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Non alzheimer,s dementia

Yoshihiro Kokubo
Hypertension is one of the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, accumulating evidence also indicates that hypertension has been linked with non-cardiovascular diseases including dementia, cancer, oral health diseases and so on. In general, elderly individuals tend to have multiple diseases as getting older. Preventing of hypertension is also benefit for other diseases.In the Hisayama Study, hypertension increased the risk of vascular dementia, but were not associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease, and that subjects with hypertension in midlife and normotension and hypertension in late-life increased risks of incident vascular dementia...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
E Candeias, A I Duarte, I Sebastião, M A Fernandes, A I Plácido, C Carvalho, S Correia, R X Santos, R Seiça, M S Santos, C R Oliveira, P I Moreira
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a highly concerning public health problem of the twenty-first century. Currently, it is estimated that T2D affects 422 million people worldwide with a rapidly increasing prevalence. During the past two decades, T2D has been widely shown to have a major impact in the brain. This, together with the cognitive decline and increased risk for dementia upon T2D, may arise from the complex interaction between normal brain aging and central insulin signaling dysfunction. Among the several features shared between T2D and some neurodegenerative disorders (e...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Frank J Wolters, Francesco U S Mattace-Raso, Peter J Koudstaal, Albert Hofman, M Arfan Ikram
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common cause of transient cerebral hypoperfusion in the population. Cerebral hypoperfusion is widely implicated in cognitive impairment, but whether OH contributes to cognitive decline and dementia is uncertain. We aimed to determine the association between OH and the risk of developing dementia in the general population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 4 October 1989 and 17 June 1993, we assessed OH in non-demented, stroke-free participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Alex E Roher, Chera L Maarouf, Tyler A Kokjohn, Christine Belden, Geidy Serrano, Marwan S Sabbagh, Thomas G Beach
INTRODUCTION: Based on the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, a series of clinical trials involving immunotherapies have been undertaken including infusion with the IgG1 monoclonal anti-Aβ antibody solanezumab directed against the middle of the soluble Aβ peptide. In this report, we give an account of the clinical history, psychometric testing, gross and microscopic neuropathology as well as immunochemical quantitation of soluble and insoluble Aβ peptides and other proteins of interest related to AD pathophysiology in a patient treated with solanezumab...
2016: American Journal of Neurodegenerative Disease
Kyung Hee Yoon, Yoo Sun Moon, Yunhwan Lee, Seong Hye Choi, So Young Moon, Sang Won Seo, Kyung Won Park, Bon D Ku, Hyun Jeong Han, Kee Hyung Park, Seol-Heui Han, Eun-Joo Kim, Jae-Hong Lee, Sun A Park, Yong S Shim, Jong Hun Kim, Chang Hyung Hong, Duk L Na, Byoung Seok Ye, Hee Jin Kim, Yeonsil Moon, Sang Soo Lee, Do Hoon Kim
OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether religiosity/spirituality has a protective role against negative caregiving outcomes, in a large multicenter nationwide sample of caregivers of patients with dementia in South Korea. Additionally, this study was the first to examine whether religiosity/spirituality could affect caregiving outcomes according to the various religious affiliations of caregivers. METHODS: The study was conducted on a sample of 476 caregivers of patients with dementia participated in the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS)...
September 23, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
Yoshihiro Kokubo
Hypertension is one of the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, accumulating evidence also indicates that hypertension has been linked with non-cardiovascular diseases including dementia, cancer, oral health diseases and so on. In general, elderly individuals tend to have multiple diseases as getting older. Preventing of hypertension is also benefit for other diseases.In the Hisayama Study, hypertension increased the risk of vascular dementia, but were not associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease, and that subjects with hypertension in midlife and normotension and hypertension in late-life increased risks of incident vascular dementia...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
G Pusswald, D Moser, M Pflüger, A Gleiss, E Auff, E Stögmann, P Dal-Bianco, J Lehrner
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important issue in the context of dementia care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between HRQOL and depressive symptoms in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer´s disease (AD). METHODS: In this cross-sectional, observational study, a control group and four experimental groups (SCD, non-amnestic MCI, amnesticMCI, AD) were compared...
August 31, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Brian A Gordon, Tyler Blazey, Yi Su, Anne M Fagan, David M Holtzman, John C Morris, Tammie L S Benzinger
Importance: Preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) can be staged using a 2-factor model denoting the presence or absence of β-amyloid (Aβ+/-) and neurodegeneration (ND+/-). The association of these stages with longitudinal biomarker outcomes is unknown. Objective: To examine whether longitudinal Aβ accumulation and hippocampal atrophy differ based on initial preclinical staging. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal population-based cohort study used data collected at the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri, from December 1, 2006, to June 31, 2015...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Saima Hilal, Xin Xu, M Kamran Ikram, Henri Vrooman, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher Chen
Intracranial stenosis is a common vascular lesion observed in Asian and other non-Caucasian stroke populations. However, its role in cognitive impairment and dementia has been under-studied. We, therefore, examined the association of intracranial stenosis with cognitive impairment, dementia and their subtypes in a memory clinic case-control study, where all subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment and 3 T neuroimaging including three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Brianne M Bettcher, Ryan Fitch, Matthew J Wynn, Matthew A Lalli, Jonathan Elofson, Laura Jastrzab, Laura Mitic, Zachary A Miller, Gil D Rabinovici, Bruce L Miller, Aimee W Kao, Kenneth S Kosik, Joel H Kramer
INTRODUCTION: MCP-1 and eotaxin-1 are encoded on chromosome 17 and have been shown to reduce hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. We investigated whether these chemokines selectively associate with memory in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. METHODS: MCP-1 and eotaxin-1 were assayed in controls, MCI, and AD dementia patients with varying phenotypes (n = 171). A subset of 55 individuals had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans available...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
C J Garwood, L E Ratcliffe, J E Simpson, P R Heath, P G Ince, S B Wharton
Astrocytes have essential roles in the central nervous system and are also implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. Forming non-overlapping domains, astrocytes are highly complex cells. Immunohistochemistry to a variety of proteins can be used to study astrocytes in tissue, labelling different cellular components and subpopulations, including GFAP, ALDH1L1, CD44, NDRG2 and amino acid transporters, but none of these label the entire astrocyte population. Increasing heterogeneity is recognised in the astrocyte population, a complexity that is relevant both to their normal function and pathogenic roles...
July 21, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
T Jared Bunch, Heidi T May, Tami L Bair, Brian G Crandall, Michael J Cutler, John D Day, Victoria Jacobs, Charles Mallender, Jeffrey S Osborn, Scott M Stevens, J Peter Weiss, Scott C Woller
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms behind the association of atrial fibrillation (AF) and dementia are unknown. We previously found a significantly increased risk of dementia in AF patients taking warfarin with a low percentage of time in therapeutic range. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which AF itself increases dementia risk, in addition to long-term anticoagulation exposure. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 10 537 patients anticoagulated with warfarin (target INR 2-3), managed by the Clinical Pharmacist Anticoagulation Service with no history of dementia were included...
July 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Kristin L Ayers, Uyenlinh L Mirshahi, Amr H Wardeh, Michael F Murray, Ke Hao, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Shuyu Li, David J Carey, Rong Chen
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common form of dementia in elder populations with approximately 30 million cases worldwide. Genome wide genotyping and sequencing studies have identified many genetic variants associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). While most of these variants are associated with increased risk of developing LOAD, only limited number of reports focused on variants that are protective against the disease. METHODS: Here we applied a novel approach to uncover protective alleles against AD by analyzing genetic and phenotypic data in Mount Sinai Biobank and Electronic Medical Record (EMR) databases...
2016: BMC Genomics
Ariel A Hippen, Mark T W Ebbert, Maria C Norton, JoAnn T Tschanz, Ronald G Munger, Christopher D Corcoran, John S K Kauwe
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and the third most common cause of death in the United States. A vast number of genes regulate Alzheimer's disease, including Presenilin 1 (PSEN1). Multiple studies have attempted to locate novel variants in the PSEN1 gene that affect Alzheimer's disease status. A recent study suggested that one of these variants, PSEN1 E318G (rs17125721), significantly affects Alzheimer's disease status in a large case-control dataset, particularly in connection with the APOEε4 allele...
2016: BMC Genomics
A-L Lin, D Powell, A Caban-Holt, G Jicha, W Robertson, B T Gold, R Davis, E Abner, D M Wilcock, F A Schmitt, E Head
To determine if proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) detect differences in dementia status in adults with Down syndrome (DS), we used (1)H-MRS to measure neuronal and glial metabolites in the posterior cingulate cortex in 22 adults with DS and in 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We evaluated associations between (1)H-MRS results and cognition among DS participants. Neuronal biomarkers, including N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate-glutamine complex (Glx), were significantly lower in DS patients with Alzheimer's should probably be changed to Alzheimer (without ' or s) through ms as per the new naming standard disease (DSAD) when compared to non-demented DS (DS) and healthy controls (CTL)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Y F Shea, J Ha, S C Lee, L W Chu
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the improvement in the accuracy of diagnosis of dementia subtypes among Chinese dementia patients who underwent [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) with or without carbon 11-labelled Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PIB). METHODS: This case series was performed in the Memory Clinic at Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. We reviewed 109 subjects (56.9% were female) who received PET with or without (11)C-PIB between January 2007 and December 2014...
August 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
David Briley, Valeria Ghirardi, Randy Woltjer, Alicia Renck, Olga Zolochevska, Giulio Taglialatela, Maria-Adelaide Micci
Rare individuals remain cognitively intact despite the presence of neuropathology usually associated with fully symptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD), which we refer to as Non-Demented with Alzheimer's disease Neuropathology (NDAN). Understanding the involved mechanism(s) of their cognitive resistance may reveal novel strategies to treat AD-related dementia. In the pursuit of this goal, we determined the number of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) and investigated the expression of several miRNAs in NDAN and AD subjects...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gilberto Sousa Alves, André Férrer Carvalho, Luiza de Amorim de Carvalho, Felipe Kenji Sudo, José Ibiapina Siqueira-Neto, Alina Jurcoane, Christian Knöchel, Henning Boecker, Jerson Laks, Johannes Pantel
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) associated with Alzheimer´s Disease (AD) have been linked to structural and functional alterations in fronto-temporal circuits and cortical abnormalities. However, little is known on how specific volumetric and functional brain changes may be associated with the frequency, severity and pattern of BPSD. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature regarding neuroimaging and BPSD changes in AD was performed through Pubmed/Medline, ISI, and EMBASE electronic databases from January 2000 to May 2015...
June 2, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Val J Lowe, Geoffry Curran, Ping Fang, Amanda M Liesinger, Keith A Josephs, Joseph E Parisi, Kejal Kantarci, Bradley F Boeve, Mukesh K Pandey, Tyler Bruinsma, David S Knopman, David T Jones, Leonard Petrucelli, Casey N Cook, Neill R Graff-Radford, Dennis W Dickson, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Melissa E Murray
BACKGROUND: It is essential to determine the specificity of AV-1451 PET for tau in brain imaging by using pathological comparisons. We performed autoradiography in autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative disorders to evaluate the specificity of AV-1451 binding for tau aggregates. METHODS: Tissue samples were selected that had a variety of dementia-related neuropathologies including Alzheimer disease, primary age-related tauopathy, tangle predominant dementia, non-Alzheimer disease tauopathies, frontotemporal dementia, parkinsonism, Lewy body disease and multiple system atrophy (n = 38)...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Orestes V Forlenza, Marcia Radanovic, Leda L Talib, Ivan Aprahamian, Breno S Diniz, Henrik Zetterberg, Wagner F Gattaz
INTRODUCTION: Guidelines for the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) establish that each laboratory must use internally qualified cutoff values. We determined the concentrations of biomarkers that discriminate cases from controls and combinations that predict the progression to dementia in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: Concentrations of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ1-42), total tau (T-tau), and (181)Thr-phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) were determined in CSF samples from 184 older adults (68 mild cognitive impairment, 41 AD, 34 non-AD cognitive impairment, and 41 controls) by the INNO-BIA AlzBio3 assay...
December 2015: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
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