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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713585/associations-of-centrally-acting-ace-inhibitors-with-cognitive-decline-and-survival-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Karim Fazal, Gayan Perera, Mizanur Khondoker, Robert Howard, Robert Stewart
BACKGROUND: Cognitive improvement has been reported in patients receiving centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (C-ACEIs). AIMS: To compare cognitive decline and survival after diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease between people receiving C-ACEIs, non-centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (NC-ACEIs), and neither. METHOD: Routine Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were extracted in 5260 patients receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and analysed against C-/NC-ACEI exposure at the time of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis...
July 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672022/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-tomm40-523-haplotypes-and-the-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-older-caucasian-and-african-americans
#2
Lei Yu, Michael W Lutz, Robert S Wilson, Daniel K Burns, Allen D Roses, Ann M Saunders, Jingyun Yang, Chris Gaiteri, Philip L De Jager, Lisa L Barnes, David A Bennett
Patterns of linkage between the ε4 allele of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and '523 poly-T alleles in the adjacent gene, TOMM40, differ between Caucasian and African Americans. The extent to which this difference affects the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unclear. We compared the APOE ε4-TOMM40 '523 haplotypes between older Caucasian and African Americans, and examined their relationship with AD dementia. Data came from three community based cohort studies of diverse participants. APOE genotypes were determined by polymorphisms of rs429358 and rs7412...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657600/the-association-between-the-mediterranean-dietary-pattern-and-cognitive-health-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Yasmine S Aridi, Jacqueline L Walker, Olivia R L Wright
The ageing population is accompanied by increased rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Not only does cognitive decline have a profound impact on an individual's health and quality of life, but also on that of their caregivers. The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been known to aid in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes. It has been recently linked to better cognitive function in the elderly population. The purpose of this review was to compile evidence based data that examined the effect of adherence to the MD on cognitive function and the risk of developing dementia or Alzheimer's disease...
June 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626918/marinesco-bodies-and-substantia-nigra-neuron-density-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
R D Abbott, J S Nelson, G W Ross, J H Uyehara-Lock, C M Tanner, K H Masaki, L J Launer, L R White, H Petrovitch
AIM: Marinesco bodies (MB) are intranuclear inclusions in pigmented neurons of the substantia nigra (SN). While rare in children, frequency increases with normal ageing and is high in Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and other neurodegenerative disorders. Coinciding with the age-related rise in MB frequency is initiation of cell death among SN neurons. Whether MB have a role in this process is unknown. Our aim is to examine the association of MB with SN neuron density in Parkinson's disease (PD) in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study...
June 19, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498887/sex-differences-in-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease-related-to-neurotrophin-gene-polymorphisms-the-cache-county-memory-study
#5
Joshua Matyi, JoAnn T Tschanz, Gail B Rattinger, Chelsea Sanders, E K Vernon, Chris Corcoran, John S K Kauwe, Mona Buhusi
Neurotrophins, including nerve-growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associations between AD and neurotrophin signaling genes have been inconsistent, with few studies examining sex differences in risk. We examined four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in neurotrophin signaling (rs6265, rs56164415, rs2289656, rs2072446) and risk for AD by sex in a population-based sample of older adults. 3499 individuals without dementia at baseline [Mean (SD) age = 74...
May 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453474/neuropsychological-profile-in-the-c9orf72-associated-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#6
Noora-Maria Suhonen, Ramona M Haanpää, Ville Korhonen, Jari Jokelainen, Anni Pitkäniemi, Anna-Leena Heikkinen, Johanna Krüger, Päivi Hartikainen, Seppo Helisalmi, Mikko Hiltunen, Tuomo Hänninen, Anne M Remes
While the C9ORF72 expansion is a major cause of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), little is known of the resultant cognitive profile. Our aim was to characterize the neuropsychological profile of the C9ORF72 associated bvFTD. We contrasted structured neuropsychological assessments of the C9ORF72 expansion carrier bvFTD patients (n = 26) with non-carrier bvFTD patients (n = 47) and those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 47). As compared to the non-carrier bvFTD patients, the C9ORF72 expansion carriers performed at a higher level in an immediate verbal memory test while showing poorer phonemic verbal fluency...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434642/-late-life-depression-or-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease-which-tools-for-the-differential-diagnosis
#7
A-I Gasser, V Salamin, S Zumbach
INTRODUCTION: Depression and Alzheimer's disease are both very frequent in elderly people. Cognitive deficits are the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, but they are also common in depressed elderly people who often present cognitive deficits such as memory, attention and executive function problems. On the other hand, people with early Alzheimer's disease demonstrate emotional and behavioral disorders generally encountered in depression such as loss of energy, apathy, mood disorder, and irritability...
April 20, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334939/association-between-tau-deposition-and-antecedent-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-rates-in-normal-and-early-symptomatic-individuals
#8
Duygu Tosun, Susan Landau, Paul S Aisen, Ronald C Petersen, Mark Mintun, William Jagust, Michael W Weiner
A long-term goal of our field is to determine the sequence of pathological events, which ultimately lead to cognitive decline and dementia. In this study, we first assessed the patterns of brain tau tangle accumulation (measured with the positron emission tomography tracer 18F-AV-1451) associated with well-established Alzheimer's disease factors in a cohort including cognitively healthy elderly individuals and individuals at early symptomatic stages of Alzheimer's disease. We then explored highly associated patterns of greater 18F-AV-1451 binding and increased annualized change in cortical amyloid-β plaques measured as florbetapir positron emission tomography binding antecedent to 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography scans, and to what extent these multimodal pattern associations explained the variance in cognitive performance and clinical outcome measures, independently and jointly...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331953/value-of-fdg-pet-scans-of-non-demented-patients-in-predicting-rates-of-future-cognitive-and-functional-decline
#9
Nare Torosyan, Kelsey Mason, Magnus Dahlbom, Daniel H S Silverman
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in predicting subsequent rates of functional and cognitive decline among subjects considered cognitively normal (CN) or clinically diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Analyses of 276 subjects, 92 CN subjects and 184 with MCI, who were enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, were conducted. Functional decline was assessed using scores on the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) obtained over a period of 36 months, while cognitive decline was determined using the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325166/color-perception-differentiates-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-from-vascular-dementia-vad-patients
#10
N A Arnaoutoglou, M Arnaoutoglou, P Nemtsas, V Costa, S J Baloyannis, K P Ebmeier
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Vascular Dementia (VaD) are the most common causes of dementia in older people. Both diseases appear to have similar clinical symptoms, such as deficits in attention and executive function, but specific cognitive domains are affected. Current cohort studies have shown a close relationship between αβ deposits and age-related macular degeneration (Johnson et al., 2002; Ratnayaka et al., 2015). Additionally, a close link between the thinning of the retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and AD patients has been described, while it has been proposed that AD patients suffer from a non-specific type of color blindness (Pache et al...
March 22, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302047/neuroinflammation-as-a-common-mechanism-associated-with-the-modifiable-risk-factors-for-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#11
Jordan Alexander McKenzie, Lindsay J Spielman, Caitlin B Pointer, Jessica R Lowry, Ekta Bajwa, Carolyn W Lee, Andis Klegeris
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are among the most common causes of dementia, which increasingly contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. A common hallmark in the pathogenesis of these two diseases is neuroinflammation, which is initially triggered by the presence of pathological structures associated with these disorders. Chronic neuroinflammation is sustained by persistent and aberrant microglial activation in the brain, which results in damage and death of neighboring cells, including neurons and glial cells...
March 15, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290247/modulation-of-retinal-arteriolar-central-reflection-by-apoe-genotype
#12
Shaun Frost, Alauddin Bhuiyan, David Offerman, James D Doecke, S Lance Macaulay, Hamid R Sohrabi, David Ames, Colin Masters, Ralph N Martins, Yogesan Kanagasingam, Aibl Research Group
This study investigated the retinal arteriolar central reflex (CR, the central reflection observed in photographs of retinal vessels), which may provide information about micro-vascular health in the retina and also the brain, due to the homology between these vascular networks. The study also describes a novel computer based semi-automated technique that accurately quantifies retinal arteriolar CR and vessel width, and calculates the CR to vessel width ratio (CRR) from digital retinal photographs. Digital retinal photographs were collected from participants in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study of ageing (AIBL), including 25 participants diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age 72...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274265/reduced-cgmp-levels-in-csf-of-ad-patients-correlate-with-severity-of-dementia-and-current-depression
#13
Raphael Hesse, Ludwig Lausser, Pauline Gummert, Florian Schmid, Anke Wahler, Cathrin Schnack, Katja S Kroker, Markus Otto, Hayrettin Tumani, Hans A Kestler, Holger Rosenbrock, Christine A F von Arnim
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, primarily affecting memory. That disorder is thought to be a consequence of neuronal network disturbances and synapse loss. Decline in cognitive function is associated with a high burden of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) such as depression. The cyclic nucleotides cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) are essential second messengers that play a crucial role in memory processing as well as synaptic plasticity and are potential therapeutic targets...
March 9, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235777/observing-conversational-laughter-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#14
Peter S Pressman, Michaela Simpson, Kelly Gola, Suzanne M Shdo, Edoardo G Spinelli, Bruce L Miller, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Katherine Rankin, Robert W Levenson
BACKGROUND: We performed an observational study of laughter during seminaturalistic conversations between patients with dementia and familial caregivers. Patients were diagnosed with (1) behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), (2) right temporal variant frontotemporal dementia (rtFTD), (3) semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), (4) non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) or (5) early onset Alzheimer's disease (eoAD). We hypothesised that those with bvFTD would laugh less in response to their own speech than other dementia groups or controls, while those with rtFTD would laugh less regardless of who was speaking...
May 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223932/cerebrospinal-fluid-levels-of-amyloid-beta-1-43-mirror-1-42-in-relation-to-imaging-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Ina S Almdahl, Camilla Lauridsen, Per Selnes, Lisa F Kalheim, Christopher Coello, Beata Gajdzik, Ina Møller, Marianne Wettergreen, Ramune Grambaite, Atle Bjørnerud, Geir Bråthen, Sigrid B Sando, Linda R White, Tormod Fladby
Introduction: Amyloid beta 1-43 (Aβ43), with its additional C-terminal threonine residue, is hypothesized to play a role in early Alzheimer's disease pathology possibly different from that of amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ43 has been suggested as a potential novel biomarker for predicting conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia in Alzheimer's disease. However, the relationship between CSF Aβ43 and established imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease has never been assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157101/financial-and-health-literacy-predict-incident-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia-and-pathology
#16
Lei Yu, Robert S Wilson, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
BACKGROUND: Domain specific literacy is a multidimensional construct that requires multiple resources including cognitive and non-cognitive factors. OBJECTIVE: We test the hypothesis that domain specific literacy is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and AD pathology after controlling for cognition. METHODS: Participants were community-based older persons who completed a baseline literacy assessment, underwent annual clinical evaluations for up to 8 years, and agreed to organ donation after death...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109287/how-useful-is-the-eq-5d-in-assessing-the-impact-of-caring-for-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Catherine Reed, Annabel Barrett, Jeremie Lebrec, Richard Dodel, Roy W Jones, Bruno Vellas, Anders Wimo, Josep Maria Argimon, Giuseppe Bruno, Josep Maria Haro
BACKGROUND: The impact on informal caregivers of caring for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia can be substantial, but it remains unclear which measures(s) best assess such impact. Our objective was to use data from the GERAS study to assess the ability of the EuroQol 5-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) to measure the impact on caregivers of caring for people with AD dementia and to examine correlations between EQ-5D and caregiver burden. METHODS: GERAS was a prospective, non-interventional cohort study in community-dwelling patients with AD dementia and their informal caregivers...
January 21, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#18
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059789/the-mild-behavioral-impairment-checklist%C3%A2-mbi-c-a-rating-scale-for%C3%A2-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in%C3%A2-pre-dementia-populations
#19
Zahinoor Ismail, Luis Agüera-Ortiz, Henry Brodaty, Alicja Cieslak, Jeffrey Cummings, Corinne E Fischer, Serge Gauthier, Yonas E Geda, Nathan Herrmann, Jamila Kanji, Krista L Lanctôt, David S Miller, Moyra E Mortby, Chiadi U Onyike, Paul B Rosenberg, Eric E Smith, Gwenn S Smith, David L Sultzer, Constantine Lyketsos
BACKGROUND: Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) is a construct that describes the emergence at ≥50 years of age of sustained and impactful neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), as a precursor to cognitive decline and dementia. MBI describes NPS of any severity, which are not captured by traditional psychiatric nosology, persist for at least 6 months, and occur in advance of or in concert with mild cognitive impairment. While the detection and description of MBI has been operationalized in the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment - Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART-AA) research diagnostic criteria, there is no instrument that accurately reflects MBI as described...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906438/cholinesterase-inhibitors-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-as-alzheimer-s-disease-therapies-an-updated-umbrella-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#20
C-H Wang, L-S Wang, N Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a major neurological disorder marked by an amyloid-beta plaque and neurofibrillary tau-tangle depositions in the brain. Cognitive dysfunction is the key manifestation of AD. In this study, we conducted an umbrella review of meta-analyses on the risk factors and therapeutics targeting cognitive impairment and AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed from January 2000-August, 2016, and screened systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that examined the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors in AD patients...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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