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professional judgment

Diana Bairaktarova, Anna Woodcock
Professional communities are experiencing scandals involving unethical and illegal practices daily. Yet it should not take a national major structure failure to highlight the importance of ethical awareness and behavior, or the need for the development and practice of ethical behavior in engineering students. Development of ethical behavior skills in future engineers is a key competency for engineering schools as ethical behavior is a part of the professional identity and practice of engineers. While engineering educators have somewhat established instructional methods to teach engineering ethics, they still rely heavily on teaching ethical awareness, and pay little attention to how well ethical awareness predicts ethical behavior...
October 17, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
Janet Landeen, Donna Carr, Kirsten Culver, Lynn Martin, Nancy Matthew-Maich, Charlotte Noesgaard, Larissa Beney-Gadsby
Ongoing curricular renewal is a necessary phenomenon in nursing education to align learning with ever-changing professional practice demands. The McMaster Mohawk Conestoga BScN Program in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada recently engaged in a comprehensive curriculum renewal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of curricular changes on students' deep learning. Faculty perceptions about student learning outcomes during final year clinical placements were gathered through a combination of individual interviews and focus groups using Interpretive Descriptive qualitative research methodology...
October 4, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Valdester Cavalcante Pinto, Rodrigo Cardoso Cavalcante, Klébia Magalhães P Castello Branco, Candice Torres de Melo Bezerra Cavalcante, Isabel Cristina Leite Maia, Nayana Maria Gomes de Souza, Kiarelle Lourenço Penaforte, Juan Alberto Cosquillo Mejia, Waldemiro Carvalho
The perspective of the integrated health system has a network of care with multiple integration dimensions among subsystems as nuclear representation, relating the clinical aspects and governance to the representations and collective values. The normative integration aims to ensure coherence between the system of representations and values of society simultaneously with the interfaces of clinical and functional integration. It builds a bridge with governance, which allows, through their skills, management of all system components, encouraging cooperation, communication and information, in order to ensure the population under their responsibility to access excellence services, exceeding their expectations...
May 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Neeraj Nagpal
Physicians and Internists in India have tended to brush under the carpet legal issues affecting their profession. Of concern to all Physicians is the judgment in a recent case where the NCDRC has stated that if MD Medicine Physicians write Physician & Cardiologist on their letterhead it is Quackery. What is MD Medicine degree holder in India qualified and trained to treat ? These are issues which need debate and that can only be initiated once we recognize that there is a problem. Either an MD Medicine is a cardiologist or he is not...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Shu-Wen Chen
BACKGROUND: Repeat caesarean delivery (RCD) ranks as the top reason for the high caesarean rates in Taiwan. More than 90% of Taiwanese women who have had a previous caesarean delivery chose RCD following their next pregnancy. PURPOSE: To explore the decision-making processes regarding RCD in Taiwanese women. METHODS: A qualitative approach with grounded theory was used to conduct this research. Participants were recruited from a private medical centre in northern Taiwan...
October 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Stephanie Miller, Peter Eldred, Ariel Muldoon, Kara Anlauf-Dunn, Charlie Stein, Shannon Hubler, Lesley Merrick, Nick Haxton, Chad Larson, Andrew Rehn, Peter Ode, Jake Vander Laan
Aquatic monitoring programs vary widely in objectives and design. However, each program faces the unifying challenge of assessing conditions and quantifying reasonable expectations for measured indicators. A common approach for setting resource expectations is to define reference conditions that represent areas of least human disturbance or most natural state of a resource characterized by the range of natural variability across a region of interest. Identification of reference sites often relies heavily on professional judgment, resulting in varying and unrepeatable methods...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Management
Tiffany Lavis, Neil Brewer
Witnesses frequently make an error when reporting events they have observed. Although some error in witness reports is to be expected and does not mean the testimony as a whole is flawed, an important question is how such an error affects judgments of credibility of the witness. In 2 experiments we investigated the impact of a single demonstrated (probative or nonprobative) detail inaccuracy on judgments of the likely reliability of witness memory. Potential mediators (witness dishonesty and forgetfulness) were examined to explain the relationship between inaccuracy and perceived reliability of the witness's memory report...
September 29, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Jennifer Gongola, Nicholas Scurich, Jodi A Quas
Although research reveals that children as young as 3 can use deception and will take steps to obscure truth, research concerning how well others detect children's deceptive efforts remains unclear. Yet adults regularly assess whether children are telling the truth in a variety of contexts, including at school, in the home, and in legal settings, particularly in investigations of maltreatment. We conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize extant research concerning adults' ability to detect deceptive statements produced by children...
September 29, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Colin Perron, Olivier Rouillon, Pascal Edouard
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, characteristics and risk factors of injuries to French golfers high-level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was a national retrospective study by mailing a questionnaire to all the French Golf licensed under ten handicap. The questionnaire collected information on the characteristics of the player, practicing golf, equipment and the occurrence or not of an injury during the season 2015. A descriptive analysis and a comparison between the injured and uninjured golfers were made, followed by univariate and multivariate analysis to investigate potential risk factors...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Moira O'Neill
BACKGROUND: The advancing accountability of nurses and nurse educators requires students to develop knowledge, skills, and judgment on a continuum of focus from individual patients to the broader context of care. METHOD: A dynamic capstone policy course was developed by applying the American Association of Colleges of Nursing's Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice and capitalizing on related benefits of service-learning pedagogy...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
Patricia L Hardré, Mikio Nihira, Edgar LeClaire, Michael Moen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe how professional expertise is defined and understood among gynecologic surgeons and what experiential factors contribute to that understanding. METHODS: Semistructured interviews with 16 experts in Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery were conducted to identify how expertise in their field is defined, recognized, and assessed. Independent thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was performed by each member of the research team and then distilled and synthesized into convergent themes...
September 21, 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Corey S Davis, Scott Burris, Leo Beletsky, Ingrid Binswanger
The opioid overdose epidemic claims the lives of tens of thousands of Americans every year. Opioid overdose is reversible by the administration of naloxone, a pure antagonist now available in formulations specifically designed and labeled for layperson use. Despite broad support for layperson access to naloxone from professional organizations, health officials, and clinical experts, qualitative studies suggest that some providers have concerns about legal risks associated with naloxone prescribing, particularly co-prescribing naloxone to pain patients...
September 20, 2016: Substance Abuse
Zhou Lulin, Ethel Yiranbon, Henry Asante Antwi
Early accounts of the development of modern medicine suggest that the clinical skills, scientific competence, and doctors' judgment were the main impetus for treatment decision, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy assessment, and medical progress. Yet, clinician judgment has its own critics and is sometimes harshly described as notoriously fallacious and an irrational and unfathomable black box with little transparency. With the rise of contemporary medical research, the reputation of clinician judgment has undergone significant reformation in the last century as its fallacious aspects are increasingly emphasized relative to the evidence based options...
2016: BioMed Research International
Cees P M van der Vleuten, Sylvia Heeneman
Programmatic assessment requires labour and cost intensive activities such as feedback in a quantitative and qualitative form, a system of learner support in guiding feedback uptake and self-directed learning, and a decision-making arrangement that includes committees of experts making a holistic professional judgment while using due process measures to achieve trustworthy decisions. This can only be afforded if we redistribute the resources of assessment in a curriculum. Several strategies are suggested...
October 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
Emilia Bea
This article approaches the testimony of the Alsatian psychiatrist Dr Adélaïde Hautval on the pseudo-medicine that was practiced in the Medical experimentation Block 10 of Auschwitz Birkenau, and on her refusal to take part in this crime against humanity. By reading her deportation diary and the acts of a peculiar judgment in Auschwitz that was celebrated in London in 1964, we are confronted with the ethical and professional dilemmas that doctors, who were themselves prisoners, had to face in this situation, and that incited them to resist inhumanity by acts, to disobey their superiors, and to be solidary with the victims...
May 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Nathan T Walters, Paul M Spengler
Mental health professionals are increasingly aware of the need for competence in the treatment of clients with pornography-related concerns. However, while researchers have recently sought to explore efficacious treatments for pornography-related concerns, few explorations of potential clinical judgment issues have occurred. Due to the sensitive, and at times uncomfortable, nature of client disclosures of sexual concerns within therapy, therapists are required to manage their own discomfort while retaining fidelity to treatment...
September 2016: Psychotherapy
Jesús Montero-Marín, Jorge Gaete, Marcelo Demarzo, Baltasar Rodero, Luiz C Serrano Lopez, Javier García-Campayo
BACKGROUND: The use of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) as a single measure has been pointed out as problematic by many authors and its originally proposed structure has repeatedly been called into question. The negative facets of this construct are more strongly related to psychopathology than the positive indicators. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the different structures proposed for the SCS, including a new measure based only on the negative factors, and to assess the psychometric features of the more plausible solution...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Marie Oxenbøll-Collet, Ingrid Egerod, Vibeke Christensen, Jeannette Jensen, Thordis Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU) has received more attention in the past decade. Early detection, prevention and treatment of delirium are important, and the most commonly used tool for delirium assessment is the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). AIM: The aim of this study was to identify nurses' and physicians' perceived professional barriers to using the CAM-ICU in Danish ICUs. METHODS: This study uses a qualitative explorative multicentre design using focus groups and a semi-structured interview guide...
September 5, 2016: Nursing in Critical Care
Lucie Boucher
Objectives The article aims to present two studies supporting the development of l'Échelle brève de triage RIFCAS en santé mentale 0-99 ans, a measuring instrument used to determine - based on the level of customer demand, seriousness, and urgent need for intervention - the priority of a mental health service across all age groups.Methods Both versions have been subject to a measurement interjudge agreement that is compared against the judgment of professionals and other comparison tools.Results The results produced by the interjudge agreement reflect significant correlations with the priorities established by l'Échelle brève de triage RIFCAS en santé mentale 0-99 ans, the judgment of professional experts and the usual instruments used...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Ronald Thom, Tom St Clair, Rebecca Burns, Michael Anderson
Adaptive management (AM) is being employed in a number of programs in the United States to guide actions to restore aquatic ecosystems because these programs are both expensive and are faced with significant uncertainties. Many of these uncertainties are associated with prioritizing when, where, and what kind of actions are needed to meet the objectives of enhancing ecosystem services and recovering threatened and endangered species. We interviewed nine large-scale aquatic ecosystem restoration programs across the United States to document the lessons learned from implementing AM...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
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