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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649904/debiasing-health-related-judgments-and-decision-making-a-systematic-review
#1
Ramona Ludolph, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND: Being confronted with uncertainty in the context of health-related judgments and decision making can give rise to the occurrence of systematic biases. These biases may detrimentally affect lay persons and health experts alike. Debiasing aims at mitigating these negative effects by eliminating or reducing the biases. However, little is known about its effectiveness. This study seeks to systematically review the research on health-related debiasing to identify new opportunities and challenges for successful debiasing strategies...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647393/the-effect-and-use-of-milestones-in-the-assessment-of-neurological-surgery-residents-and-residency-programs
#2
Lisa N Conforti, Nicholas A Yaghmour, Stanley J Hamstra, Eric S Holmboe, Benjamin Kennedy, Jesse J Liu, Heidi Waldo, Nathan R Selden
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones on the assessment of neurological surgery residents. The authors sought to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and utility of this new framework in making judgments of progressive competence, its implementation within programs, and the influence on curricula. Residents were also surveyed to elicit the effect of Milestones on their educational experience and professional development...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647290/effect-of-professional-expertise-and-exposure-to-everyday-life-decision-making-on-moral-choices
#3
Maddalena Boccia, Paola Verde, Gregorio Angelino, Paolo Carrozzo, Diego Vecchi, Laura Piccardi, Stefano Colangeli, Pierluigi Cordellieri, Fabio Ferlazzo, Anna Maria Giannini
Moral sense is defined as a feeling of fairness or unfairness of an action that knowingly causes harm to people other than the subject. It is crucial in determining human behavior and becomes pivotal in operational environments. Here we assessed whether professional daily life experience in an operational environment affects moral judgment by asking 41 military pilots of the Italian Air Force (P) and 69 controls (C) to solve 40 moral dilemmas. We found that P gave more morally acceptable utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas...
June 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642353/when-sanctity-of-life-and-self-determination-clash-briggs-versus-briggs-2016-ewcop-53-implications-for-policy-and-practice
#4
Jenny Kitzinger, Celia Kitzinger, Jakki Cowley
In a landmark judgment in the English Court of Protection, the judge (Charles J) found it to be in the best interests of a minimally conscious patient for clinically assisted nutrition and hydration (CANH) to be withdrawn, with the inevitable consequence that the patient would die. In making this judgment, it was accepted that the patient's level of consciousness - if CANH were continued and rehabilitation provided - might improve, and that he might become capable of expressing emotions and making simple choices...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622609/the-strategic-defense-of-physician-autonomy-state-public-health-agencies-as-countervailing-powers
#5
Laura Senier, Rachael Lee, Lauren Nicoll
Advances in genetic testing and the aggressive marketing of genetic tests by commercial diagnostic laboratories have driven both consumer demand and the need for unbiased information about how tests should guide healthcare delivery. This paper uses the countervailing powers framework to explore the role of state public health agencies as arbiters of quality and safety, specifically through their efforts to encourage physicians to follow evidence-based recommendations for screening for hereditary cancers. Social scientists have often viewed actions by the state to regulate cost, quality, or safety as a threat to physician autonomy...
June 3, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620966/the-embodied-nurse-interdisciplinary-knowledge-exchange-between-compassionate-nursing-and-recent-developments-in-embodied-leadership-studies
#6
Kushwanth Koya, Jane Anderson, Petia Sice
AIM: To report a potential knowledge exchange between nursing studies and the results obtained from a study conducted into the attributes of embodied leadership. BACKGROUND: Leadership theories have been applied to evaluate, improve and train nursing practitioners in several previous studies. However, leadership research has entered a new phase where the focus is to produce sustainable leaders through authenticity and compassion, the same two characteristics identified as being of most success in emergent nursing practice...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618320/screening-for-potential-child-maltreatment-in-parents-of-a-newborn-baby-the-predictive-validity-of-an-instrument-for-early-identification-of-parents-at-risk-for-child-abuse-and-neglect-iparan
#7
Claudia E van der Put, Merian B R Bouwmeester-Landweer, Eleonore A Landsmeer-Beker, Jan M Wit, Friedo W Dekker, N Pieter J Kousemaker, Herman E M Baartman
For preventive purposes it is important to be able to identify families with a high risk of child maltreatment at an early stage. Therefore we developed an actuarial instrument for screening families with a newborn baby, the Instrument for identification of Parents At Risk for child Abuse and Neglect (IPARAN). The aim of this study was to assess the predictive validity of the IPARAN and to examine whether combining actuarial and clinical methods leads to an improvement of the predictive validity. We examined the predictive validity by calculating several performance indicators (i...
June 12, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609192/evaluation-of-the-well-mixed-room-and-near-field-far-field-models-in-occupational-settings
#8
Susan F Arnold, Yuan Shao, Gurumurthy Ramachandran
Drawing appropriate conclusions about a scenario for which the exposure is truly unacceptable drives appropriate exposure and risk management, and protects the health and safety of those individuals. To ensure the vast majority of these decisions are accurate, these decisions must be based upon proven approaches and tools. When these decisions are based solely on professional judgment guided by subjective inputs however, they are more than likely wrong, and biased, underestimating the true exposure. Models have been shown anecdotally to be useful in accurately predicting exposure but their use in occupational hygiene has been limited...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602221/violent-reinjury-risk-assessment-instrument-vrrai-for-hospital-based-violence-intervention-programs
#9
Erik J Kramer, James Dodington, Ava Hunt, Terrell Henderson, Adaobi Nwabuo, Rochelle Dicker, Catherine Juillard
BACKGROUND: Violent injury is the second most common cause of death among 15- to 24-year olds in the US. Up to 58% of violently injured youth return to the hospital with a second violent injury. Hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIPs) have been shown to reduce injury recidivism through intensive case management. However, no validated guidelines for risk assessment strategies in the HVIP setting have been reported. We aimed to use qualitative methods to investigate the key components of risk assessments employed by HVIP case managers and to propose a risk assessment model based on this qualitative analysis...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595599/designing-persuasive-health-materials-using-processing-fluency-a-literature-review
#10
Tsuyoshi Okuhara, Hirono Ishikawa, Masahumi Okada, Mio Kato, Takahiro Kiuchi
BACKGROUND: Health materials to promote health behaviors should be readable and generate favorable evaluations of the message. Processing fluency (the subjective experience of ease with which people process information) has been increasingly studied over the past decade. In this review, we explore effects and instantiations of processing fluency and discuss the implications for designing effective health materials. We searched seven online databases using "processing fluency" as the key word...
June 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594209/use-of-structured-professional-judgment-by-probation-officers-to-assess-risk-for-recidivism-in-adolescent-offenders
#11
Kathryn Lawing, Kristina K Childs, Paul J Frick, Gina Vincent
The current study tested a method of risk assessment for adolescent offenders that relies on structured professional judgment: the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk for Youth (SAVRY; Borum, Bartel, & Forth, 2006). Trained probation officers in 3 jurisdictions administered the SAVRY to 505 adjudicated adolescents (M age = 15.43 years, SD = 1.62). The results supported the validity of the SAVRY administered in this juvenile justice context. Specifically, scores from the SAVRY differentiated violent from nonviolent offenders and predicted both violent and nonviolent recidivism over a 12-month follow-up period...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586819/physician-speech-and-firearm-safety-wollschlaeger-v-governor-florida
#12
Theodore T Lee, Gregory D Curfman
To provide the highest-quality medical care, physicians must be able to communicate openly with their patients and provide advice in conformance with professional standards of care. Although states have the power to regulate many aspects of medical practice, laws that interfere with speech by preventing physicians from discussing specific subjects with patients are constitutionally suspect. In 2017, the US Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit struck down key provisions of a Florida law that prohibited physicians from speaking with their patients about firearm safety as a violation of the First Amendment...
June 5, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575413/comprehensive-protocol-of-traceability-during-ivf-the-result-of-a-multicentre-failure-mode-and-effect-analysis
#13
L Rienzi, F Bariani, M Dalla Zorza, E Albani, F Benini, S Chamayou, M G Minasi, L Parmegiani, L Restelli, G Vizziello, A Nanni Costa
STUDY QUESTION: Can traceability of gametes and embryos be ensured during IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of a simple and comprehensive traceability system that includes the most susceptible phases during the IVF process minimizes the risk of mismatches. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mismatches in IVF are very rare but unfortunately possible with dramatic consequences for both patients and health care professionals. Traceability is thus a fundamental aspect of the treatment...
May 31, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575327/interpreting-weightings-of-the-peer-assessment-rating-index-and-the-discrepancy-index-across-contexts-on-chinese-patients
#14
Siqi Liu, Heesoo Oh, David William Chambers, Tianmin Xu, Sheldon Baumrind
Objective: Determine optimal weightings of Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index and Discrepancy Index (DI) for malocclusion severity assessment in Chinese orthodontic patients. Methods: Sixty-nine Chinese orthodontists assessed a full set of pre-treatment records from a stratified random sample of 120 subjects gathered from six university orthodontic centres. Using professional judgment as the outcome variable, multiple regression analyses were performed to derive customized weighting systems for the PAR index and DI, for all subjects and each Angle classification subgroup...
June 2, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557947/validity-evidence-from-ratings-of-pediatric-interns-and-subinterns-on-a-subset-of-pediatric-milestones
#15
Teri L Turner, Vasudha L Bhavaraju, Ulana A Luciw-Dubas, Patricia J Hicks, Sara Multerer, Amanda Osta, Jennifer McDonnell, Sue Poynter, Daniel J Schumacher, Rebecca Tenney-Soeiro, Linda Waggoner-Fountain, Alan Schwartz
PURPOSE: To investigate evidence for validity of faculty members' pediatric milestone (PM) ratings of interns (first-year residents) and subinterns (fourth-year medical students) on nine subcompetencies related to readiness to serve as a pediatric intern in the inpatient setting. METHOD: The Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN) and the National Board of Medical Examiners collaborated to investigate the utility of assessments of the PMs for trainees' performance...
June 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557945/how-entrustment-is-informed-by-holistic-judgments-across-time-in-a-family-medicine-residency-program-an-ethnographic-nonparticipant-observational-study
#16
Margaretha H Sagasser, Cornelia R M G Fluit, Chris van Weel, Cees P M van der Vleuten, Anneke W M Kramer
PURPOSE: Entrustment has mainly been conceptualized as delegating discrete professional tasks. Because residents provide most of their patient care independently, not all resident performance is visible to supervisors; the entrustment process involves more than granting discrete tasks. This study explored how supervisors made entrustment decisions based on residents' performance in a long-term family medicine training program. METHOD: A qualitative nonparticipant observational study was conducted in 2014-2015 at competency-based family medicine residency programs in the Netherlands...
June 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557941/finding-a-path-to-entrustment-in-undergraduate-medical-education-a-progress-report-from-the-aamc-core-entrustable-professional-activities-for-entering-residency-entrustment-concept-group
#17
David R Brown, Jamie B Warren, Abbas Hyderi, Ronald E Drusin, Jeremy Moeller, Melvin Rosenfeld, Philip R Orlander, Sandra Yingling, Stephanie Call, Kyla Terhune, Janet Bull, Robert Englander, Dianne P Wagner
PROBLEM: To better prepare graduating medical students to transition to the professional responsibilities of residency, 10 medical schools are participating in an Association of American Medical Colleges pilot to evaluate the feasibility of explicitly teaching and assessing 13 Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency. The authors focused on operationalizing the concept of entrustment as part of this process. APPROACH: Starting in 2014, the Entrustment Concept Group, with representatives from each of the pilot schools, guided the development of the structures and processes necessary for formal entrustment decisions associated with students' increased responsibilities at the start of residency...
June 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557238/an-integrated-review-of-the-correlation-between-critical-thinking-ability-and-clinical-decision-making-in-nursing
#18
REVIEW
Daphne S K Lee, Khatijah Lim Abdullah, Pathmawathi Subramanian, Robert Thomas Bachmann, Swee Leong Ong
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore whether there is a correlation between critical thinking ability and clinical decision-making among nurses. BACKGROUND: Critical thinking is currently considered as an essential component of nurses' professional judgment and clinical decision-making. If confirmed, nursing curricula may be revised emphasizing on critical thinking with the expectation to improve clinical decision-making and thus better healthcare. DESIGN: Integrated literature review...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556193/addressing-obesity-in-the-dental-setting-what-can-be-learned-from-oral-health-care-professionals-efforts-to-screen-for-medical-conditions
#19
Barbara L Greenberg, Michael Glick, Mary Tavares
PURPOSE: This scoping review focused on what can be learned from oral health professionals' (OHCPs) efforts to provide screenings for medical conditions in the dental setting that could guide strategies for addressing childhood obesity. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Grey Literature, and CINAHL were searched (limitation English language). Search terms covered OHCPs and various oral systemic conditions of interest (details provided in the paper. Nineteen unduplicated, relevant articles were categorized based on relationship to question...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553686/legal-hurdles-for-gastroenterologists-in-india
#20
REVIEW
Neeraj Nagpal
Litigation and compensation claims have started occurring with increasing frequency against gastroenterologists in India. A study of few such cases decided by Indian Courts shows that commonest reason for allegations of negligence being upheld by Indian Courts is an improper consent being taken. Professional organisations need to focus on these issues more aggressively than has been done in the past. Judgments which do not appear to be in conformity with standard medical practices need to be challenged in higher courts, failing in which they would become precedents for future similar judgments...
May 29, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
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