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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545045/differences-in-speb-protease-activity-among-group-a-streptococci-associated-with-superficial-invasive-and-autoimmune-disease
#1
Anhphan T Ly, John P Noto, Odaelys L Walwyn, Robert R Tanz, Stanford T Shulman, William Kabat, Debra E Bessen
The secreted cysteine proteinase SpeB is an important virulence factor of group A streptococci (GAS), whereby SpeB activity varies widely among strains. To establish the degree to which SpeB activity correlates with disease, GAS organisms were recovered from patients with pharyngitis, impetigo, invasive disease or acute rheumatic fever (ARF), and selected for analysis using rigorous sampling criteria; >300 GAS isolates were tested for SpeB activity by casein digestion assays, and each GAS isolate was scored as a SpeB-producer or non-producer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544856/recent-advances-in-connective-tissue-disease-related-interstitial-lung-disease
#2
Atsushi Suzuki, Yasuhiro Kondoh, Aryeh Fischer
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common manifestation of connective tissue disease (CTD). Although the majority of patients with CTD-ILD are stable or slowly progressive, a significant group exhibits a more severe and progressive decline. Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) describes the subset of patients with interstitial pneumonia who have features suggesting underlying autoimmunity, but whose features fall short of a clear diagnosis of CTD. Areas covered: In this focused review, we discuss recent advances in early detection, prognostic evaluation, and management of autoimmune forms of ILD...
May 25, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544133/autoimmune-encephalitis-associated-with-voltage-gated-potassium-channels-complex-and-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-1-antibodies-a-national-cohort-study
#3
M Celicanin, M Blaabjerg, C Maersk-Moller, S Beniczky, L Marner, C Thomsen, F W Back, D Kondziella, H Andersen, F Somnier, Z Illes, L H Pinborg
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe clinical and paraclinical characteristics of all Danish patients who tested positive for anti-voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC)-complex, anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and anti-contactin-associated protein-2 antibodies in the serum/cerebrospinal fluid between 2009 and 2013 with follow-up interviews in 2015 and 2016. METHODS: We evaluated antibody status, symptoms leading to testing, course of disease, suspected diagnosis and time of admission as well as diagnosis and treatment...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544067/vitamin-d3-alters-the-expression-of-toll-like-receptors-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#4
Esmaeil Yazdanpanah, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Maryam Sahebari, Zahra Rezaieyazdi, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Nafiseh Tabasi, Soheila Jaberi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Maryam Rastin
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by production of inflammatory cytokines and autoreactive antibodies due to the loss of immune tolerance. Recognition of self-nucleic acids by intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can overactivate immune responses and this abnormal activation of TLRs contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease. In recent years, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VitD3) on the immune system has received particular attention...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543911/polymorphism-of-tlr5-rs5744174-is-associated-with-disease-progression-in-chinese-patients-with-chronic-hbv-infection
#5
Lina Cao, Tong Zhang, Junping Zhu, Aixin Li, Kai Zheng, Nan Zhang, Bin Su, Wei Xia, Hao Wu, Ning Li, Qiushui He
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate and adaptive immunity, protecting the host from viral pathogens. Studies have implicated that TLR5 is associated with various diseases such as autoimmune and inflammation related diseases. However, little is known about the relationship between TLR5 and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We studied the effect of TLR5 gene polymorphisms on susceptibility to and disease progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection in Chinese. Blood samples were taken from 636 patients with CHB, HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 273 controls...
May 25, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543318/correlation-between-salivary-and-serum-anti-desmoglein-1-and-3-antibody-titres-using-elisa-and-between-anti-desmoglein-levels-and-disease-severity-in-pemphigus-vulgaris
#6
D De, G Khullar, S Handa, N Joshi, B Saikia, R W Minz
ELISA for anti-desmoglein antibodies (Dsg) is commonly used for diagnosis and assessment of treatment response in pemphigus vulgaris (PV). The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between salivary and serum Dsg1 and Dsg3 levels, and whether salivary Dsg1 and Dsg3 levels correlate with clinical disease severity of oral mucosal lesions in PV. In total 43, patients with PV with predominantly mucosal involvement were recruited. Both serum and salivary samples were collected from the cases, and salivary samples were also collected from five controls...
May 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543188/cd44-deletion-leading-to-attenuation-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-results-from-alterations-in-gut-microbiome-in-mice
#7
Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Hongbing Guan, Narendra P Singh, Brandon Busbee, Alexa Gandy, Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami, Mitra S Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang, Saurabh Chatterjee, Prakash Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
Dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been shown to be associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated the pivotal role played by CD44 in the regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis. In the current study, we determined whether these effects resulted from an alteration in gut microbiota and the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in CD44KO mice. Fecal transfer from naïve CD44KO but not CD44WT mice, into EAE-induced CD44WT mice, led to significant amelioration of EAE...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542592/fatigue-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-and-its-impact-on-quality-of-life
#8
Jin Myoung Seok, Misong Choi, Eun Bin Cho, Hye Lim Lee, Byoung Joon Kim, Kwang Ho Lee, Pamela Song, Eun Yeon Joo, Ju-Hong Min
Fatigue is a prevalent symptom and major burden in neuroimmunological diseases. In neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), a severe autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disease with autoantibodies reactive to aquaporin-4, there are few reports about fatigue and quality of life (QOL). We aimed to evaluate the severity of fatigue and its relationship with QOL in patients with NMOSD. We prospectively studied patients with NMOSD who were in remission and seropositive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody, and they were divided into 2 groups based on the presence of fatigue assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-fatigue score...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542262/the-role-of-the-innate-immune-response-regulatory-gene-abcf1-in-mammalian-embryogenesis-and-development
#9
Sara M Wilcox, Hitesh Arora, Lonna Munro, Jian Xin, Franz Fenninger, Laura A Johnson, Cheryl G Pfeifer, Kyung Bok Choi, Juan Hou, Pamela A Hoodless, Wilfred A Jefferies
ABCF1 is an ABC transporter family protein that has been shown to regulate innate immune response and is a risk gene for autoimmune pancreatitis and arthritis. Unlike other members of ABC transporter family, ABCF1 lacks trans-membrane domains and is thought to function in translation initiation through an interaction with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2). To study ABCF1 expression and function in development and disease, we used a single gene trap insertion in the Abcf1 gene in murine embryonic stem cells (ES cells) that allowed lineage tracing of the endogenous Abcf1 promoter by following the expression of a β-galactosidase reporter gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542146/the-role-of-extracellular-histone-in-organ-injury
#10
REVIEW
Eleanor Silk, Hailin Zhao, Hao Weng, Daqing Ma
Histones are intra-nuclear cationic proteins that are present in all eukaryotic cells and are highly conserved across species. Within the nucleus, they provide structural stability to chromatin and regulate gene expression. Histone may be released into the extracellular space in three forms: freely, as a DNA-bound nucleosome or as part of neutrophil extracellular traps, and all three can be detected in serum after significant cellular death such as sepsis, trauma, ischaemia/reperfusion injury and autoimmune disease...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542141/an-enhanced-bioluminescence-based-annexin-v-probe-for-apoptosis-detection-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Trajen Head, Peter Dau, Stephanie Duffort, Pirouz Daftarian, Pratibha M Joshi, Roberto Vazquez-Padron, Sapna K Deo, Sylvia Daunert
The process of controlled cellular death known as apoptosis has an important central role not only in normal homeostatic maintenance of tissues, but also in numerous diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative, autoimmune, and cardiovascular diseases. As a result, new technologies with the capability to selectively detect apoptotic cells represent a central focus of research for the study of these conditions. We have developed a new biosensor for the detection of apoptotic cells, incorporating the targeted selectivity for apoptotic cells from Annexin V with the sensitivity of bioluminescence signal generation from a serum-stable mutant of Renilla luciferase (RLuc8)...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542044/anti-transglutaminase-6-antibody-development-in-children-with-celiac-disease-correlates-with-duration-of-gluten-exposure
#12
Luigina De Leo, Daniel Aeschlimann, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Pascale Aeschlimann, Nicola Salce, Serena Vatta, Fabiana Ziberna, Giorgio Cozzi, Stefano Martelossi, Alessandro Ventura, Tarcisio Not
OBJECTIVES: Antibodies against transglutaminase 6 (anti-TG6) have been implicated in neurological manifestations in adult patients with genetic-gluten intolerance and it is unclear whether autoimmunity to TG6 develops following prolonged gluten exposure. We measured the anti-TG6 in children with celiac disease (CD) at the diagnosis time to establish a correlation between these autoantibodies and the duration of gluten exposure. We investigated a correlation between anti-TG6 and the presence of neurological disorders...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541315/therapeutic-t-cell-engineering
#13
Michel Sadelain, Isabelle Rivière, Stanley Riddell
Genetically engineered T cells are powerful new medicines, offering hope for curative responses in patients with cancer. Chimaeric antigen receptors (CARs) are a class of synthetic receptors that reprogram lymphocyte specificity and function. CARs targeting CD19 have demonstrated remarkable potency in B cell malignancies. Engineered T cells are applicable in principle to many cancers, pending further progress to identify suitable target antigens, overcome immunosuppressive tumour microenvironments, reduce toxicities, and prevent antigen escape...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541299/antinuclear-antibody-testing-misunderstood-or-misbegotten
#14
REVIEW
David S Pisetsky
Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are a diverse group of autoantibodies that recognize nuclear macromolecules and their complexes. ANAs represent key biomarkers in the evaluation of rheumatic diseases, most prominently systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and ANA testing is commonly performed in the clinical setting. In addition, ANA testing is now used to assess eligibility for participation in clinical trials of new therapeutic agents for SLE. ANAs can be assayed by various techniques, with the fluorescent ANA assay often viewed as the gold standard...
May 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540584/-interstitial-cystitis-diagnosis-and-pharmacological-and-surgical-therapy
#15
A Gonsior, J Neuhaus, L C Horn, T Bschleipfer, J-U Stolzenburg
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic debilitating condition which generally has a severely negative impact on quality of life. An autoimmune genetic predisposition correlates with the theory of pathogenesis. Diagnosis requires history, diaries, physical examination, exclusion of other diseases, cystoscopy with or without hydrodistension and/or bladder biopsy. Novel biological markers are upcoming but not established. Behavioural, pharmacological oral and intravesical, interventional and surgical therapies with a wide range of reported success are available...
May 24, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540499/cell-based-therapies-with-t-regulatory-cells
#16
REVIEW
Mateusz Gliwiński, Dorota Iwaszkiewicz-Grześ, Piotr Trzonkowski
CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) are immunodominant suppressors in the immune system. Tregs use various mechanisms to control immune responses. Preclinical data from animal models have confirmed the huge therapeutic potential of Tregs in many immune-mediated diseases. Hence, these cells are now on the road to translation to cell therapy in the clinic as the first clinical trials are accomplished. To date, clinical research has involved mainly hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, solid organ transplantations, and autoimmunity...
May 24, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540475/-intestinal-microbiota-in-individualized-therapies
#17
REVIEW
T Witte, D H Pieper, B Heidrich
During recent years, the analysis of the human microbiota has been receiving more and more scientific focus. Deep sequencing analysis enables characterization of microbial communities in different environments without the need of culture-based methods. Hereby, information about microbial communities is increasing enormously. Numerous studies in humans and animal models revealed the important role of the microbiome in emergence and natural course of diseases such as autoimmune diseases and metabolic disorders, e...
May 24, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540407/a-new-mutation-site-in-the-aire-gene-causes-autoimmune-polyendocrine-syndrome-type-1
#18
Wufei Zhu, Zhen Hu, Xiangyu Liao, Xing Chen, Wenrong Huang, Yu Zhong, Zhaoyang Zeng
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1, OMIM 2403000) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is caused by autoimmune regulator (AIRE). The main symptoms of APS-1 are chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, autoimmune adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease) and hypoparathyroidism. We collected APS-1 cases and analysed them. The AIRE genes of the patient and his family members were sequenced to identify whether the APS-1 patient had an AIRE mutation. We discovered a mutation site (c.206A>C) that had never before been reported in the AIRE gene located in exon 2 of the AIRE gene...
May 24, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540177/structural-analysis-of-recombinant-human-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-ubch5c
#19
Fangshu Wu, Junsheng Zhu, Honglin Li, Lili Zhu
UbcH5c belongs to the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family and plays an important role in catalyzing ubiquitination during TNF-α--triggered NF-κB activation. Therefore, UbcH5c is a potent therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases induced by aberrant activation of NF-κB. In this study, we established a stable expression system for recombinant UbcH5c and solved the crystal structure of UbcH5c belonging to space group P22121 with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. This study provides the basis for further study of UbcH5c including the design of UbcH5c inhibitors...
May 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539924/therapeutic-development-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-or-their-extracellular-vesicles-to-inhibit-autoimmune-mediated-inflammatory-processes-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#20
REVIEW
Juhi Sharma, Jeffrey M Hampton, Giancarlo R Valiente, Takuma Wada, Holly Steigelman, Matthew C Young, Rachel R Spurbeck, Alisa D Blazek, Steffi Bösh, Wael N Jarjour, Nicholas A Young
Since being discovered over half a century ago, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated extensively to characterize their cellular and physiological influences. MSCs have been shown to possess immunosuppressive capacity through inhibiting lymphocyte activation/proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion while simultaneously demonstrating limited allogenic reactivity, which subsequently led to the evaluation of therapeutic feasibility to treat inflammatory diseases. Although regulatory constraints have restricted MSC development pharmacologically, limited clinical studies have shown encouraging results using MSC infusions to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); but, more trials will have to be performed to conclusively determine the clinical efficacy of MSCs to treat SLE...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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