvar vestibule, vaginal orifice, external urethral meatus, and eventually the clitoris...
April 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423307/the-importance-of-the-bulbocavernosus-reflex
#18
REVIEW
Jean Gabriel Previnaire
The BCR consists of the contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscle in response to squeezing the glans penis or clitoris, and is mediated through the pudendal nerve. In case of a complete lesion, the presence of BCR is indicative of intact S2-S4 spinal reflex arcs and loss of supraspinal inhibition, determining an upper motor neuron (UMN) lesion, its absence a lower motor neuron (LMN) lesion. The BCR further helps distinguish conus medullaris from cauda equina syndromes. Sensory or motor function in the most caudal sacral segments, not BCR, defines the sacral sparing as part of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI)...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391219/spinal-cord-neuronal-components-involved-in-the-reflex-activity-of-female-rat-pubococcygeus-motoneurons
#19
O Lara-García, M Lara-García, D Perez-Hernandez, E Cuevas, M Martínez-Gómez, P Pacheco
Evoked EMG reflex activity from the pubococcygeus muscle of female Wistar rats has been reported, but has not been carefully analyzed. Here, we studied this reflex activity through mechanical stimulation of the clitoris, perigenital skin, caudal vagina and foot, all of which produced bilateral reflex multiunit electromyographic (MEMG) tonic "on" activity and displayed a rapid adaptation. However, deep vagina and cervical stimulation did not modify MEMG baseline activity even if it was combined with clitoris, perigenital skin and foot stimulation...
March 23, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375780/the-baubellum-is-more-developmentally-and-evolutionarily-labile-than-the-baculum
#20
Michael Lough-Stevens, Nicholas G Schultz, Matthew D Dean
Understanding the evolutionary forces that influence sexual dimorphism is a fundamental goal in biology. Here, we focus on one particularly extreme example of sexual dimorphism. Many mammal species possess a bone in their penis called a baculum. The female equivalent of this bone is called the baubellum and occurs in the clitoris, which is developmentally homologous to the male penis. To understand the potential linkage between these two structures, we scored baculum/baubellum presence/absence across 163 species and analyzed their distribution in a phylogenetic framework...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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