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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346396/serum-mirna-levels-are-related-to-glucose-homeostasis-and-islet-autoantibodies-in-children-with-high-risk-for-type-1-diabetes
#1
Linda Åkerman, Rosaura Casas, Johnny Ludvigsson, Beatriz Tavira, Camilla Skoglund
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are promising disease biomarkers due to their high stability. Their expression in serum is altered in type 1 diabetes, but whether deviations exist in individuals with high risk for type 1 diabetes remains unexplored. We therefore assessed serum miRNAs in high-risk individuals (n = 21) positive for multiple islet autoantibodies, age-matched healthy children (n = 17) and recent-onset type 1 diabetes patients (n = 8), using Serum/Plasma Focus microRNA PCR Panels from Exiqon. The miRNA levels in the high-risk group were similar to healthy controls, and no specific miRNA profile was identified for the high-risk group...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346345/the-cytosolic-sensor-sting-is-required-for-intestinal-homeostasis-and-control-of-inflammation
#2
M C C Canesso, L Lemos, T C Neves, F M Marim, T B R Castro, É S Veloso, C P Queiroz, J Ahn, H C Santiago, F S Martins, J Alves-Silva, E Ferreira, D C Cara, A T Vieira, G N Barber, S C Oliveira, A M C Faria
STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is a cytosolic sensor for cyclic dinucleotides and also an adaptor molecule for intracellular DNA receptors. Although STING has important functions in the host defense against pathogens and in autoimmune diseases, its physiological relevance in intestinal homeostasis is largely unknown. In this study, we show that STING-/- mice presented defective protective mechanisms of intestinal mucosa, including decreased number of goblet cells, diminished mucus production, and lower levels of secretory IgA, when compared with wild-type (WT) mice...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346320/c-phycocyanin-and-phycocyanobilin-as-remyelination-therapies-for-enhancing-recovery-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-ischemic-stroke-a-preclinical-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Giselle Pentón-Rol, Javier Marín-Prida, Viviana Falcón-Cama
Myelin loss has a crucial impact on behavior disabilities associated to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Ischemic Stroke (IS). Although several MS therapies are approved, none of them promote remyelination in patients, limiting their ability for chronic recovery. With no available therapeutic options, enhanced demyelination in stroke survivors is correlated with a poorer behavioral recovery. Here, we show the experimental findings of our group and others supporting the remyelinating effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), the main biliprotein of Spirulina platensis and its linked tetrapyrrole Phycocyanobilin (PCB), in models of these illnesses...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346287/development-of-zika-virus-vaccines
#4
REVIEW
Huda Makhluf, Sujan Shresta
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged as a global threat following the most recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. ZIKV infection of pregnant women is associated with fetal abnormalities such as microcephaly, and infection of adults can lead to Guillain-Barré syndrome, an autoimmune disease characterized by neurological deficits. Although there are currently licensed vaccines for other flaviviruses, there remains an urgent need for preventative vaccines against ZIKV infection. Herein we describe the current efforts to accelerate the development of ZIKV vaccines using various platforms, including live attenuated virus, inactivated virus, DNA and RNA, viral vectors, and in silico-predicted immunogenic viral epitopes...
January 18, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345976/synthetic-biology-immunotherapy-by-design
#5
Matthew J Brenner, Jang Hwan Cho, Nicole M L Wong, Wilson W Wong
Cellular immunotherapy holds great promise for the treatment of human disease. Clinical evidence suggests that T cell immunotherapies have the potential to combat cancers that evade traditional immunotherapy. Despite promising results, adverse effects leading to fatalities have left scientists seeking tighter control over these therapies, which is reflected in the growing body of synthetic biology literature focused on developing tightly controlled, context-independent parts. In addition, researchers are adapting these tools for other uses, such as for the treatment of autoimmune disease, HIV infection, and fungal interactions...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345621/the-circulating-t-helper-subsets-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-with-no-known-monogenic-disease
#6
G Azizi, A Mirshafiey, H Abolhassani, R Yazdani, F J Ansariha, M Shaghaghi, S S Mortazavi-Jahromi, F Noorbakhsh, N Rezaei, A Aghamohammadi
BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency (PID), characterized by heterogeneous clinical manifestations and defects in B- and T- cells. In the present study, we investigated the T helper (Th) cell subsets and regulatory T (Treg) cells, and their related cytokines and transcription factors in the CVID patients with no definite genetic diagnosis. METHODS: The study population comprised 13 CVID patients and 13 healthy controls (HC)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345574/role-of-cd73-in-disease-promising-prognostic-indicator-and-therapeutic-target
#7
Jiayin Yang, Xiaohong Liao, Jerry Yu, Ping Zhou
CD73, also known as ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN, NT5E, EC3.13.5), is the rate-limiting enzyme for adenosine generation and is expressed on multiple cells. Its expression is significantly influenced by hypoxia and inflammatory factors. During inflammation, CD73 protects endothelial barrier function and inhibits leukocyte trafficking. CD73 also promotes M2 macrophages (anti-inflammatory phenotype). In addition, CD73 is expressed on Treg cells and mediates immune suppression through adenosine. CD73 serves as an essential regulator for the immunity and inflammation...
January 16, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345571/targeting-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2%C3%AE-for-novel-anti-inflammatory-agents
#8
Jalal Soubhye, Pierre van Antwerpen, Francois Dufrasne
Group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) plays a critical role in inflammatory processes. It produces arachidonic acid which is the main source of the pro-inflammatory eicosanoids mediators that are important in innate immune system. In some cases, these pro-inflammatory mediators cause damages to the host tissues and therefore promote autoimmune diseases. Consequently, development of potent inhibitors against cPLA2α could improve the therapy of inflammatory diseases. In the last two decades, intense efforts have been done to find potent cPLA2α inhibitors...
January 16, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345518/bacterial-pathogenesis-and-interleukin-17-interconnecting-mechanisms-of-immune-regulation-host-genetics-and-microbial-virulence-that-influence-severity-of-infection
#9
Michelle N Chamoun, Antje Blumenthal, Matthew J Sullivan, Mark A Schembri, Glen C Ulett
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the control of many different disorders, including autoimmune, oncogenic, and diverse infectious diseases. In the context of infectious diseases, IL-17 protects the host against various classes of microorganisms but, intriguingly, can also exacerbate the severity of some infections. The regulation of IL-17 expression stems, in part, from the activity of Interleukin-23 (IL-23), which drives the maturation of different classes of IL-17-producing cells that can alter the course of infection...
January 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345376/role-of-negative-regulation-of-immune-signaling-pathways-in-neutrophil-function
#10
REVIEW
Veronica Azcutia, Charles A Parkos, Jennifer C Brazil
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) play a critical role in host defense against infection and in the resolution of inflammation. However, immune responses mediated by PMN must be tightly regulated to facilitate elimination of invading pathogens without inducing detrimental inflammation and host tissue damage. Specific engagement of cell surface immunoreceptors by a diverse range of extracellular signals regulates PMN effector functions through differential activation of intracellular signaling cascades. Although mechanisms of PMN activation mediated via cell signaling pathways have been well described, less is known about negative regulation of PMN function by immune signaling cascades...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345341/novel-insights-into-fas-defects-underlying-autoimmune-lymphoproliferative-syndrome-revealed-by-studies-in-consanguineous-patients
#11
REVIEW
Imen Ben-Mustapha, Nourhen Agrebi, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a primary immunodeficiency disease due to impaired Fas-Fas ligand apoptotic pathway. It is characterized by chronic nonmalignant, noninfectious lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly associated with autoimmune manifestations primarily directed against blood cells. Herein, we review the heterogeneous ALPS molecular bases and discuss recent findings revealed by the study of consanguineous patients. Indeed, this peculiar genetic background favored the identification of a novel form of AR ALPS-FAS associated with normal or residual protein expression, expanding the spectrum of ALPS types...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345029/high-prevalence-and-functional-effects-of-serum-antineuronal-antibodies-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-disorders
#12
A Lütt, K Michel, D Krüger, M S Volz, M Nassir, E Schulz, L Poralla, P Tangermann, C Bojarski, M Höltje, B Teegen, W Stöcker, M Schemann, B Siegmund, H Prüss
BACKGROUND: Antineuronal antibodies can be associated with both gastrointestinal (GI) and brain disorders. For example, antibodies against the potassium channel subunit dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX) bind to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and myenteric plexus and cause encephalitis, commonly preceded by severe unspecific GI symptoms. We therefore investigated the prevalence of antineuronal antibodies indicative of treatable autoimmune CNS etiologies in GI patients...
January 18, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344858/laser-capture-microdissection-as-a-tool-to-study-the-mucosal-immune-response-in-celiac-disease
#13
Giuseppe Iacomino, Vera Rotondi Aufiero, Pasquale Marena, Antonella Venezia, Riccardo Troncone, Salvatore Auricchio, Giuseppe Mazzarella
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a powerful tool for selection and isolation of single cells or compartments from complex primary tissues to perform molecular analyses. Celiac disease is a genetic autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine. Increased intraepithelial lymphocytes and the presence of the lamina propria inflammatory infiltrate of the duodenal mucosa is a common part of the disease. These cells promote inflammatory processes through the release of cytokines...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344132/aberrant-nlrp3-inflammasome-associated-with-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-potentially-contributes-to-the-imbalance-of-t-helper-cells-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#14
Yan Jia, Chen Zhang, Mingqiang Hua, Min Wang, Ping Chen, Daoxin Ma
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy in which the immune response serves a pivotal role in progression. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is involved in the modulation of the immune system, particularly in the differentiation of T-helper cell (Th) subsets. Although the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been implicated as essential in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, the role it serves in the development of AML remains unknown. Therefore, in order to identify and describe the possible roles of AHR, as well as NLRP3 inflammasome, in the pathogenesis of AML and their relationship with Th subsets (Th1 Th22), the present study investigated the mRNA expression levels of AHR and NLRP3 inflammasome molecules in the peripheral blood and bone marrow...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344060/neuro-ophthalmic-presentation-of-neuro-sweet-disease
#15
Padmaja Sudhakar, Stuart Tobin, William O Connor, Sachin Kedar
Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet syndrome) is a systemic inflammatory condition usually associated with autoimmune or neoplastic processes and characterised by inflammatory dermatologic lesions such as erythematous plaques and papules associated with fever and leukocytosis. Neurological and ophthalmological involvement is rare. The authors describe an unusual case of Sweet syndrome associated with microscopic polyangiitis presenting with papilloedema, anterior uveitis, and skin rash. Years later, he developed acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy...
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344036/primordial-and-primary-preventions-of-thyroid-disease
#16
REVIEW
Fereidoun Azizi, Ladan Mehran, Farhad Hosseinpanah, Hossein Delshad, Atieh Amouzegar
Background: Primordial and primary preventions of thyroid diseases are concerned with avoiding the appearance of risk factors, delaying the progression to overt disease, and minimizing the impact of illness. Summary: Using related key words, 446 articles related to primordial and primary, preventions of thyroid diseases published between 2001-2015 were evaluated, categorized and analyzed. Prevention and elimination of iodine deficiency are major steps that have been successfully achieved and maintained in many countries of the world in last 2 decades...
October 2017: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344035/hypercalcaemic-pancreatitis-adrenal-insufficiency-autoimmune-thyroiditis-and-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-girl-with-probable-sarcoidosis
#17
Devi Dayal, Olivia Pepper, Renuka Ramakrishnan, Eileen Baildam, Poonam Dharmaraj, Gavin Cleary, Liza McCann, Clare Pain, Senthil Senniappan
Introduction: Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease with diverse and often non-specific symptoms during childhood. The clinical manifestations sometimes include endocrinopathies related to sarcoid infiltration of various endocrine organs, but more commonly due to the associated autoimmune endocrine disorders. There are only a few reports of multiple autoimmune and non-autoimmune endocrine problems occurring simultaneously in patients with sarcoidosis. We report a girl with probable sarcoidosis who also had Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and secondary adrenal insufficiency...
October 2017: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344020/a-case-of-immune-thrombocytopenia-as-a-rare-side-effect-of-an-immunotherapy-with-pd1-blocking-agents-for-metastatic-melanoma
#18
Claudia Pföhler, Hermann Eichler, Barbara Burgard, Nathalie Krecké, Cornelia S L Müller, Thomas Vogt
Background: Checkpoint blocking agents such as pembrolizumab or nivolumab may induce a diversity of mostly autoimmune-mediated side effects. These autoimmune phenomena mainly affect ductless glands such as the pituitary gland (hypophysitis), the thyroid gland (thyreoiditis), the skin (vitiligo and rash), the colon (colitis), and the lung (pneumonitis). Furthermore, many other organs or organ systems may be affected. Case Report: This work describes a case of an immune thrombocytopenia that developed or rather became clinically significant shortly after initiation of a systemic therapy with first nivolumab and later pembrolizumab given due to metastatic melanoma...
November 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343812/high-albumin-level-is-a-predictor-of-favorable-response-to-immunotherapy-in-autoimmune-encephalitis
#19
Yoonhyuk Jang, Soon-Tae Lee, Tae-Joon Kim, Jin-Sun Jun, Jangsup Moon, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Kon Chu, Sang Kun Lee
There is no known biomarker that predicts the response to immune therapy in autoimmune synaptic encephalitis. Thus, we investigated serum albumin as a prognostic biomarker of early immune therapies in patients with autoimmune encephalitis. We enrolled patients who were diagnosed with definite autoimmune encephalitis and underwent IVIg treatment at Seoul National University Hospital from 2012 to 2017. Patients were dichotomized according to serum albumin prior to IVIg administration with a cut-off level of 4...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343764/genome-wide-association-study-in-79-366-european-ancestry-individuals-informs-the-genetic-architecture-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels
#20
Xia Jiang, Paul F O'Reilly, Hugues Aschard, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, J Brent Richards, Josée Dupuis, Erik Ingelsson, David Karasik, Stefan Pilz, Diane Berry, Bryan Kestenbaum, Jusheng Zheng, Jianan Luan, Eleni Sofianopoulou, Elizabeth A Streeten, Demetrius Albanes, Pamela L Lutsey, Lu Yao, Weihong Tang, Michael J Econs, Henri Wallaschofski, Henry Völzke, Ang Zhou, Chris Power, Mark I McCarthy, Erin D Michos, Eric Boerwinkle, Stephanie J Weinstein, Neal D Freedman, Wen-Yi Huang, Natasja M Van Schoor, Nathalie van der Velde, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Anke Enneman, L Adrienne Cupples, Sarah L Booth, Ramachandran S Vasan, Ching-Ti Liu, Yanhua Zhou, Samuli Ripatti, Claes Ohlsson, Liesbeth Vandenput, Mattias Lorentzon, Johan G Eriksson, M Kyla Shea, Denise K Houston, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Yongmei Liu, Kurt K Lohman, Luigi Ferrucci, Munro Peacock, Christian Gieger, Marian Beekman, Eline Slagboom, Joris Deelen, Diana van Heemst, Marcus E Kleber, Winfried März, Ian H de Boer, Alexis C Wood, Jerome I Rotter, Stephen S Rich, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Martin den Heijer, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Alana Cavadino, Peter K Joshi, James F Wilson, Caroline Hayward, Lars Lind, Karl Michaëlsson, Stella Trompet, M Carola Zillikens, Andre G Uitterlinden, Fernando Rivadeneira, Linda Broer, Lina Zgaga, Harry Campbell, Evropi Theodoratou, Susan M Farrington, Maria Timofeeva, Malcolm G Dunlop, Ana M Valdes, Emmi Tikkanen, Terho Lehtimäki, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Mika Kähönen, Olli T Raitakari, Vera Mikkilä, M Arfan Ikram, Naveed Sattar, J Wouter Jukema, Nicholas J Wareham, Claudia Langenberg, Nita G Forouhi, Thomas E Gundersen, Kay-Tee Khaw, Adam S Butterworth, John Danesh, Timothy Spector, Thomas J Wang, Elina Hyppönen, Peter Kraft, Douglas P Kiel
Vitamin D is a steroid hormone precursor that is associated with a range of human traits and diseases. Previous GWAS of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations have identified four genome-wide significant loci (GC, NADSYN1/DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP24A1). In this study, we expand the previous SUNLIGHT Consortium GWAS discovery sample size from 16,125 to 79,366 (all European descent). This larger GWAS yields two additional loci harboring genome-wide significant variants (P = 4.7×10-9 at rs8018720 in SEC23A, and P = 1...
January 17, 2018: Nature Communications
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