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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921329/metabolomic-signatures-distinguish-the-impact-of-formula-carbohydrates-on-disease-outcome-in-a-preterm-piglet-model-of-nec
#1
Lee Call, Barbara Stoll, Berthe Oosterloo, Nadim Ajami, Fariha Sheikh, Anja Wittke, Rosaline Waworuntu, Brian Berg, Joseph Petrosino, Oluyinka Olutoye, Douglas Burrin
BACKGROUND: Major risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) include premature birth and formula feeding in the context of microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. We previously showed that feeding formula composed of lactose vs. corn syrup solids protects against NEC in preterm pigs; however, the microbial and metabolic effects of these different carbohydrates used in infant formula has not been explored. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize the effects of lactose- and corn syrup solid-based formulas on the metabolic and microbial profiles of preterm piglets and to determine whether unique metabolomic or microbiome signatures correlate with severity or incidence of NEC...
June 19, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789574/helicobacter-pylori-infected-c57bl-6-mice-with-different-gastrointestinal-microbiota-have-contrasting-gastric-pathology-microbial-and-host-immune-responses
#2
Zhongming Ge, Alexander Sheh, Yan Feng, Sureshkumar Muthupalani, Lili Ge, Chuanwu Wang, Susanna Kurnick, Anthony Mannion, Mark T Whary, James G Fox
C57BL/6 (B6) mice from Taconic Sciences (Tac) and the Jackson Laboratory (Jax) were infected with H. pylori PMSS1 (Hp) for 16 week; there was no significant difference in the gastric histologic activity index between Hp infected Tac and Jax B6. However, the degree of gastric mucous metaplasia and Th1-associated IgG2c levels in response to Hp infection were increased in Tac mice over Jax mice, whereas the colonization levels of gastric Hp were higher by 8-fold in Jax B6 compared with Tac B6. Additionally, mRNA expression of gastric Il-1β, Il-17A and RegIIIγ were significantly lower in the infected Tac compared to the infected Jax mice...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694348/oral-microbiota-reveals-signs-of-acculturation-in-mexican-american-women
#3
Kristi L Hoffman, Diane S Hutchinson, Jerry Fowler, Daniel P Smith, Nadim J Ajami, Hua Zhao, Paul Scheet, Wong-Ho Chow, Joseph F Petrosino, Carrie R Daniel
The oral microbiome has been linked to a number of chronic inflammatory conditions, including obesity, diabetes, periodontitis, and cancers of the stomach and liver. These conditions disproportionately affect Mexican American women, yet few studies have examined the oral microbiota in this at-risk group. We characterized the 16S rDNA oral microbiome in 369 non-smoking women enrolled in the MD Anderson Mano a Mano Mexican American Cohort Study. Lower bacterial diversity, a potential indicator of oral health, was associated with increased age and length of US residency among recent immigrants...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692775/microbiome-of-total-versus-live-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-rex-rabbits
#4
Xiangchao Fu, Bo Zeng, Ping Wang, Lihuan Wang, Bin Wen, Ying Li, Hanzhong Liu, Shiqie Bai, Gang Jia
Gastrointestinal bacteria are essential for host health, and only viable microorganisms contribute to gastrointestinal functions. When evaluating the gut microbiota by next generation sequencing method, dead bacteria, which compose a proportion of gut bacteria, may distort analysis of the live gut microbiota. We collected stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon contents from Rex rabbits. A modified propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment protocol was used to exclude DNA from dead bacteria. Analysis of untreated samples yielded total bacteria, and analysis of PMA-treated samples yielded live bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535763/genetic-markers-are-associated-with-the-ruminal-microbiome-and-metabolome-in-grain-and-sugar-challenged-dairy-heifers
#5
Helen M Golder, Jennifer M Thomson, Stuart E Denman, Chris S McSweeney, Ian J Lean
Dairy heifers were subjected to a non-life-threatening challenge designed to induce ruminal acidosis by feeding grain and sugar. Large among animal variation in clinical signs of acidosis, rumen metabolite concentrations, and the rumen microbiome occurred. This exploratory study investigates sources of the variation by examining associations between the genome, metabolome, and microbiome, albeit with a limited population. The broader objective is to provide a rationale for a larger field study to identify markers for susceptibility to ruminal acidosis...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367052/construction-and-optimization-of-ph-sensitive-nanoparticle-delivery-system-containing-plga-and-uccs-2-for-targeted-treatment-of-helicobacter-pylori
#6
Min Luo, Yi-Yang Jia, Zi-Wei Jing, Chen Li, Si-Yuan Zhou, Qi-Bing Mei, Bang-Le Zhang
The acidic environment of the stomach is a threat to the curative effect of antimicrobial drugs for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the infected area. The conventional clinical formulations of antibiotics have low specificity to H. pylori, which disrupts the normal balance of intestinal microbiomes. Therefore, oral drug delivery system with better stability at low pH as well as higher specificity to target H. pylori would provide more effective strategy to eradicate H. pylori and reduce the side effect of antibiotics...
April 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273882/the-oral-microbiome-the-relevant-reservoir-for-acute-pediatric-appendicitis
#7
Carlotta Blod, Nadine Schlichting, Sara Schülin, Anne Suttkus, Nicole Peukert, Catalina Suzana Stingu, Christian Hirsch, Wieland Elger, Martin Lacher, Ulf Bühligen, Steffi Mayer
PURPOSE: The oral microbiome has been related to numerous extra oral diseases. Recent studies detected a high abundance of oral bacteria in inflamed appendices in pediatric patients. To elucidate the role of oral bacteria in acute pediatric appendicitis, we studied the oral and appendiceal microbiome of affected children compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Between January and June 2015, 21 children undergoing appendectomy for acute appendicitis and 28 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled in the study...
February 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243124/gut-microbiome-a-new-player-in-gastrointestinal-disease
#8
REVIEW
Gregor Gorkiewicz, Alexander Moschen
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a diverse and host-specific gut microbial community. Whereas host-microbe interactions are based on homeostasis and mutualism, the microbiome also contributes to disease development. In this review, we summarize recent findings connecting the GI microbiome with GI disease. Starting with a description of biochemical factors shaping microbial compositions in each gut segment along the longitudinal axis, improved histological techniques enabling high resolution visualization of the spatial microbiome structure are highlighted...
January 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195678/the-interaction-between-smoking-alcohol-and-the-gut-microbiome
#9
REVIEW
Gabriele Capurso, Edith Lahner
The gastrointestinal microbiome is a complex echosystem that establishes a symbiotic, mutually beneficial relation with the host, being rather stable in health, but affected by age, drugs, diet, alcohol, and smoking. Alcohol and smoking contribute to changes in the stomach and affect H pylori-related disorders including the risk of gastric cancer. In the small intestine and in the colon alcohol causes depletion of bacteria with anti-inflammatory activity, eventually resulting in intestinal damage with "leaky gut"...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155033/the-gut-virome-of-the-protochordate-model-organism-ciona-intestinalis-subtype-a
#10
Brittany A Leigh, Anni Djurhuus, Mya Breitbart, Larry J Dishaw
The identification of host-specific bacterial and viral communities associated with diverse animals has led to the concept of the metaorganism, which defines the animal and all of its associated microbes as a single unit. Here we sequence the viruses found in the gut (i.e., the gut virome) of the marine invertebrate model system, Ciona intestinalis subtype A, in samples collected one year apart. We present evidence for a host-associated virome that is distinct from the surrounding seawater and contains some temporally-stable members...
January 15, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149924/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-disease-in-spondyloarthritis
#11
REVIEW
Liron Caplan, Kristine A Kuhn
The association of inflammatory arthritis with intestinal pathology extends back more than 100 years. This association is now supported by epidemiologic studies demonstrating an elevated prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in spondyloarthritis and vice versa, compared with the general population. Genetic and intestinal microbiome studies have further linked these diseases. Although diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease disproportionately affect individuals with psoriatic arthritis, diseases of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and liver are not particularly common in spondyloarthritis...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146657/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-sleeve-device-endobarrier-compared-with-standard-medical-therapy-for-the-management-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Michael Alan Glaysher, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Christina Gabriele Prechtl, Anthony P Goldstone, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Joanne Lord, Navpreet Chhina, Emanuela Falaschetti, Nicholas Andrew Johnson, Werd Al-Najim, Claire Smith, Jia V Li, Mayank Patel, Ahmed R Ahmed, Michael Moore, Neil Poulter, Stephen Bloom, Ara Darzi, Carel Le Roux, James P Byrne, Julian P Teare
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is increasing. Exclusion of the foregut, as occurs in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has a key role in the metabolic improvements that occur following bariatric surgery, which are independent of weight loss. Endoscopically placed duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve devices, such as the EndoBarrier (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA), have been designed to create an impermeable barrier between chyme exiting the stomach and the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098532/microbial-community-and-ovine-host-response-varies-with-early-and-late-stages-of-haemonchus-contortus-infection
#13
Saeed El-Ashram, Ibrahim Al Nasr, Fathi Abouhajer, Maged El-Kemary, Guangping Huang, Güngör Dinçel, Rashid Mehmood, Min Hu, Xun Suo
The interactions between gastric microbiota, ovine host, and Haemonchus contortus portray the ovine gastric environment as a complex ecosystem, where all factors play a pertinent role in fine-tuning each other and in haemeostasis. We delineated the impact of early and late Haemonchus infection on abomasal and ruminal microbial community, as well as the ovine host. Twelve, parasite-naive lambs were divided into four groups, 7 days post-infection (dpi) and time-matched uninfected-control groups; 50 dpi and time-matched uninfected control groups were used for the experiment...
December 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934349/the-association-between-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-and-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
Daniela Weber, Katrin Frauenschläger, Sakhila Ghimire, Katrin Peter, Isabella Panzer, Andreas Hiergeist, Markus Weber, Daniel Kutny, Daniel Wolff, Matthias Grube, Elisabeth Huber, Peter Oefner, Andre Gessner, Thomas Hehlgans, Wolfgang Herr, Ernst Holler
Intestinal microbiota disruption is associated with acute gastrointestinal (GI) Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD) and poor outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Here, in a retrospective analysis of 200 patients undergoing ASCT at the Regensburg University Medical Center, we assessed the relative expression of Paneth cell antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), Human Defensins (HD) 5 and 6 and regenerating islet-derived 3α (Reg3α), in 292 human intestinal biopsies as well as Reg3α serum levels in relation to acute GI GvHD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891140/other-helicobacters-gastric-and-gut-microbiota
#15
REVIEW
Christelle Péré-Védrenne, Bram Flahou, Mun Fai Loke, Armelle Ménard, Jamuna Vadivelu
The current article is a review of the most important and relevant literature published in 2016 and early 2017 on non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter infections in humans and animals, as well as interactions between H. pylori and the microbiota of the stomach and other organs. Some putative new Helicobacter species were identified in sea otters, wild boars, dogs, and mice. Many cases of Helicobacter fennelliae and Helicobacter cinaedi infection have been reported in humans, mostly in immunocompromised patients...
September 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876684/differences-in-microbiome-in-rat-models-of-cardiovascular-disease
#16
A Thiba, C A Umar, S Myende, E Nweke, K Rumbold, G Candy
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have underscored the important role the gut metagenome in various human diseases, including diabetes and obesity. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and heart and kidney failure, and affects approximately 25% of the world's adult population. The cause of essential hypertension remains unknown. Patients given antibiotics show blood pressure changes and transfer of gut bacteria from hypertensive to normal WKY rats resulted in the latter developing hypertension...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839269/microbiome-dynamics-in-a-shrimp-grow-out-pond-with-possible-outbreak-of-acute-hepatopancreatic-necrosis-disease
#17
Wei-Yu Chen, Tze Hann Ng, Jer-Horng Wu, Jiung-Wen Chen, Han-Ching Wang
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) (formerly, early mortality syndrome) is a high-mortality-rate shrimp disease prevalent in shrimp farming areas. Although AHPND is known to be caused by pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus hosting the plasmid-related PirAB(vp) toxin gene, the effects of disturbances in microbiome have not yet been studied. We took 62 samples from a grow-out pond during an AHPND developing period from Days 23 to 37 after stocking white postlarvae shrimp and sequenced the 16S rRNA genes with Illumina sequencing technology...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733944/the-gastric-and-intestinal-microbiome-role-of-proton-pump-inhibitors
#18
REVIEW
Artem Minalyan, Lilit Gabrielyan, David Scott, Jonathan Jacobs, Joseph R Pisegna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of Helicobacter pylori and other organisms colonizing the stomach and the intestines has shed some light on the importance of microbiome in maintaining overall health and developing pathological conditions when alterations in biodiversity are present. The gastric acidity plays a crucial role in filtering out bacteria and preventing development of enteric infections. In this article, we discuss the physiology of gastric acid secretion and bacterial contribution to the composition of gastric and intestinal barriers and review the current literature on the role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the microbial biodiversity of the gastrointestinal tract...
August 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730144/molecular-characterization-of-the-human-stomach-microbiota-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#19
Guoqin Yu, Javier Torres, Nan Hu, Rafael Medrano-Guzman, Roberto Herrera-Goepfert, Michael S Humphrys, Lemin Wang, Chaoyu Wang, Ti Ding, Jacques Ravel, Philip R Taylor, Christian C Abnet, Alisa M Goldstein
Helicobacter pylori ( Hp ) is the primary cause of gastric cancer but we know little of its relative abundance and other microbes in the stomach, especially at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis. Here we characterized the taxonomic and derived functional profiles of gastric microbiota in two different sets of gastric cancer patients, and compared them with microbial profiles in other body sites. Paired non-malignant and tumor tissues were sampled from 160 gastric cancer patients with 80 from China and 80 from Mexico...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587343/alteration-of-stomach-microbiota-compositions-in-the-progression-of-gastritis-induces-nitric-oxide-in-gastric-cell
#20
Tianyi Dong, Qiang Feng, Fengyan Liu, Lap Kam Chang, Xiangyu Zhou, Mingyong Han, Xingsong Tian, Ning Zhong, Shili Liu
Atrophic gastritis is considered to be an antecedent to intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. A previous study identified that Helicobacter pylori was absent at the severe atrophic gastritis stage, and alterations in the gastric microbial composition resembled those in gastric cancer. To explore the role of the bacteria absence of H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis, in the current study, we compared the microbiota of clinically collected H. pylori-free gastric fluids from 30 patients with non-atrophic gastritis (N) and 22 patients with severe atrophic gastritis (S)...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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