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Autoimmune diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936497/pro-inflammatory-cytokine-ifn%C3%AE-and-microbiome-derived-metabolites-dictate-epigenetic-switch-between-foxp3-isoforms-in-celiac-disease-regulation-of-foxp3-isoforms-in-celiac-disease
#1
Gloria Serena, Shu Yan, Stephanie Camhi, Shilpi Patel, Rosiane S Lima, Anna Sapone, Maureen M Leonard, Rupa Mukherjee, Barbara J Nath, Karen M Lammers, Alessio Fasano
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by gluten and characterized by a strong Th1/Th17 immune response in the small intestine. Treg cells are CD4(+) CD25(++) FOXP3(+) cells that regulate the immune response. Conversely to its counterpart, FOXP3 full length (FL), the alternatively spliced isoform FOXP3 Δ2 cannot properly down-regulate Th17 driven immune response. Since the active state of CD has been associated with impairments in Treg cell function, we aimed at determining whether imbalances between FOXP3 isoforms may be associated with the disease...
December 9, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936492/lncrna-a-versatile-regulator-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-circuit
#2
REVIEW
Xiaohua Mao, Zhenyi Su, Adnan K Mookhtiar
The Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors play an essential role for the regulation of inflammatory responses, immune function and malignant transformation. Aberrant activity of this signaling pathway may lead to inflammation, autoimmune diseases and oncogenesis. Over the last two decades great progress has been made in the understanding of NF-κB activation and how the response is counteracted for maintaining tissue homeostasis. Therapeutic targeting of this pathway has largely remained ineffective due to the widespread role of this vital pathway and the lack of specificity of the therapies currently available...
December 9, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936003/growth-of-murine-splenic-tissue-is-suppressed-by-lymphotoxin-%C3%AE-receptor-signaling-lt%C3%AE-r-originating-from-splenic-and-non-splenic-tissues
#3
Novica M Milićević, Klaus Nohroudi, Friederike Schmidt, Hendrik Schmidt, Cornelia Ringer, Grith Lykke Sorensen, Živana Milićević, Jürgen Westermann
Development and maintenance of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes and spleen essentially depend on lymphotoxin β-receptor (LTβR) signaling. It is unclear, however, by which molecular mechanism their size is limited. Here, we investigate whether the LTβR pathway is also growth suppressing. By using splenic tissue transplantation it is possible to analyze a potential contribution of LTβR signaling inside and outside of the implanted tissue. We show that LTβR signaling within the endogenous spleen and within non-splenic tissues both significantly suppressed the regeneration of implanted splenic tissue...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935917/safety-and-efficacy-of-azathioprine-as-a-second-line-therapy-for-primary-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#4
B S Poudyal, B Sapkota, G S Shrestha, S Thapalia, B Gyawali, S Tuladhar
INTRODUCTION: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura remains common blood disease in Nepal. Azathioprine is an oral immunosupressive medicine which has been used widely in various autoimmune disease and solid organ transplant patients. It is inexpensive, easily available and well tolerated medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate efficacy and safety of azathioprine as a second line medicine for primary ITP patients who were refractory to steroid therapy. METHODS: The observational, pre-post study was conducted at Government of Nepal Civil Service Hospital, Kathmandu from January to October 2014...
July 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935231/prolonged-tacrolimus-use-for-pediatric-gastrointestinal-disorder-a-double-edged-sword
#5
Kenji Hosoi, Katsuhiro Arai, Kentaro Matsuoka, Hirotaka Shimizu, Koichi Kamei, Atsuko Nakazawa, Toshiaki Shimizu, Julian Tang, Shuichi Ito
BACKGROUND: Although tacrolimus (TAC) appeared useful in inducing remission in children with refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or autoimmune gastroenteropathy (AGE), its use in maintenance therapy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the potential nephrotoxic nature of prolonged TAC use. METHODS: This retrospective study reviews children with gastrointestinal disorder who underwent kidney biopsy for the evaluation of renal damage during TAC therapy of over one year...
December 9, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934692/in-the-midst-of-life-cell-death-what-is-it-what-is-it-good-for-and-how-to-study-it
#6
John Silke, Ricky W Johnstone
Cell death, one of the most fundamental biological processes, has not made it into the public consciousness in the same way that genetic inheritance, cell division, or DNA replication has. Everyone knows they get their genes from their parents, but few would be aware that even before they were born a lot of essential cell death has shaped their development. The greater population, for the most part, is blissfully unaware that every day millions of their own cells die in a programmed way and that this is essential for normal human physiology-their well-being, in fact...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934691/dead-cert-measuring-cell-death
#7
Lisa C Crowley, Brooke J Marfell, Adrian P Scott, Jeanne A Boughaba, Grace Chojnowski, Melinda E Christensen, Nigel J Waterhouse
Many cells in the body die at specific times to facilitate healthy development or because they have become old, damaged, or infected. Defects in cells that result in their inappropriate survival or untimely death can negatively impact development or contribute to a variety of human pathologies, including cancer, AIDS, autoimmune disorders, and chronic infection. Cell death may also occur following exposure to environmental toxins or cytotoxic chemicals. Although this is often harmful, it can be beneficial in some cases, such as in the treatment of cancer...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933891/an-n-n-bis-benzimidazolylpicolinoyl-piperazine-bt-11-a-novel-lanthionine-synthetase-c-like-2-based-therapeutic-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Adria Carbo, Richard D Gandour, Raquel Hontecillas, Noah Philipson, Aykut Uren, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 (LANCL2), a novel therapeutic target for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and diabetes, exerts anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects. This study reports the first LANCL2-based therapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Analogues of 1 (ABA) and 2 (NSC61610) were screened by molecular docking, then synthesized and analyzed for binding to LANCL2 by surface plasmon resonance. Piperazine-1,4-diylbis(6-benzo[d]imidazole-2-yl)pyridine-2-yl)methanone, 7, was identified as the lead LANCL2-binding compound for treating IBD...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933873/amelioration-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-isogarcinol-extracted-from-garcinia-mangostana-l-mangosteen
#9
Mengqi Wang, Yufei Xie, Youxiu Zhong, Juren Cen, Lei Wang, Yuanyuan Liu, Ying Zhu, Li Tong, Qun Wei
Isogarcinol is a new natural immunosuppressant that was extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. in our laboratory. Knowledge of its effects on treatable diseases and its mechanism of action is still very limited. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effect of isogarcinol in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Treatment with oral 100 mg/kg isogarcinol markedly ameliorated clinical scores, alleviated inflammation and demyelination of the spinal cord, and reduced intracranial lesions in EAE mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933584/matrine-treatment-blocks-nogoa-induced-neural-inhibitory-signaling-pathway-in-ongoing-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#10
Quan-Cheng Kan, Hui-Jun Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Xing Li, Yu-Ming Xu, Rodolfo Thome, Ming-Liang Zhang, Nan Liu, Yao-Juan Chu, Guang-Xian Zhang, Li Zhu
Myelin-associated inhibitors, such as NogoA, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), play a pivotal role in the lack of neuroregeneration in multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Matrine (MAT), a monomer that is used in traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, has shown beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. However, the underlying mechanisms of MAT-induced EAE amelioration are not fully understood...
December 9, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933384/thyroid-autoimmunity-is-really-associated-with-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#11
Alev Selek, Berrin Cetinarslan, Ilhan Tarkun, Zeynep Canturk, Berna Ustuner, Zeynep Akyay
The incidence of thyroid cancer has been greatly increasing. Several studies aimed to investigate biomarkers for prediction of thyroid cancer. Some of these studies have suggested that thyroid autoantibodies (TAb) could be used as predictors of thyroid cancer risk, but the correlation between TAb and PTC is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate thyroid autoimmunity and TAbs in patients with PTC and benign multinodular goiter (MNG) to investigate if TAbs and autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) could predict thyroid malignancy...
December 8, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933060/regulators-of-tfh-cell-differentiation
#12
REVIEW
Gajendra M Jogdand, Suchitra Mohanty, Satish Devadas
The follicular helper T (Tfh) cells help is critical for activation of B cells, antibody class switching, and germinal center (GC) formation. The Tfh cells are characterized by the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), ICOS, programed death 1 (PD-1), B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6), and IL-21. They are involved in clearing infections and are adversely linked with autoimmune diseases and also have a role in viral replication as well as clearance. On the one hand, Tfh cells are generated from naive CD4(+) T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin A), migration, and positioning in the GC by CXCR5, surface receptors (ICOS/ICOSL, signaling lymphocyte activation molecule-associated protein/signaling lymphocyte activation molecule) as well as transcription factor (BCL-6, c-Maf, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) signaling and repressor miR155...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932857/vogt-koyanagi-harada-syndrome-current-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Abeir Baltmr, Sue Lightman, Oren Tomkins-Netzer
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome is a cause of noninfectious panuveitis, leading to significant vision loss in many patients. It is an autoimmune disease occurring in genetically susceptible individuals and clinically presents as bilateral panuveitis with serous retinal detachments and hyperemic, swollen optic discs, which are associated with neurological and auditory manifestations. Early diagnosis and prompt and adequate treatment with immunosuppressive agents (corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive drugs) may halt disease progression and prevent recurrences and vision loss...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932698/identification-of-inhibitors-of-the-association-of-zap-70-with-the-t-cell-receptor-by-high-throughput-screen
#14
Patrick R Visperas, Christopher G Wilson, Jonathan A Winger, Qingrong Yan, Kevin Lin, Michelle R Arkin, Arthur Weiss, John Kuriyan
ZAP-70 is a critical molecule in the transduction of T cell antigen receptor signaling and the activation of T cells. Upon activation of the T cell antigen receptor, ZAP-70 is recruited to the intracellular ζ-chains of the T cell receptor, where ZAP-70 is activated and colocalized with its substrates. Inhibitors of ZAP-70 could potentially function as treatments for autoimmune diseases or organ transplantation. In this work, we present the design, optimization, and implementation of a screen for inhibitors that would disrupt the interaction between ZAP-70 and the T cell antigen receptor...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932335/multicentre-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial-of-oral-anticoagulation-with-apixaban-in-systemic-sclerosis-related-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-the-sphinx-study-protocol
#15
Alicia Calderone, Wendy Stevens, David Prior, Harshal Nandurkar, Eli Gabbay, Susanna M Proudman, Trevor Williams, David Celermajer, Joanne Sahhar, Peter K K Wong, Vivek Thakkar, Nathan Dwyer, Jeremy Wrobel, Weng Chin, Danny Liew, Margaret Staples, Rachelle Buchbinder, Mandana Nikpour
INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a severe and costly multiorgan autoimmune connective tissue disease characterised by vasculopathy and fibrosis. One of the major causes of SSc-related death is pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which develops in 12-15% of patients with SSc and accounts for 30-40% of deaths. In situ thrombosis in the small calibre peripheral pulmonary vessels resulting from endothelial dysfunction and an imbalance of anticoagulant and prothrombotic mediators has been implicated in the complex pathophysiology of SSc-related PAH (SSc-PAH), with international clinical guidelines recommending the use of anticoagulants for some types of PAH, such as idiopathic PAH...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932211/a-novel-class-of-somatic-mutations-in-blood-detected-preferentially-in-cd8-cells
#16
Miko Valori, Lilja Jansson, Anna Kiviharju, Pekka Ellonen, Hanna Rajala, Shady Adnan Awad, Satu Mustjoki, Pentti J Tienari
Somatic mutations have a central role in cancer but their role in other diseases such as autoimmune disorders is poorly understood. Earlier work has provided indirect evidence of rare somatic mutations in autoreactive T-lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients but such mutations have not been identified thus far. We analysed somatic mutations in blood in 16 patients with relapsing MS and 4 with other neurological autoimmune disease. To facilitate the detection of somatic mutations CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and CD4-/CD8-/CD19- cell subpopulations were separated...
December 5, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931982/jak-inhibitor-tofacitinib-suppresses-interferon-alfa-production-by-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-and-inhibits-arthrogenic-and-antiviral-effects-of-interferon-alfa
#17
Patrick P C Boor, Petra E de Ruiter, Patrick S Asmawidjaja, Erik Lubberts, Luc J W van der Laan, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor that is effective for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and shows encouraging therapeutic effects in several other autoimmune diseases. A prominent adverse effect of tofacitinib therapy is the increased risk of viral infections. Despite its advanced stage of clinical development, the modes of action that mediate the beneficial and adverse effects of tofacitinib in autoimmune diseases remain unclear. Interferon alfa (IFNα) produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) is critically involved in the pathogenesis of many systemic autoimmune diseases and in immunity to viral infections...
November 20, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931862/new-recommendations-for-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-patients-with-autoimmune-and-inflammatory-diseases
#18
Diana Hernández-Flórez, Roberto González-Benítez, Lara Valor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931277/american-academy-of-allergy-asthma-immunology-membership-experience-with-allergen-immunotherapy-safety-in-patients-with-specific-medical-conditions
#19
Dsire E S Larenas-Linnemann, David W Hauswirth, Christopher W Calabria, Lawrence D Sher, Matthew A Rank
BACKGROUND: Little data in the literature exist concerning patients with certain underlying medical conditions who receive allergen subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). OBJECTIVE: To survey allergists' experience with SCIT in patients with medical conditions considered to impose an elevated risk for untoward outcomes. METHODS: A Web-based survey was conducted among members of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma Immunology to query about their experience with SCIT in patients with certain medical conditions...
September 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931211/gonadectomy-effects-on-the-risk-of-immune-disorders-in-the-dog-a-retrospective-study
#20
Crystal R Sundburg, Janelle M Belanger, Danika L Bannasch, Thomas R Famula, Anita M Oberbauer
BACKGROUND: Gonadectomy is one of the most common procedures performed on dogs in the United States. Neutering has been shown to reduce the risk for some diseases although recent reports suggest increased prevalence for structural disorders and some neoplasias. The relation between neuter status and autoimmune diseases has not been explored. This study evaluated the prevalence and risk of atopic dermatitis (ATOP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), canine myasthenia gravis (CMG), colitis (COL), hypoadrenocorticism (ADD), hypothyroidism (HYPO), immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA), immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), lupus erythematosus (LUP), and pemphigus complex (PEMC), for intact females, intact males, neutered females, and neutered males...
December 8, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
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