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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340373/influence-of-sex-on-cardiovascular-drug-responses-role-of-estrogen
#1
REVIEW
Abdel A Abdel-Rahman
In this review we discuss the sex/estrogen-specific modulation of cardiovascular function and responses to current therapeutics. We discuss how anatomical differences such as a smaller kidney size, and lower glomerular filtration rate in females, reduce the clearance and increase the toxicity of some drugs in females. Other important sex differences include the dampening effect of estrogen on central sympathetic and renin angiotensin systems. Further, we discuss how a shift in myocardial redox status leads to paradoxical transformation of estrogen into a pro-inflammatory hormone...
March 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340246/considerations-on-glycaemic-control-in-older-and-or-frail-individuals-with-diabetes-and-advanced-kidney-disease
#2
Nicolae Mircea Panduru, Ionut Nistor, Per-Henrik Groop, Wim Van Biesen, Ken Farrington, Adrian Covic
The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes over the last decade has resulted in increasing numbers of frail older patients with a combination of these conditions. Current treatment guidelines may not necessarily be relevant for such patients, who are mostly excluded from the trials upon which these recommendations are based. There is a paucity of data upon which to base the management of older patients with CKD. Nearly all current guidelines recommend less-tight glycaemic control for the older population, citing the lack of proven medium-term benefits and concerns about the high short-term risk of hypoglycaemia...
March 13, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340240/osteonecrosis-splenic-calcification-sickle-cell-disease
#3
A K Pannu, A Lakshman, V Damaraju, S Jain, S C Varma
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a major public health problem. Approximately 300,000 children born annually with the disease. SCD is a chronic condition, and spleen and bone are two commonly affected organs. We recently had the opportunity of observing a girl with deformed femoral head and calcified lesions in spleen, who was initially diagnosed as disseminated tuberculosis, but later a diagnosis of SCD was made on detailed hematological investigations and advanced imaging techniques.
March 11, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340216/meta-analysis-of-statins-in-chronic-kidney-disease-who-benefits
#4
C M Messow, C Isles
Background: Attempts to reduce the burden of vascular disease in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) by control of lipids have not been as successful as predicted. Aim: : To determine the extent to which the effectiveness of statins varies by kidney class. Design: Meta-analysis. Methods: We selected randomized trials of statin vs. placebo that gave outcomes for CKD3 (eGFR 30-59 ml/min), CKD4 (eGFR 15-29 ml/min), CKD5 (eGFR < 15 ml/min)/5D(dialysis) and transplant patients separately...
March 14, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339984/the-link-between-phenotype-and-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Dan-Qian Chen, Hua Chen, Lin Chen, Nosratola D Vaziri, Ming Wang, Xiang-Ri Li, Ying-Yong Zhao
Background.: The kidney plays a central role in elimination of metabolic waste products and regulation of low-molecular weight metabolites via glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and reabsorption. Disruption of these processes results in profound changes in the biochemical milieu of the body fluids, which contribute to complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by inducing cytotoxicity and inflammation. Insight into the changes of the composition of metabolites and dysregulation of target genes and proteins enhances the understanding of the pathophysiology of CKD and its complications, and the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339801/routinely-measured-iohexol-glomerular-filtration-rate-versus-creatinine-based-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-as-predictors-of-mortality-in-patients-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-a-swedish-chronic-kidney-disease-registry-cohort-study
#6
Shona Methven, Alessandro Gasparini, Juan J Carrero, Fergus J Caskey, Marie Evans
Background.: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) becomes less reliable in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods.: Using the Swedish CKD Registry (2005-11), linked to the national inpatient, dialysis and death registers, we compared the performance of plasma-iohexol measured GFR (mGFR) and urinary clearance measures versus eGFR to predict death in adults with CKD stages 4/5. Performance was assessed using survival and prognostic models...
February 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339749/multi-generational-genome-wide-association-studies-identify-chromosomal-regions-associated-with-ascites-phenotype
#7
K J Tarrant, S Dey, R Kinney, N B Anthony, D D Rhoads
Ascites is a multi-faceted disease commonly observed in fast growing broilers, which is initiated when the body is insufficiently oxygenated. A series of events follow, including an increase in pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricle hypertrophy, and accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity and pericardium. Advances in management practices along with improved selection programs have decreased ascites incidence in modern broilers. However, ascites syndrome remains an economically important disease throughout the world, causing estimated losses of $100 million per year...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339564/emerging-molecular-therapies-targeting-myocardial-infarction-related-arrhythmias
#8
Helen E Driessen, Toon A B van Veen, Gerard J J Boink
Cardiac disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world. Ventricular arrhythmias associated with myocardial ischaemia and/or infarction are a major contributor to cardiovascular mortality, and require improved prevention and treatment. Drugs, devices, and radiofrequency catheter ablation have made important inroads, but have significant limitations ranging from incomplete success to undesired toxicities and major side effects. These limitations derive from the nature of the intervention. Drugs are frequently ineffective, target the entire heart, and often do not deal with the specific arrhythmia trigger or substrate...
October 6, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339425/potential-role-of-the-ovol1-ovol2-axis-and-c-myc-in-the-progression-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#9
Takamichi Ito, Gaku Tsuji, Fumitaka Ohno, Takeshi Nakahara, Hiroshi Uchi, Masutaka Furue
OVOL1 and OVOL2 are ubiquitously conserved genes encoding C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factors in mammals. They promote epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, coordinately mediated via the Wnt signaling pathway. We previously reported that human OVOL1 and OVOL2 were preferentially expressed in the normal epidermis and hair follicles as well as their tumors, and found that OVOL1 is upregulated in Bowen's disease and downregulated in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma...
March 24, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339347/the-aging-kidney-and-the-nephrotoxic-effects-of-mercury
#10
Christy C Bridges, Rudolfs K Zalups
Owing to advances in modern medicine, life expectancies are lengthening and leading to an increase in the population of older individuals. The aging process leads to significant alterations in many organ systems, with the kidney being particularly susceptible to age-related changes. Within the kidney, aging leads to ultrastructural changes such as glomerular and tubular hypertrophy, glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which may compromise renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339318/predictors-for-lymph-nodes-involvement-in-low-risk-endometrial-cancer
#11
Yfat Kadan, Abdul Saied Calvino, Andrew Katz, Steven Katz, Richard G Moore
Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and BMI were examined as pre-operative predictors for lymph node metastases in patients with low-risk endometrial cancer. The study was a retrospective analysis of 534 endometrial cancer patients that underwent hysterectomy and lymph node dissection. Included subjects had a preoperative diagnosis of a grade 1 or 2 endometrioid carcinoma and no macroscopic extrauterine disease. We compared node-negative to node-positive patients to identify correlates of node-positive disease...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335509/novel-diagnostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#12
REVIEW
John C Chang, Madappa Kundranda
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal disease for a multitude of reasons including very late diagnosis. This in part is due to the lack of understanding of the biological behavior of PDAC and the ineffective screening for this disease. Significant efforts have been dedicated to finding the appropriate serum and imaging biomarkers to help early detection and predict response to treatment of PDAC. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) has been the most validated serum marker and has the highest positive predictive value as a stand-alone marker...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335204/multifunctional-inorganic-nanoparticles-recent-progress-in-thermal-therapy-and-imaging
#13
REVIEW
Kondareddy Cherukula, Kamali Manickavasagam Lekshmi, Saji Uthaman, Kihyun Cho, Chong-Su Cho, In-Kyu Park
Nanotechnology has enabled the development of many alternative anti-cancer approaches, such as thermal therapies, which cause minimal damage to healthy cells. Current challenges in cancer treatment are the identification of the diseased area and its efficient treatment without generating many side effects. Image-guided therapies can be a useful tool to diagnose and treat the diseased tissue and they offer therapy and imaging using a single nanostructure. The present review mainly focuses on recent advances in the field of thermal therapy and imaging integrated with multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles...
April 18, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335081/the-impact-of-body-mass-index-and-nuclear-%C3%AE-catenin-on-survival-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-treated-with-preoperative-radiochemotherapy
#14
Jaime Gomez-Millan, Maria Isabel Queipo, Maria Del Mar Delgado, Lidia Perez-Villa, Alicia Roman, Fernando De la Portilla, Esperanza Torres, Vanessa De Luque, Eloisa Bayo, Jose Antonio Medina
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We examined the prognostic value of obesity and nuclear β-catenin in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: We prospectively recruited a total of 98 eligible patients with locally advanced cancer for preoperative radiochemotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision. Patients' height and weight were reaorded before radiochemotherapy, and the immunohistochemical expression of nuclear β-catenin was analyzed. Disease-free survival (DFS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox regression model was employed for the multivariate analysis...
March 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334974/efficacy-and-safety-of-sequential-use-of-everolimus-in-japanese-patients-with-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma-after-failure-of-first-line-treatment-with-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-a-multicenter-phase-ii-clinical-trial
#15
Masafumi Oyama, Takayuki Sugiyama, Masahiro Nozawa, Kiyohide Fujimoto, Takeshi Kishida, Go Kimura, Noriaki Tokuda, Shiro Hinotsu, Kojiro Shimozuma, Hideyuki Akaza, Seiichiro Ozono
Objective: Many studies have shown the efficacy of everolimus after pretreatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We investigated the efficacy and safety of everolimus as a second-line treatment after the failure of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in Japanese patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, phase II trial conducted in Japan through the central registration system...
March 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334886/glioblastoma-associated-microglia-and-macrophages-targets-for-therapies-to-improve-prognosis
#16
Candice C Poon, Susobhan Sarkar, V Wee Yong, John J P Kelly
Glioblastoma is the most common and most malignant primary adult human brain tumour. Diagnosis of glioblastoma carries a dismal prognosis. Treatment resistance and tumour recurrence are the result of both cancer cell proliferation and their interaction with the tumour microenvironment. A large proportion of the tumour microenvironment consists of an inflammatory infiltrate predominated by microglia and macrophages, which are thought to be subverted by glioblastoma cells for tumour growth. Thus, glioblastoma-associated microglia and macrophages are logical therapeutic targets...
February 4, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334884/improvement-in-the-prognosis-of-ovarian-cancer-in-the-era-before-addition-of-molecular-targeting-therapy
#17
Takako Shimada, Toshiaki Saito, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Kumi Shimamoto, Shuhei Matsushita, Shinichiro Yamaguchi, Kazuya Ariyoshi, Masao Okadome
Objective: The prognosis of ovarian cancer has improved because of platinum- and taxane-containing chemotherapy. We investigated the 5-year disease-specific overall survival and prognostic factors of patients with advanced ovarian cancer to elucidate the change in clinical course of ovarian cancer with the advance of chemotherapy for patients who developed relapse in the era before the addition of molecular targeting therapy. Methods: We reviewed the clinical course of 134 patients with advanced ovarian cancer (FIGO Stage III and IV) treated in the past 11 years (1999-2010)...
February 24, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334546/-parathyroid-cancer
#18
Ivana Ságová, Matej Stančík, Peter Kentoš, Dušan Pavai, Daniela Kantárová, Anton Vaňuga, Peter Vaňuga
Parathyroid cancer is a rare endocrine malignancy, representing less than 1 % of all cases of primary hyperparathyroidism. The exact etiology of the disease remains unknown. Known risk factors include neck irradiation, end stage renal failure, genetic factors, particularly the the HPRT2/CDCT73 gene mutation. The clinical picture is often indolent, yet progressive with a trend of local invasion and metastasis formation in advanced disease. The clinical picture includes symptoms of severe and resistant hypercalcemia, requiring intensive therapy often with the need of dialysis...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334544/-antiplatelet-thromboprophylaxis-of-arterial-vascular-diseases-and-organovascular-ischemic-diseases
#19
Peter Gavorník, Andrej Dukát, Ľudovít Gašpar, Eva Gavorníková, Naďa Hučková, Anna Petrášová, Gabriela Gubo, Iveta Gašparová, Lujza Sabolová
Antiplatelet therapy by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) provided pivotal advances in the prevention and treatment of organovascular (angiovascular, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, extremitovascular, renovascular, genitovascular, mesenteriointestinokolonovascular, bronchopulmovascular, oculovascular, otovascular and other) arterial ischemic diseases. Currently available antiplatelet drugs have some limitations which might be overcomed by improved dosing regimens, use of combination of agents affecting different platelet functions and, in particular, by the new antiplatelet drugs (new arterial antithrombotics) with distinct pharmacodynamic properties offering new advantages, including faster onset of action, greater potency, and reversibility of effects...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334542/-an-assessment-of-vo2-kinetics-in-the-recovery-phase-of-cardiopulmonary-exercise-test-in-patients-with-heart-disease-importance-and-classification
#20
Leona Mífková, František Várnay, Pavel Homolka, Petr Dobšák
The article reviews the course of VO2 in the phase of recovery kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2rec) cardiopulmonary exercise test. VO2rec kinetics cannot be completely defined using a single parameter. The article describes the three most frequently used methods: %VO2-REC2, T1/2 VO2rec and TC VO2, and provides detailed procedures of their analysis. The three aforementioned parameters are also at the heart of our classification of VO2rec. The method %VO2-REC2 is an essential one, in our view, since its prognostic significance is proven and it can be also easily applied only based on a data record of the cardiopulmonary exercise test...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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