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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783081/recent-technological-advancements-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Shagun Gupta, Vipan Kakkar
Early diagnosis and on-time effective treatment are indispensable for Tuberculosis (TB) control - a life threatening infectious communicable disease. The conventional techniques for diagnosing TB normally take two to three weeks. This delay in diagnosis and further increase in detection complexity due to the emerging risks of XDR-TB (Extensively drug Resistant-TB) and MDR-TB (Multidrug Resistant-TB) are evoking interest of researchers in the field of developing rapid TB detection techniques such as biosensing and other point-of-care (POC) techniques...
May 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782986/antiglycation-study-of-hmg-r-inhibitors-and-tocotrienol-against-glycated-bsa-and-ldl-a-comparative-study
#2
Rabia Nabi, Sahir Sultan Alvi, Rizwan Khan, Shafeeque Ahmad, Saheem Ahmad, M Salman Khan
Non-enzymatic glycation mediated advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generation results in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) which is greatly influenced by 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl Co-A reductase (HMG-R) activity. HMG-R inhibitors, statins, are well known for reducing mortality and morbidity of ASCVD in patients with diabetes due to their pleiotropic effects independent of cholesterol lowering. Due to distinct chemical structures, various statins may play important role in the inhibition of AGEs mediated pathologies...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782905/pathology-of-nnos-expressing-gabaergic-neurons-in-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Seungho Choi, Je-Seong Won, Steven L Carroll, Balasubramaniam Annamalai, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that is often accompanied by mood and emotional disturbances and seizures. There is growing body of evidence that neurons expressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in regulation of cognition, mood, and emotion as well as seizure susceptibility, but participation of GABAergic neuronal pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not understood well at present. Here, we report that transgenic mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein Swedish-Deutch-Iowa mutant (APPSweDI ) exhibit early loss of neurons expressing GAD67, a GABA synthesizing enzyme, in advance to the loss of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 region...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782901/basal-cell-carcinoma-part-ii-contemporary-approaches-to-diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention
#4
REVIEW
Michael C Cameron, Erica Lee, Brian Hibler, Cerrene N Giordano, Christopher A Barker, Shoko Mori, Miguel Cordova, Kishwer S Nehal, Anthony M Rossi
As the most common human cancer worldwide and continuing to increase in incidence, basal cell carcinoma is associated with significant morbidity and cost. Continued advances in research have refined both our insight and approach to this seemingly ubiquitous disease. This 2-part continuing medical education article will provide a comprehensive and contemporary review of basal cell carcinoma. Part II of this series will present both standard of care and newly developed approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this disease...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782900/basal-cell-carcinoma-part-1
#5
REVIEW
Michael C Cameron, Erica Lee, Brian Hibler, Christopher A Barker, Shoko Mori, Miguel Cordova, Kishwer S Nehal, Anthony M Rossi
As the most common human cancer worldwide and continuing to increase in incidence, basal cell carcinoma is associated with significant morbidity and cost. Continued advances in research have refined both our insight and approach to this seemingly ubiquitous disease. This 2-part continuing medical education article will provide a comprehensive and contemporary review of basal cell carcinoma. Part I of this series will describe our current understanding of this disease in regards to epidemiology, cost, clinical and histopathologic presentations, carcinogenesis, natural history, and disease associations...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782798/regulatory-activities-of-dopamine-and-its-derivatives-towards-metal-free-and-metal-induced-amyloid-%C3%AE-aggregation-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Eunju Nam, Jeffrey S Derrick, Seunghee Lee, Juhye Kang, Jiyeon Han, Shin Jung C Lee, Su Wol Chung, Mi Hee Lim
A catecholamine neurotransmitter, dopamine (DA), is suggested to be linked to the pathology of dementia; however, the involvement of DA and its structural analogues in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, composed of multiple pathogenic factors has not been clear. Herein, we report that DA and its rationally designed structural derivatives (1-6) based on DA's oxidative transformation are able to modulate multiple pathological elements found in AD [ i.e., metal ions, metal-free amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-bound Aβ (metal-Aβ), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)], with demonstration of detailed molecular-level mechanisms...
May 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782794/peptides-peptidomimetics-and-carbohydrate-peptide-conjugates-as-amyloidogenic-aggregation-inhibitors-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Philip Ryan, Bhautikkumar Patel, Vivek Makwana, Hemant Jadhav, Milton John Kiefel, Andrew Davey, Tristan Reekie, Santosh Rudrawar, Michael Kassiou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder accounting for 60-80% of dementia cases. For many years, AD causality was attributed to amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregated species. Recently, multiple therapies that target Aβ aggregation have failed in clinical trials, since Aβ aggregation is found in AD and healthy patients. Attention has therefore shifted towards the aggregation of the peptide tau as a major driver of AD. Numerous inhibitors of tau-based pathology have recently been developed...
May 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782499/tgf%C3%AE-signaling-limits-lineage-plasticity-in-prostate-cancer
#8
Yi Hao, Glen A Bjerke, Karolina Pietrzak, Tiffany A Melhuish, Yu Han, Stephen D Turner, Henry F Frierson, David Wotton
Although treatment options for localized prostate cancer (CaP) are initially effective, the five-year survival for metastatic CaP is below 30%. Mutation or deletion of the PTEN tumor suppressor is a frequent event in metastatic CaP, and inactivation of the transforming growth factor (TGF) ß signaling pathway is associated with more advanced disease. We previously demonstrated that mouse models of CaP based on inactivation of Pten and the TGFß type II receptor (Tgfbr2) rapidly become invasive and metastatic...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782466/mucin-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-crc-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Yaron Niv, Theodore Rokkas
BACKGROUND: A body of evidence has suggested that mucins play an important role in adhesion, invasion, and cancer metastasis. However, this evidence is scarce and sometimes confusing. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available studies to better define the role of mucins in the behavior of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Medical literature was searched through November 30, 2017, using suitable keywords. Pooled estimates, that is, odd ratios (ORs), were obtained using fixed or random-effects models, as appropriate...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782394/optimal-treatment-of-osteofibrous-dysplasia-of-the-tibia
#10
Jong Woong Park, Cheol Lee, Ilkyu Han, Hwan-Seong Cho, Han-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Our study of a large patient group reports on the behavior and postoperative recurrence of osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD). METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 55 patients who were diagnosed with OFD of the tibia and showed typical features of this tumor. The patients' presentation, disease course, history of pathologic fracture, typical radiographic features, surgical treatment history, and surgical results were investigated. RESULTS: The longitudinal OFD lesion size peaks at a mean 13...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782323/role-of-blood-brain-barrier-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Zhiyou Cai, Pei-Feng Qiao, Cheng-Qun Wan, Min Cai, Nan-Kai Zhou, Qin Li
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). BBB is a highly selective semipermeable structural and chemical barrier which ensures a stable internal environment of the brain and prevents foreign objects invading the brain tissue. BBB dysfunction induces the failure of Aβ transport from brain to the peripheral circulation across the BBB. Especially, decreased levels of LRP-1 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1) and increased levels of RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) at the BBB can cause the failure of Aβ transport...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782018/novel-method-of-plasmid-dna-delivery-to-mouse-bladder-urothelium-by-electroporation
#12
Chuan Yu, Ofir Stefanson, Yueli Liu, Zhu A Wang
Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) are extremely valuable in revealing novel biological insights into the initiation and progression mechanisms of human diseases such as cancer. Transgenic and conditional knockout mice have been frequently used for gene overexpression or ablation in specific tissues or cell types in vivo. However, generating germline mouse models can be time-consuming and costly. Recent advancements in gene editing technologies and the feasibility of delivering DNA plasmids by viral infection have enabled rapid generation of non-germline autochthonous mouse cancer models for several organs...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781871/early-onset-of-diffuse-melanosis-cutis-under-pembrolizumab-therapy-illustrates-the-limitations-of-anti-pd-1-checkpoint-inhibitors
#13
Alexander Thiem, Patrick Schummer, Simon Ueberschaar, Andreas Kerstan, Hermann Kneitz, David Schrama, Silke Appenzeller, Svenja Meierjohann, Bastian Schilling, Matthias Goebeler, Anja Gesierich
Anti-PD-1 targeted immunotherapies have revolutionized the treatment of advanced melanoma and other tumor entities, and long disease-free intervals have been reported in responding patients. However, a considerable number of patients still progress rapidly after the start of anti-PD-1 antibodies. Here, we document two patients, 78 and 85-year old, who suffered from advanced BRAF-V600 wild-type melanoma and received pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks as the first systemic treatment. After only one, respectively, two infusions of pembrolizumab, both patients developed melanuria and diffuse melanosis cutis (DMC) on sun-exposed areas of their skin...
May 17, 2018: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781842/application-of-echocardiographic-data-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
Ruth F Dubin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at a high risk for cardiovascular events and mortality, particularly heart failure. Echocardiography is the most commonly used diagnostic imaging modality for heart failure. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent literature that demonstrates how echocardiography may be used to define cardiac structure and function in the CKD population and to identify echocardiographic abnormalities that have utility in predicting clinical outcomes in this population...
May 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781761/prevention-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-by-reconstitution-of-the-microbiota
#15
Noa Eliakim-Raz, Jihad Bishara
This review summarizes the latest advances in treating and preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most common infectious disease cause of nosocomial diarrhea in adults in developed countries. As customary antibiotic therapies against C. difficile, metronidazole and vancomycin, are broad spectrum, they affect greatly the gut microbiota, which result in very high recurrence rates. Therefore, new strategies are researched intensively. New therapies focus on limiting further destruction of the gut microbiota or restoring the microbiota to its pre-destructed state...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781537/microrna-508-suppresses-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-migration-and-invasion-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-through-the-mapk1-erk-signaling-pathway
#16
Lan Hong, Yifeng Wang, Wangsheng Chen, Shuying Yang
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the sixth most common cancer in women worldwide. Despite advances in detection and therapies, it still represents the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in the industrialized countries. Unfortunately, the molecular events that lead to the development of this highly aggressive disease remain largely unknown. The study explored the ability of microRNA-508 (miR-508) to influence proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in OC cells. We quantified the level of miR-508 cancer tissues with corresponding adjacent normal tissues collected from 84 patients with OC...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781459/family-caregivers-a-qualitative-study-to-better-understand-the-quality-of-life-concerns-and-needs-of-this-population
#17
Betty R Ferrell, Kate Kravitz, Tami Borneman, Ellen Taratoot Friedmann
BACKGROUND: While providing physical, psychological, and spiritual care to their loved ones with cancer, family caregivers (FCGs) are physically and emotionally vulnerable to the tolls of caregiving. Patients and FCGs experience the uncertainty that comes with illness and treatment, its side effects, the lack of control, the emotional upheaval, the spiritual doubt, and the helplessness of advancing disease. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to better understand the quality-of-life needs of the FCG population, particularly those who encounter financial strain related to patients' cancer and treatment...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781356/combating-the-hiv-reservoirs
#18
Guido van Marle, Deirdre L Church, Frank van der Meer, M John Gill
Impressive advances have been made in the treatment and management of HIV-1 infected individuals. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has turned HIV-1 infection from an almost invariable deadly infectious disease, to a lifelong manageable infectious disease. However, a cure or vaccine has not been forthcoming. A major problem in HIV-1 infection is the persistent and latently infected cellular and tissue reservoirs. One of these reservoirs is the Gut Associated Lymphoid tissue (GALT), which has been the research focus of our group...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781353/clinical-trials-with-multiple-endpoints-can-establish-a-correlation-but-not-yet-causality-between-dietary-supplementation-with-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-keratoconjunctivitis-sicca
#19
Roger Lee Mendoza
AIM: We review clinical evidence of therapeutic efficacy and effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) in keratoconjunctivitis sicca, colloquially known as dry eye disease. In doing so, we identify relevant literature to address the following questions: 1) What definitive guidance can clinical evidence offer eye physicians and their patients? 2) What aspects of omega-3 supplementation lack definitive evidence, and how might economic assessments help? METHODS: A targeted and systematic search strategy based on PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) was designed in this study for refereed clinical trials of omega-3s in dry eye treatment...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781349/recent-advances-in-targeting-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-enzymes-in-cancer-therapy
#20
Emily Smith, Wei Zhou, Polina Shindiapina, Said Sif, Chenglong Li, Robert A Baiocchi
Exploration in the field of epigenetics has revealed the diverse roles of the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of proteins in multiple disease states. These findings have led to the development of specific inhibitors and discovery of several new classes of drugs with potential to treat both benign and malignant conditions. Areas covered: We provide an overview on the role of PRMT enzymes in healthy and malignant cells, highlighting the role of arginine methylation in specific pathways relevant to cancer pathogenesis...
May 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
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