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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156593/site-directed-mutagenesis-of-the-fibronectin-domains-in-insulin-receptor-related-receptor
#1
Igor E Deyev, Natalia A Chachina, Egor S Zhevlenev, Alexander G Petrenko
The orphan insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR), in contrast to its close homologs, the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) can be activated by mildly alkaline extracellular medium. We have previously demonstrated that IRR activation is defined by its extracellular region, involves multiple domains, and shows positive cooperativity with two synergistic sites. By the analyses of point mutants and chimeras of IRR with IR in, we now address the role of the fibronectin type III (FnIII) repeats in the IRR pH-sensing...
November 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156327/asiatic-acid-and-maslinic-acid-attenuated-kainic-acid-induced-seizure-through-decreasing-hippocampal-inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress
#2
Zhi-Hong Wang, Mei-Chin Mong, Ya-Chen Yang, Mei-Chin Yin
Seizure is a neurological disorder including hippocampal oxidative and inflammatory stress, and glutamate toxicity. Thus, any agent(s) that mitigate(s) these events in hippocampus might attenuate seizure severity. The effects of asiatic acid (AA) or maslinic acid (MA) pre-administration at 20 or 40mg/kg body weight/day upon inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic injury in hippocampus of kainic acid (KA)-treated mice were examined. KA induced seizure-like behavioral patterns, which was attenuated by AA or MA pre-administration...
November 17, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155992/ihh-gene-mutations-causing-short-stature-with-non-specific-skeletal-abnormalities-and-response-to-growth-hormone-therapy
#3
Gabriela A Vasques, Mariana F A Funari, Frederico M Ferreira, Miriam Aza-Carmona, Lucia Sentchordi-Montané, Jimena Barraza-García, Antonio M Lerario, Guilherme L Yamamoto, Michel S Naslavsky, Yeda A O Duarte, Debora R Bertola, Karen E Heath, Alexander A L Jorge
Context: Genetic evaluation has been recognized as an important tool to elucidate the causes of growth disorders. Objective: To investigate the etiology of short stature and to determine the phenotype of patients with IHH mutations, including the response to growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. Patients and Methods: We studied 17 families with autosomal dominant short stature using whole exome sequencing and screened IHH defects in 290 patients with growth disorders...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155855/iron-status-and-anaemia-in-sri-lankan-secondary-school-children-a-cross-sectional-survey
#4
Angela Allen, Stephen Allen, Rexan Rodrigo, Lakshman Perera, Wei Shao, Chao Li, Duolao Wang, Nancy Olivieri, David J Weatherall, Anuja Premawardhena
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency, the most common micronutrient disorder and cause of anaemia globally, impairs growth, cognition, behaviour and resistance to infection. METHODS/RESULTS: As part of a national survey of inherited haemoglobin variants in 7526 students from 72 secondary schools purposefully selected from the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, we studied 5912 students with a normal haemoglobin genotype. Median age was 16.0 (IQR 15.0-17.0) years and 3189 (53.9%) students were males...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154596/the-moderating-role-of-trauma-type-on-the-relationship-between-event-centrality-of-the-traumatic-experience-and-mental-health-outcomes
#5
Rachel Wamser-Nanney, Kathryn H Howell, Laura E Schwartz, Amanda J Hasselle
OBJECTIVE: Event centrality, or the extent to which traumatic events are perceived to be integral to one's life, has been found to be predictive of trauma-related symptoms, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Less research has been devoted to whether event centrality is related to adaptive outcomes, such as posttraumatic growth (PTG) and resiliency, and psychological well-being (PWB) has not been investigated. Given the unique circumstances of different types of traumas, the relationship between event centrality and posttrauma functioning may differ by the type of trauma experienced...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154591/the-impact-of-comorbid-diagnoses-on-the-course-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-in-residents-of-battered-women-s-shelters
#6
Katherine M Fedele, Nicole L Johnson, Jennifer C Caldwell, Yuliya Shteynberg, Sarah E Sanders, Samantha C Holmes, Dawn M Johnson
OBJECTIVE: The current investigation sought to explore the impact of the comorbidities of substance use disorder (SUD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and borderline personality disorder (BPD) on the trajectory of intimate partner violence (IPV)-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms across a 6-month follow-up period in IPV survivors who seek shelter. Research has found significant comorbidity of SUD, MDD, and BPD with PTSD (see Green et al., 2006; Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes, & Nelson, 1995; Pagura et al...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153836/post-transcriptional-regulation-of-de-novo-lipogenesis-by-mtorc1-s6k1-srpk2-signaling
#7
Gina Lee, Yuxiang Zheng, Sungyun Cho, Cholsoon Jang, Christina England, Jamie M Dempsey, Yonghao Yu, Xiaolei Liu, Long He, Paola M Cavaliere, Andre Chavez, Erik Zhang, Meltem Isik, Anthony Couvillon, Noah E Dephoure, T Keith Blackwell, Jane J Yu, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Lewis C Cantley, John Blenis
mTORC1 is a signal integrator and master regulator of cellular anabolic processes linked to cell growth and survival. Here, we demonstrate that mTORC1 promotes lipid biogenesis via SRPK2, a key regulator of RNA-binding SR proteins. mTORC1-activated S6K1 phosphorylates SRPK2 at Ser494, which primes Ser497 phosphorylation by CK1. These phosphorylation events promote SRPK2 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of SR proteins. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that lipid biosynthetic enzymes are among the downstream targets of mTORC1-SRPK2 signaling...
November 14, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153343/prevalence-of-anemia-in-hospitalized-internal-medicine-patients-correlations-with-comorbidities-and-length-of-hospital-stay
#8
Carlo Zaninetti, Catherine Klersy, Concetta Scavariello, Raffaella Bastia, Carlo L Balduini, Rosangela Invernizzi
BACKGROUND: Several studies have documented a linear growth of the prevalence of anemia with aging. Especially in hospitalized elderly patients, anemia can aggravate the course of chronic disorders, and ultimately get worse the clinical outcomes. METHODS: To evaluate the distribution, the main causes, and the possible correlations of anemia with comorbidities and length of hospitalization in a population of internal medicine inpatients, we carried out an observational study on a cohort of 923 consecutive admissions relative to 856 subjects...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152903/reproductive-endocrine-phenotypes-relating-to-chd7-mutations-in-humans
#9
REVIEW
Ravikumar Balasubramanian, William F Crowley
Mutations in the gene CHD7 cause CHARGE syndrome, a rare multi-organ syndromic disorder. Gonadal defects are common in individuals with CHARGE syndrome (seen in ∼60-80% of cases) and represent the letter "G" in the CHARGE syndrome acronym. The gonadal defect in CHARGE syndrome results from congenital deficiency of the hypothalamic hormone Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which manifests clinically as pubertal failure and infertility, and biochemically as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (low sex steroid hormone levels with inappropriately normal or low gonadotropin levels)...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152791/interleukin-17-alters-the-biology-of-many-cell-types-involved-in-the-genesis-of-psoriasis-systemic-inflammation-and-associated-comorbidities
#10
REVIEW
James G Krueger, Patrick M Brunner
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, systemic inflammatory disease that is defined by a characteristic skin reaction produced when elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-17 alter the growth and differentiation of skin cells. The pathogenesis of comorbid conditions associated with psoriasis, including psoriatic arthritis, cardiovascular disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, liver disorders, renal disease, and depression are also largely affected by inflammation. In this review, we examine the effect of IL-17 on the inflammatory pathways in a variety of different cell types, including keratinocytes, as well as epithelial cells of the colon, kidney, gut, and liver...
November 20, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152685/cerebral-palsy-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
Sheffali Gulati, Vishal Sondhi
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormalities of muscle tone, movement and motor skills, and is attributed to injury to the developing brain. The clinical features of this entity evolve over time and the specific CP syndrome may be recognizable only after 3-5 y of age; although suggestive signs and symptoms may be present at an earlier age. The management involves neurological rehabilitation (addressing muscle tonal abnormalities, and devising physical and occupational therapies) and diagnosis and management of co-morbidities (including epilepsy, impairment of cognition, vision, hearing, and disturbances of growth and gastrointestinal function)...
November 20, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152137/emodin-and-rhein-decrease-levels-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-in-human-pancreatic-cancer-cells-and-attenuate-cancer-cachexia-in-athymic-mice-carrying-these-cells
#12
Lijuan Hu, Rui Cui, Hongyi Liu, Feng Wang
The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) consists of oxygen-sensitive HIF-1α and constitutive HIF-1β. HIF-1α is undetectable in normal cells, but cancer cells frequently express HIF-1α to support their growth, angiogenesis, and high glycolysis (also known as the Warburg effect). The Warburg effect in cancer cells increases energy expenditure and thus participates in cancer-induced metabolic disorder, cancer cachexia. In the present study, we investigated whether two components of Rheum palmatum, emodin and rhein, inhibited HIF-1α expression in human pancreatic cancer cells and whether the inhibiting effect, if any, attenuated cancer cachexia...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151984/hepatic-and-aortic-arch-expression-and-serum-levels-of-syndecan-1-in-apoe-mice
#13
Elena I Leonova, Elena S Sadovnikova, Elvira R Shaykhutdinova, Oxana V Galzitskaya, Arkady N Murashev, Alexandr S Solonin
Background: Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) syndecan-1 (Sdc1) acts as a receptor for triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), growth factors, chemokines and enzymes. Due to the disordered structure, its function is as diverse as its ligands. In this paper, we have analyzed hepatic and aortic arch expression of Sdc1 in ApoE(-/-) mice and examined their association with biochemical changes in plasma during the atheroma formation. Methods: ApoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice as a model of atherosclerosis were used...
2017: Open Biochemistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151386/dysregulation-in-children-origins-and-implications-from-age-5-to-age-28
#14
Maureen E McQuillan, Ebru C Kultur, John E Bates, Lauren M O'Reilly, Kenneth A Dodge, Jennifer E Lansford, Gregory S Pettit
Research shows that childhood dysregulation is associated with later psychiatric disorders. It does not yet resolve discrepancies in the operationalization of dysregulation. It is also far from settled on the origins and implications of individual differences in dysregulation. This study tested several operational definitions of dysregulation using Achenbach attention, anxious/depressed, and aggression subscales. Individual growth curves of dysregulation were computed, and predictors of growth differences were considered...
November 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150432/the-ikk-related-kinase-tbk1-activates-mtorc1-directly-in-response-to-growth-factors-and-innate-immune-agonists
#15
Cagri Bodur, Dubek Kazyken, Kezhen Huang, Bilgen Ekim Ustunel, Kate A Siroky, Aaron Seth Tooley, Ian E Gonzalez, Daniel H Foley, Hugo A Acosta-Jaquez, Tammy M Barnes, Gabrielle K Steinl, Kae-Won Cho, Carey N Lumeng, Steven M Riddle, Martin G Myers, Diane C Fingar
The innate immune kinase TBK1 initiates inflammatory responses to combat infectious pathogens by driving production of type I interferons. TBK1 also controls metabolic processes and promotes oncogene-induced cell proliferation and survival. Here, we demonstrate that TBK1 activates mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) directly. In cultured cells, TBK1 associates with and activates mTORC1 through site-specific mTOR phosphorylation (on S2159) in response to certain growth factor receptors (i.e., EGF-receptor but not insulin receptor) and pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) (i...
November 17, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149835/forkhead-transcription-factors-formulating-a-foxo-target-for-cognitive-loss
#16
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With almost 47 million individuals worldwide suffering from some aspect of dementia, it is clear that cognitive loss impacts a significant proportion of the global population. Unfortunately, definitive treatments to resolve or prevent the onset of cognitive loss are limited. In most cases such care is currently non-existent prompting the need for novel treatment strategies. METHODS: Mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxO) are one such avenue of investigation that offer an exciting potential to bring new treatments forward for disorders that involve cognitive loss...
November 15, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149745/household-air-pollution-and-chronic-hypoxia-in-the-placenta-of-pregnant-nigerian-women-a-randomized-controlled-ethanol-cookstove-intervention
#17
Anindita Dutta, Galina Khramtsova, Katherine Brito, Donee Alexander, Ariel Mueller, Sireesha Chinthala, Damilola Adu, Tope Ibigbami, John Olamijulo, Abayomi Odetunde, Kehinde Adigun, Liese Pruitt, Ian Hurley, Olufunmilayo Olopade, Oladosu Ojengbede, Sarosh Rana, Christopher O Olopade
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution (HAP) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Investigate impact of in-utero HAP exposure on placental development and chronic hypoxia. METHODS: Markers of chronic placental hypoxia [Hofbauer cells (HBC), syncytial knots (SK), chorionic vascular density (cVD) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)] were stained by hematoxylin-eosin and/or immunohistochemically in placenta samples collected from firewood-/kerosene-users (A,n=16), and ethanol-users (B,n=20) that participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial in Ibadan, Nigeria...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149408/function-of-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-in-organ-growth-lessons-from-drosophila-studies
#18
Kwang-Wook Choi, Sung-Tae Hong, Thao Phuong Le
Regulation of cell growth and proliferation is crucial for development and function of organs in all animals. Genetic defects in growth control can lead to developmental disorders and cancers. Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins implicated in cancer. Recent studies have revealed multiple roles of TCTP in diverse cellular events, but TCTP functions in vivo are poorly understood in vertebrate systems. We have used Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, as a model organism for genetic dissection of Tctp function...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148786/n-alkanethiols-directly-grown-on-a-bare-si-111-surface-from-disordered-to-ordered-transition
#19
Lo-Yueh Chang, Yen-Chien Kuo, Hung Wei Shiu, Chia-Hsin Wang, Yao-Chang Lee, Yaw-Wen Yang, Shangjr Gwo, Chia-Hao Chen
We observed the growth phase transition of n-alkanethiols (AT), CH3(CH2)n-1SH, n = 4 ~16, directly implanted on a bare Si(111) surface, forming an AT monolayer. These monolayers were characterized with static water-contact angle, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray fine-structure spectroscopy and grazing-angle reflection absorption Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The integrated spectral results indicated that the implanted n-AT molecules formed a self-oriented and densely packed monolayer through formation of an S-Si bond...
November 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146497/nocardiosis-from-1888-to-2017
#20
REVIEW
Mehdi Fatahi-Bafghi
The genus Nocardia is an aerobic bacterium, Gram-positive and catalase positive that is in Nocardiaceae family. This bacterium first described by Edmond Nocard in 1888 and is not in human commensal bacteria. To date, nocardiosis incidence is increasing due to increase population growth rate, increase in patients with immune disorder diseases and immunocompromised patients. We surveyed taxonomic position, isolation methods, phenotypic and molecular identification at the genus and species levels, antibiogram, treatment and epidemiology in the world from 1888 to 2017...
November 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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