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Autoimmune diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103239/identifying-t-cell-receptors-from-high-throughput-sequencing-dealing-with-promiscuity-in-tcr%C3%AE-and-tcr%C3%AE-pairing
#1
Edward S Lee, Paul G Thomas, Jeff E Mold, Andrew J Yates
Characterisation of the T cell receptors (TCR) involved in immune responses is important for the design of vaccines and immunotherapies for cancer and autoimmune disease. The specificity of the interaction between the TCR heterodimer and its peptide-MHC ligand derives largely from the juxtaposed hypervariable CDR3 regions on the TCRα and TCRβ chains, and obtaining the paired sequences of these regions is a standard for functionally defining the TCR. A brute force approach to identifying the TCRs in a population of T cells is to use high-throughput single-cell sequencing, but currently this process remains costly and risks missing small clones...
January 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102734/fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-dependent-effector-molecules-as-a-critical-mediator-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-current-status-and-future-directions
#2
Ramamoorthi Ganesan, Mahaboobkhan Rasool
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic-autoimmune-mediated disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and progressive destruction of joint. Currently available biological agents and inhibitor therapy that specifically target tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, T cells, B cells, and subcellular molecules (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and janus kinase) cannot facilitate complete remission in all patients and are unable to cure the disease. Therefore, further potent therapeutic targets need to be identified for effective treatment and successful clinical outcomes in patients with RA...
January 19, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102541/tgf-%C3%AE-regulation-of-encephalitogenic-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Priscilla W Lee, Mary E Severin, Amy E Lovett-Racke
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been shown to influence the differentiation and function of T cells. The role that TGF-β plays in immune-mediated disease, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), has become a major area of investigation since CD4(+) T cells appear to be a major mediator of autoimmunity. This review provides an analysis of the literature on the role that TGF-β plays in the generation and regulation of encephalitogenic and regulatory T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, as well as in T cells of MS patients...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102512/anti-phospholipid-syndrome-associated-with-schizophrenia-description-of-five-patients-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Pikman Regina, Rotman Pnina, Aiman Natur, Levy Yair
Anti-phospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by anti-phospholipid antibodies, arterial and venous thrombosis, pregnancy morbidity, and various neurological manifestations including psychiatric disorders. Higher incidence of various autoimmune disorders was found in schizophrenia. In addition, an association between the presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies and schizophrenia or psychosis was previously described, mainly as case reports. Although initially believed to be a result of neuroleptic treatment, the reasons for this association remain obscure...
January 19, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101965/a-multi-hit-hypothesis-of-bullous-pemphigoid-and-associated-neurological-disease-is-hla-dqb1-03-01-a-potential-link-between-immune-privileged-antigen-exposure-and-epitope-spreading
#5
REVIEW
K T Amber, J Zikry, M Hertl
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune blistering disease and is linked to IgG recognition of 2 hemidesmosomal antigens, that is, BP230 (BP antigen 1) and BP180 (BP antigen 2, collagen XVII). The association of BP with other systemic diseases, particularly neurocognitive diseases, provides a potential clue in the underlying pathogenesis of BP. The role of HLA-DQB1*03:01 binding to the immunogenic portion of BP180 provides a potential mechanism by which exposure to neuronal collagen BP180 may lead to cutaneous disease...
January 19, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101910/a-practical-approach-to-vaccination-of-patients-with-autoimmune-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases-in-australia
#6
REVIEW
Peter Kk Wong, Hanish Bagga, Claire Barrett, Paddy Hanrahan, Doug Johnson, Amel Katrib, Karin Leder, Mona Marabani, Peta Pentony, John Riordan, Ray White, Laurel Young
Autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are often complicated by infection, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The increased risk of infection is probably due to a combination of immunosuppressive effects of the AIIRD, comorbidities, and the use of immunosuppressive conventional synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDS) and more recently, targeted synthetic DMARDS and biologic DMARDS which block specific pro-inflammatory enzymes, cytokines or cell types...
January 19, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101786/evaluation-of-t-regulatory-lymphocytes-transcription-factors-in-htlv-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis-ham-tsp-patients
#7
Sanaz Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Hamed Sadeghian, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Seyyed Ali Akbar Shamsian, Houshang Rafatpanah, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Seyyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is an aggressive neurological disease. The CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell population plays pivotal roles in the maintenance of immunological tolerance and prevention of such autoimmune diseases. In the current study, proviral load (PVL), factor forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) gene expression and regulatory T cells (Tregs) counts of 21 HAM/TSP patients and 16 HTLV-1 healthy carriers (ACs) were measured using real-time PCR, TaqMan method, and flow cytometry...
January 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101683/allergy-histamine-and-antihistamines
#8
Martin K Church
This chapter concentrates on the role in allergic disease of histamine acting on H1-receptors. It is clear that allergy has its roots in the primary parasite rejection response in which mast cell-derived histamine creates an immediate hostile environment and eosinophils are recruited for killing. This pattern is seen in allergic rhinitis where the early events of mucus production and nasal itching are primarily histamine mediated whereas nasal blockage is secondary to eosinophil infiltration and activation...
January 19, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101643/polymorphisms-in-genes-encoding-mir-155-and-mir-146a-are-associated-with-protection-to-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Taís S Assmann, Guilherme C K Duarte, Letícia A Brondani, Pedro H O de Freitas, Égina M Martins, Luís H Canani, Daisy Crispim
AIMS: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by severe autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. The triggering of autoimmunity against beta-cells is probably caused by a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors. Even though much is known about the genetic of T1DM, more information is needed to completely unravel this tangled disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs molecules that negatively regulate gene expression by inducing target mRNA cleavage or by inhibiting protein translation...
January 19, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101619/-all-rounder-vitamin%C3%A2-d
#10
S Unholzer, A Rothmund, E Haen
BACKGROUND: Many indications are discussed for vitamin D substitution, such as osteoporosis, autoimmune diseases, cancer and psychiatric diseases. Also discussed is the fact that the majority of the German population suffer from a vitamin D deficiency. OBJECTIVE: Review of the study results for these individual diseases and a critical analysis of the currently established therapeutic reference range, which defines a vitamin D deficiency. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search was carried out in the statements of the German Society for Nutrition, in scientific publications and journals...
January 18, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101614/-dermatological-topical-and-systemic-therapy-during-pregnancy
#11
REVIEW
S Grunewald, P Staubach
During pregnancy, a successful and safe therapeutic management of patients is possible to lower the burden of disease. Often topical therapy in combination with intensive basic skin care is sufficient. Drug therapies may also be used, most often for systemic diseases such as autoimmune diseases or psoriasis. An early change in therapy is also key during planned pregnancies so that treatments can be switched, adjusted, reduced or closely monitored. Another point to consider is to keep drug dosing as low as possible (without occlusion in local therapy) or short termed (with the exception of autoimmune or malignant diseases)...
January 18, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101487/immunoglobulin-g4-related-thyroid-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Dulani Kottahachchi, Duncan J Topliss
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a new disease category involving many organ systems, including the endocrine system in general and the thyroid in particular. Since an initial association was made between hypothyroidism and autoimmune (IgG4-related) pancreatitis, more forms of IgG4-related thyroid disease (IgG4-RTD) have been recognized. Four subcategories of IgG4-RTD have so far been identified: Riedel thyroiditis (RT), fibrosing variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis (FVHT), IgG4-related Hashimoto thyroiditis, and Graves disease with elevated IgG4 levels...
December 2016: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101474/the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-autoimmune-encephalitis
#13
REVIEW
Sang Kun Lee, Soon-Tae Lee
Autoimmune encephalitis is a group of encephalitis syndromes that cause altered mentality, memory decline, or seizures in association with the presence of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) autoantibodies (auto-Abs). An early diagnosis enables early treatments. The detection of auto-Abs is a confirmatory diagnosis. Tissue-based assay, cell-based immunoassay, and immunoblotting are used to detect various autoantibodies. The CSF test for the presence of antibodies is important because it is more sensitive and reflects disease activity in many autoimmune encephalitis, although antibody tests can be negative even in the presence of autoimmune encephalitis...
December 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101360/successful-treatment-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-with-a-prompt-ovarian-tumour-removal-and-prolonged-course-of-plasmapheresis-a-case-report
#14
Elzbieta Rypulak, Michal Borys, Pawel Piwowarczyk, Magdalena Fijalkowska, Beata Potrec, Justyna Sysiak, Janusz Spustek, Alicja Bartkowska-Sniatkowska, Jan Kotarski, Waldemar A Turski, Konrad Rejdak, Miroslaw Czuczwar
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an uncommon autoimmune disorder with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms. There is a great requirement to emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach in the process of diagnosis and treatment of the potentially fatal condition, including psychiatrists, neurologists, gynaecologists and intensivists. Physicians must be aware that psychiatric and neurological disorders, which are typical features for NMDAR encephalitis in young women with ovarian tumours, may progress into status epilepticus and respiratory insufficiency...
December 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101184/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-luteolin-on-experimental-autoimmune-thyroiditis-in-mice
#15
Nan Xia, Gang Chen, Min Liu, Xiaozhen Ye, Yahui Pan, Jiuyu Ge, Yanting Mao, Hongwei Wang, Jian Wang, Sijing Xie
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common organ-specific autoimmune disease and is believed to be a predominately T cell-mediated autoimmunity. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 is a crucial transcription factor of T cell-mediated immunity, with key roles in the proliferation and migration of T helper (Th) cells, differentiation of Th cells into Th17 cells, and the balance between Treg cells and Th17 cells. Flavonoid luteolin has been shown to markedly inhibit Tyr705 activation/phosphorylation of STAT3 and exert anti-inflammatory effects in multiple sclerosis...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101043/effects-of-disseminated-mycobacterial-infection-on-age-related-macular-degeneration
#16
Geoffrey Collett, Natalia Lopez, Pedro F Lopez
Our patient, in the 7th decade of life, presented with worsening blurry vision over 3 weeks. The pertinent history included nonexudative age-related macular degeneration, recent pulmonary mycobacterial infection, and autoimmune pancreatitis. The patient had decreased visual acuity in both eyes; the remaining findings of our examination were relatively benign. The diagnosis of bilateral exudative age-related macular degeneration was aided by ocular imaging. Not only were exudative changes confirmed, but one modality suggested an underlying occult choroiditis, which presumably fueled a local inflammatory drive leading to evolution of the disease...
September 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101036/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-hiv-infection
#17
Eunice Patarata, Vera Bernardino, Ana Martins, Rui Pereira, Conceição Loureiro, Maria Francisca Moraes-Fontes
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a rare condition characterized by emotional and behavioral disturbances, dyskinesias, and extrapyramidal signs. It occurs in young women of reproductive age and is classically described as a paraneoplastic phenomenon. We present a 36-year-old, HIV-positive female who was admitted to the hospital in an acute confusional state, with a stiff posture, periods of motor agitation, and myoclonic jerks of the hands. Her mental state progressively deteriorated...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101018/remarkable-improvement-of-nail-changes-in-alopecia-areata-universalis-with-10-months-of-treatment-with-tofacitinib-a-case-report
#18
Sineida Berbert Ferreira, Morton Scheinberg, Denise Steiner, Tatiana Steiner, Gustavo Longhi Bedin, Rachel Berbert Ferreira
Alopecia areata (AA) is a chronic, autoimmune disease. The main symptom is massive hair loss, localized or diffuse, in the scalp and the whole body. However, nails may also be involved, and brittleness, fragility and pitting can be signs of nail dystrophy in AA patients. Here, we report the case of a male patient with AA refractory to various treatments, including oral, topical and intralesional corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, cyclosporin and PUVA (oxoralen plus ultraviolet light), all interrupted due to side effects...
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100846/regulatory-lymphocytes-in-thyroid-orbitopathy-and-autoimmune-thyroid-diseases
#19
Marta Siomkajło, Jarosław Dybko, Jacek Daroszewski
Thyroid orbitopathy (OT), as an organ‑specific autoimmune disease, is a result of immune dysregulation leading to loss of control over inflammation directed against self‑antigens. The source of the autoreactive lymphocytes is the impairment of central tolerance as well as their induction on the periphery by modified or sequestered by that time antigens. Active suppression by the various subpopulations of regulatory lymphocytes (Lreg) acts as a counterbalance to the proinflammatory factors and is aimed at dampening pathological reaction...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100844/phospholipids-and-products-of-their-hydrolysis-as-dietary-preventive-factors-for-civilization-diseases
#20
Karol Parchem, Agnieszka Bartoszek
The results of numerous epidemiological studies indicate that phospholipids play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases faced by contemporary society. Firstly, these compounds are responsible for the proper functioning of cell membranes, by ensuring liquidity and permeability, which is pivotal for normal activity of membrane proteins, including receptors. These mechanisms are at the core of prevention of cancer, autoimmune or neurological disorders. Secondly, structure and properties of phospholipids cause that they are highly available source of biologically active fatty acids...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
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