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Microbiome of stomach

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164846/the-esophageal-and-gastric-microbiome-in-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Richard H Hunt, Mohammad Yaghoobi
The esophagus and stomach are host to their own population of bacteria, which differs in health and disease. Helicobacter pylori uniquely colonizes only gastric mucosa, but an increasing number of bacteria is now isolated from the gastric juice and gastric mucosa, including Lactobacillus. The presence of H pylori alters populations of other gastric bacteria with a marked reduction in diversity. Alterations in intragastric acidity may be the cause or the consequence of changes in the microbial populations of the stomach...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120843/helicobacter-pylori-infection-is-associated-with-an-altered-gastric-microbiota-in-children
#2
K M Brawner, R Kumar, C A Serrano, T Ptacek, E Lefkowitz, C D Morrow, D Zhi, K R Kyanam-Kabir-Baig, L E Smythies, P R Harris, P D Smith
The intestinal microbiome in early life influences development of the mucosal immune system and predisposition to certain diseases. Because less is known about the microbiome in the stomach and its relationship to disease, we characterized the microbiota in the stomachs of 86 children and adults and the impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on the bacterial communities. The overall composition of the gastric microbiota in children and adults without H. pylori infection was similar, with minor differences in only low abundance taxa...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118849/distinguishing-potential-bacteria-tumor-associations-from-contamination-in-a-secondary-data-analysis-of-public-cancer-genome-sequence-data
#3
Kelly M Robinson, Jonathan Crabtree, John S A Mattick, Kathleen E Anderson, Julie C Dunning Hotopp
BACKGROUND: A variety of bacteria are known to influence carcinogenesis. Therefore, we sought to investigate if publicly available whole genome and whole transcriptome sequencing data generated by large public cancer genome efforts, like The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), could be used to identify bacteria associated with cancer. The Burrows-Wheeler aligner (BWA) was used to align a subset of Illumina paired-end sequencing data from TCGA to the human reference genome and all complete bacterial genomes in the RefSeq database in an effort to identify bacterial read pairs from the microbiome...
January 25, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866909/unsaturated-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-the-gastric-pathogen-helicobacter-pylori-proceeds-via-a-backtracking-mechanism
#4
Hongkai Bi, Lei Zhu, Jia Jia, Liping Zeng, John E Cronan
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the upper gastrointestinal tract in humans, and the presence of this pathogen in the gut microbiome increases the risk of peptic ulcers and stomach cancer. H. pylori depends on unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis for maintaining membrane structure and function. Although some of the H. pylori enzymes involved in UFA biosynthesis are functionally homologous with the enzymes found in Escherichia coli, we show here that an enzyme HP0773, now annotated as FabX, uses an unprecedented backtracking mechanism to not only dehydrogenate decanoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) in a reaction that parallels that of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, the first enzyme of the fatty acid β-oxidation cycle, but also isomerizes trans-2-decenoyl-ACP to cis-3-decenoyl-ACP, the key UFA synthetic intermediate...
December 22, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820723/characterization-of-the-gastric-microbiota-in-a-pediatric-population-according-to-helicobacter-pylori-status
#5
Laura Llorca, Guillermo Pérez-Pérez, Pedro Urruzuno, Maria Josefa Martinez, Tadasu Iizumi, Zhan Gao, Jiho Sohn, Jennifer Chung, Laura Cox, Aurea Simón-Soro, Alex Mira, Teresa Alarcón
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach of approximately 50% of the world's population, and increases the risk of several gastric diseases. The goal of this study is to compare the gastric microbiota in pediatric patients with and without H. pylori colonization. METHODS: We studied 51 children who underwent gastric endoscopy because of dyspeptic symptoms (18 H. pylori positive and 33 negative). Gastric biopsies were obtained for rapid urease test, culture, histology and DNA extraction...
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688750/nutrition-and-helicobacter-pylori-host-diet-and-nutritional-immunity-influence-bacterial-virulence-and-disease-outcome
#6
REVIEW
Kathryn P Haley, Jennifer A Gaddy
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of greater than 50% of the world's human population making it arguably one of the most successful bacterial pathogens. Chronic H. pylori colonization results in gastritis in nearly all patients; however in a subset of people, persistent infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk for more severe disease outcomes including B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and invasive adenocarcinoma. Research aimed at elucidating determinants that mediate disease progression has revealed genetic differences in both humans and H...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687914/comparing-the-survivability-of-lactobacillus-species-in-various-probiotic-delivery-vehicles
#7
Derek Fleming, Jennifer Kesey, Kendra Rumbaugh, Sharmila Dissanaike
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are widely used in healthy and nonhealthy individuals to maintain a favorable gut microbiome and inhibit pathogen takeover. Currently, there are many varieties of probiotic delivery vehicles on the market, with no real research indicating which is the most effective at allowing for colon colonization. In this study, we sought to determine if probiotic preparation influences the ability of Lactobacillus species, one of the most common genera of probiotic bacteria, to survive gastric acidity...
September 29, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623520/thinking-with-your-stomach-gut-feelings-on-microbiome-modulation-of-brain-structure-and-function-commentary-on-luczynski-et%C3%A2-al
#8
Anthony J Hannan
Is that a rumbling I feel in my stomach? Or perhaps it is the trillions of bacteria down there who are in revolt, fomenting (or fermenting!) a microbial revolution? No active biologist or medical researcher can easily ignore the revolution in gut microbiome research in recent years. It seems that the gut microbiome, the entire microbial ecosystem occupying the gastrointestinal ecological niche, can impact almost every organ in the human body, not least of which being the brain. The gut microbiome has been found to signal to both the developing and adult mammalian brain, modulating both health and disease states (Cryan and Dinan, 2012; Mayer et al...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615066/the-microbiome-of-a-striped-dolphin-stenella-coeruleoalba-stranded-in-portugal
#9
Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Arnold Rodriguez-Hilario, Ana Luísa Alves, Filipa Gonçalves, Beatriz Cabrera-Colon, Cristina Sousa Mesquita, Pedro Soares-Castro, Marisa Ferreira, Ana Marçalo, José Vingada, Catarina Eira, Pedro Miguel Santos
Infectious diseases with epizootic consequences have not been fully studied in marine mammals. Presently, the unprecedented depth of sequencing, made available by high-throughput approaches, allows detailed comparisons of the microbiome in health and disease. This is the first report of the striped dolphin microbiome in different body sites. Samples from one striped female edematous dolphin were acquired from a variety of body niches, including the blowhole, oral cavity, oral mucosa, tongue, stomach, intestines and genital mucosa...
January 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546848/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Lydia E Wroblewski, Richard M Peek, Lori A Coburn
Humans are host to complex microbial communities previously termed normal flora and largely overlooked. However, resident microbes contribute to both health and disease. Investigators are beginning to define microbes that contribute to the development of gastrointestinal malignancies and the mechanisms by which this occurs. Resident microbes can induce inflammation, leading to cell proliferation and altered stem cell dynamics, which can lead to alterations in DNA integrity and immune regulation and promote carcinogenesis...
September 2016: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516760/the-woodrat-gut-microbiota-as-an-experimental-system-for-understanding-microbial-metabolism-of-dietary-toxins
#11
REVIEW
Kevin D Kohl, M Denise Dearing
The microbial communities inhabiting the alimentary tracts of mammals, particularly those of herbivores, are estimated to be one of the densest microbial reservoirs on Earth. The significance of these gut microbes in influencing the physiology, ecology and evolution of their hosts is only beginning to be realized. To understand the microbiome of herbivores with a focus on nutritional ecology, while evaluating the roles of host evolution and environment in sculpting microbial diversity, we have developed an experimental system consisting of the microbial communities of several species of herbivorous woodrats (genus Neotoma) that naturally feed on a variety of dietary toxins...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514729/environment-shapes-the-fecal-microbiome-of-invasive-carp-species
#12
Jessica J Eichmiller, Matthew J Hamilton, Christopher Staley, Michael J Sadowsky, Peter W Sorensen
BACKGROUND: Although the common, silver, and bighead carps are native and sparsely distributed in Eurasia, these fish have become abundant and invasive in North America. An understanding of the biology of these species may provide insights into sustainable control methods. The animal-associated microbiome plays an important role in host health. Characterization of the carp microbiome and the factors that affect its composition is an important step toward understanding the biology and interrelationships between these species and their environments...
2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485780/the-microbiome-of-aseptically-collected-human-breast-tissue-in-benign-and-malignant-disease
#13
Tina J Hieken, Jun Chen, Tanya L Hoskin, Marina Walther-Antonio, Stephen Johnson, Sheri Ramaker, Jian Xiao, Derek C Radisky, Keith L Knutson, Krishna R Kalari, Janet Z Yao, Larry M Baddour, Nicholas Chia, Amy C Degnim
Globally breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women. The breast consists of epithelium, stroma and a mucosal immune system that make up a complex microenvironment. Growing awareness of the role of microbes in the microenvironment recently has led to a series of findings important for human health. The microbiome has been implicated in cancer development and progression at a variety of body sites including stomach, colon, liver, lung, and skin. In this study, we assessed breast tissue microbial signatures in intraoperatively obtained samples using 16S rDNA hypervariable tag sequencing...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431457/insulin-resistance-microbiota-and-fat-distribution-changes-by-a-new-model-of-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-in-obese-rats
#14
Nicola Basso, Emanuele Soricelli, Lidia Castagneto-Gissey, Giovanni Casella, Davide Albanese, Francesca Fava, Claudio Donati, Kieran Tuohy, Giulia Angelini, Federica La Neve, Anna Severino, Virginia Kamvissi-Lorenz, Andrea L Birkenfeld, Stefan Bornstein, Melania Manco, Geltrude Mingrone
Metabolic surgery improves insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes possibly because of weight loss. We performed a novel sleeve gastrectomy in rats that resects ∼80% of the glandular portion, leaving the forestomach almost intact (glandular gastrectomy [GG]) and compared subsequent metabolic remodeling with a sham operation. GG did not affect body weight, at least after 10 weeks; improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity likely through increased Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3, and AMPK phosphorylation; and reduced ectopic fat deposition and hepatic glycogen overaccumulation...
October 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245316/microbiological-profiles-of-sputum-and-gastric-juice-aspirates-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#15
H Al-Momani, A Perry, C J Stewart, R Jones, A Krishnan, A G Robertson, S Bourke, S Doe, S P Cummings, A Anderson, T Forrest, S M Griffin, M Brodlie, J Pearson, C Ward
Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene...
June 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028228/helicobacter-pylori-and-other-gastric-microbiota-in-gastroduodenal-pathologies
#16
REVIEW
Christian Schulz, Kerstin Schütte, Peter Malfertheiner
The discovery of Helicobacter pylori changed the traditional view of the stomach as a hostile organ to bacterial survival. H. pylori induces chronic gastritis, which has the potential to progress to severe complications such as peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia. The development of modern nucleotide sequencing techniques and new biocomputational tools allow the possibility of studying the diversity and complexity of the microbiome in the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract and overcome the limitations of culturing techniques...
2016: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26876927/imbalance-of-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-of-helicobacter-pylori-associated-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Cong He, Zhen Yang, Nonghua Lu
The development of new nucleotide sequencing techniques and advanced bioinformatics tools has opened the field for studying the diversity and complexity of the gastrointestinal microbiome independent of traditional cultural methods. Owing largely to the gastric acid barrier, the human stomach was long thought to be sterile. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori, the gram-negative bacterium that infects upwards of 50% of the global population, has started a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the stomach as an ecologic niche for bacteria...
October 2016: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26614063/identification-of-low-abundance-microbiome-in-clinical-samples-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#18
Chao Zhang, Kyle Cleveland, Felice Schnoll-Sussman, Bridget McClure, Michelle Bigg, Prashant Thakkar, Nikolaus Schultz, Manish A Shah, Doron Betel
Identifying the microbiome composition from primary tissues directly affords an opportunity to study the causative relationships between the host microbiome and disease. However, this is challenging due the low abundance of microbial DNA relative to the host. We present a systematic evaluation of microbiome profiling directly from endoscopic biopsies by whole genome sequencing. We compared our methods with other approaches on datasets with previously identified microbial composition. We applied this approach to identify the microbiome from 27 stomach biopsies, and validated the presence of Helicobacter pylori by quantitative PCR...
2015: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26461352/a-dietary-driven-redox-modulation-of-gut-microbiome-host-interactions-the-rescue-of-epithelial-barrier-and-mucus-production-during-dysbiosis-by-dietary-nitrate
#19
Bárbara Rocha, Mariana Correia, Rui Barbosa, João Laranjinha
Dietary nitrate, from green-leafy vegetables, is reduced to nitrite in the oral cavity and to nitric oxide ((•)NO) in the stomach. Gut microbiota is raising a great deal of interest since it has been recognized to be crucial to maintain gastrointestinal (GI) and systemic welfare. Dysbiosis (altered gut flora) is associated with increased epithelial permeability, deficient mucus production and with the activation of inflammatory pathways. Here we investigate whether dietary nitrate rescues GI physiology during dysbiosis...
October 2014: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26342014/the-stomach-in-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
R H Hunt, M Camilleri, S E Crowe, E M El-Omar, J G Fox, E J Kuipers, P Malfertheiner, K E L McColl, D M Pritchard, M Rugge, A Sonnenberg, K Sugano, J Tack
The stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials, including our nutrition, have to negotiate this organ first, and as such, the stomach is arguably the most important segment within the GI tract. The unique biological function of gastric acid secretion not only initiates the digestive process but also acts as a first line of defence against food-borne microbes...
October 2015: Gut
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