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Muscle buffer capacity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753869/poa-02-2-atherogenic-vascular-stiffness-and-hypertension-cause-or-effect
#1
Alberto Avolio
Blood vessels function as conduits for distribution of blood throughout the circulatory system. Large arteries, in addition to the essential conduit function, also serve to dampen the effect of pulsatile ventricular ejection that generates pulsatile pressure with each cardiac cycle; that is, they exhibit a 'cushion' function. The conduit function can be compromised by intimal effects that cause obstruction to flow, generally attributed to plaque formation due to intimal changes affected by atherosclerotic processes...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747788/aerobic-fitness-level-affects-cardiovascular-and-salivary-alpha-amylase-responses-to-acute-psychosocial-stress
#2
Thomas Wyss, Maria Boesch, Lilian Roos, Céline Tschopp, Klaus M Frei, Hubert Annen, Roberto La Marca
BACKGROUND: Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for established factors influencing individual stress reactions. METHODS: The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was executed with 302 male recruits during their first week of Swiss Army basic training...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742804/influence-of-training-intensity-on-adaptations-in-acid-base-transport-proteins-muscle-buffer-capacity-and-repeated-sprint-ability-in-active-men
#3
Cian McGinley, David J Bishop
McGinley C, Bishop DJ. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men. J Appl Physiol 121: 1290-1305, 2016. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00630.2016-This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid-base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689626/distinct-protein-and-mrna-kinetics-of-skeletal-muscle-proton-transporters-following-exercise-can-influence-interpretation-of-adaptations-to-training
#4
Cian McGinley, David J Bishop
What is the central question of this study? Following a training intervention, how is the interpretation of adaptations in skeletal muscle H(+) transporters influenced by biopsy timing in the context of individual protein and mRNA kinetics after the final exercise bout? What is the main finding and its importance? We show that distinct postexercise protein and mRNA kinetics for monocarboxylate transporter 1/4 and sodium-hydrogen exchanger 1 indicate that timing of a single end-point biopsy after a training intervention can influence the inferences made...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678471/thirty-years-of-investigation-on-the-ergogenic-effects-of-sodium-citrate-is-it-time-for-a-fresh-start
#5
Vitor de Salles Painelli, Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior
Sodium citrate (SCit) supplementation has been studied for several years as a strategy to reduce the muscle fatigue induced by H(+) ion accumulation within the skeletal muscle during high-intensity, short-duration exercise. Several investigations have been published on this matter, and appear to indicate that SCit is not effective as an ergogenic aid, despite its ability to increase extracellular buffering capacity. In this short report, we briefly discuss the SCit results previously published in the literature and consider them in light of new and promising findings, which appear to address issues associated with previous study designs...
September 27, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664620/high-resolution-magic-angle-spinning-nmr-spectroscopy-reveals-that-pectoralis-muscle-dystrophy-in-chicken-is-associated-with-reduced-muscle-content-of-anserine-and-carnosine
#6
Ulrik K Sundekilde, Martin K Rasmussen, Jette F Young, Hanne Christine Bertram
Increased incidences of pectoralis muscle dystrophy are observed in commercial chicken products, but the muscle physiological causes for the condition remain to be identified. In the present study a high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) proton ((1)H) NMR spectroscopic examination of intact pectoralis muscle samples (n=77) were conducted to explore metabolite perturbations associated with the muscle dystrophy condition for the very first time. Both in chicken with an age of 21 and 31days, respectively, pectoralis muscle dystrophy was associated with a significantly lower content of anserine (p=0...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643106/poa-02-2-atherogenic-vascular-stiffness-and-hypertension-cause-or-effect
#7
Alberto Avolio
Blood vessels function as conduits for distribution of blood throughout the circulatory system. Large arteries, in addition to the essential conduit function, also serve to dampen the effect of pulsatile ventricular ejection that generates pulsatile pressure with each cardiac cycle; that is, they exhibit a 'cushion' function. The conduit function can be compromised by intimal effects that cause obstruction to flow, generally attributed to plaque formation due to intimal changes affected by atherosclerotic processes...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562396/skeletal-muscle-atp-synthesis-and-cellular-h-handling-measured-by-localized-31-p-mrs-during-exercise-and-recovery
#8
Georg B Fiedler, Albrecht I Schmid, Sigrun Goluch, Kiril Schewzow, Elmar Laistler, Fabian Niess, Ewald Unger, Michael Wolzt, Arash Mirzahosseini, Graham J Kemp, Ewald Moser, Martin Meyerspeer
(31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is widely used for non-invasive investigation of muscle metabolism dynamics. This study aims to extend knowledge on parameters derived from these measurements in detail and comprehensiveness: proton (H(+)) efflux, buffer capacity and the contributions of glycolytic (L) and oxidative (Q) rates to ATP synthesis were calculated from the evolutions of phosphocreatine (PCr) and pH. Data are reported for two muscles in the human calf, for each subject and over a wide range of exercise intensities...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560658/immunomodulatory-capacity-of-the-local-mesenchymal-stem-cells-transplantation-after-severe-skeletal-muscle-injury-in-female-rats
#9
Mona A M Helal, Noura E M Shaheen, Fatma A Abu Zahra
CONTEXT: Cell therapy technique with stem cells is a very attractive strategy for the treatment of muscle disorders. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of local transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which could contribute to skeletal muscle healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female rats were divided into three equal groups as the following: group 1, the negative control group (untreated group), group 2, sham-treated group, rats with muscle injuries involving volumetric muscle loss (VML) of adductor brevis muscle and injected locally with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) 0...
August 25, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499608/the-cellular-and-compartmental-profile-of-mouse-retinal-glycolysis-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-p-transferring-kinases
#10
Elda M Rueda, Jerry E Johnson, Anand Giddabasappa, Anand Swaroop, Matthew J Brooks, Irena Sigel, Shawnta Y Chaney, Donald A Fox
PURPOSE: The homeostatic regulation of cellular ATP is achieved by the coordinated activity of ATP utilization, synthesis, and buffering. Glucose is the major substrate for ATP synthesis through glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), whereas intermediary metabolism through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle utilizes non-glucose-derived monocarboxylates, amino acids, and alpha ketoacids to support mitochondrial ATP and GTP synthesis. Cellular ATP is buffered by specialized equilibrium-driven high-energy phosphate (~P) transferring kinases...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388625/sympathomimetic-effects-of-chronic-methamphetamine-abuse-on-oral-health-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Niklas Rommel, Nils H Rohleder, Steffen Koerdt, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Roland Härtel-Petri, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Marco R Kesting
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine, a highly addictive sympathomimetic stimulant, is currently widely abused worldwide and has been associated with devastating effects on oral health, resulting in the term "meth mouth". However, "meth mouth" pathology is primarily based on case reports with a lack of systematic clinical evaluation. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic study to investigate (1) the pharmacological impact of methamphetamine on oral health with regard to saliva function, including the parameters saliva flow rate and total saliva production (ml/5 min) and the buffering capacity of saliva; (2) the contribution of the symptoms of bruxism and muscle trismus to potential oral health damage...
2016: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378942/nitrate-intake-promotes-shift-in-muscle-fiber-type-composition-during-sprint-interval-training-in-hypoxia
#12
Stefan De Smet, Ruud Van Thienen, Louise Deldicque, Ruth James, Craig Sale, David J Bishop, Peter Hespel
PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of sprint interval training (SIT) in normoxia, vs. SIT in hypoxia alone or in conjunction with oral nitrate intake, on buffering capacity of homogenized muscle (βhm) and fiber type distribution, as well as on sprint and endurance performance. METHODS: Twenty-seven moderately-trained participants were allocated to one of three experimental groups: SIT in normoxia (20.9% FiO2) + placebo (N), SIT in hypoxia (15% FiO2) + placebo (H), or SIT in hypoxia + nitrate supplementation (HN)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376960/comparative-study-of-toxicity-and-biochemical-responses-induced-by-sublethal-levels-of-the-pesticide-azinphosmethyl-in-two-fish-species-from-north-patagonia-argentina
#13
Mariana Guerreño, María Fernanda López Armengol, Carlos Marcelo Luquet, Andrés Venturino
Biochemical effects of azinphosmethyl (AZM), an organophosphate pesticide, were determined in gill, brain and muscle tissues of Odontesthes hatcheri and Jenynsia multidentata. The 96-h toxicity was first assessed, estimating lethal concentrations fifty (LC50) of 7 and 30μgL(-1) AZM for O. hatcheri and J. multidentata, respectively. Considering the LC50, sublethal 96-h static exposures were designed for O. hatcheri (0.1-0.5μgL(-1) AZM) and J. multidentata (5-10μgL(-1)AZM) to determine biochemical endpoints...
August 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27361310/in-vivo-ca2-buffering-capacity-following-muscle-contractions-in-skeletal-muscle-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-overexpressing-mice-2674-board-197-june-3-9-30-am-11-00-am
#14
Hiroaki Eshima, Shinji Miura, David Poole, Yutaka Kano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217925/repeated-supramaximal-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-effect-of-%C3%AE-alanine-plus-creatine-supplementation
#15
Muaz Belviranli, Nilsel Okudan, Serkan Revan, Serdar Balci, Hakki Gokbel
BACKGROUND: Carnosine is a dipeptide formed from the β-alanine and histidine amino acids and found in mainly in the brain and muscle, especially fast twitch muscle. Carnosine and creatine has an antioxidant effect and carnosine accounts for about 10% of the muscle's ability to buffer the H(+) ions produced by exercise. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of beta alanine and/or creatine supplementation on oxidant and antioxidant status during repeated Wingate tests (WTs)...
March 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26831154/skeletal-muscle-adaptations-and-muscle-genomics-of-performance-horses
#16
REVIEW
José-Luis L Rivero, Emmeline W Hill
Skeletal muscles in horses are characterised by specific adaptations, which are the result of the natural evolution of the horse as a grazing animal, centuries of selective breeding and the adaptability of this tissue in response to training. These adaptations include an increased muscle mass relative to body weight, a great locomotor efficiency based upon an admirable muscle-tendon architectural design and an adaptable fibre-type composition with intrinsic shortening velocities greater than would be predicted from an animal of comparable body size...
March 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824934/mechanisms-of-in-vivo-muscle-fatigue-in-humans-investigating-age-related-fatigue-resistance-with-a-computational-model
#17
Damien M Callahan, Brian R Umberger, Jane A Kent
KEY POINTS: Muscle fatigue can be defined as the transient decrease in maximal force that occurs in response to muscle use. Fatigue develops because of a complex set of changes within the neuromuscular system that are difficult to evaluate simultaneously in humans. The skeletal muscle of older adults fatigues less than that of young adults during static contractions. The potential sources of this difference are multiple and intertwined. To evaluate the individual mechanisms of fatigue, we developed an integrative computational model based on neural, biochemical, morphological and physiological properties of human skeletal muscle...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26745664/effect-of-four-weeks-of-%C3%AE-alanine-supplementation-on-muscle-carnosine-and-blood-serum-lactate-during-exercise-in-male-rats
#18
Alireza Naderi, Ahmad Hemat Far, Mark E T Willems, Mehdi Sadeghi
β-alanine (BA) supplementation may increase muscle buffering capacity and affect physiological responses during exercise. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of BA supplementation on muscle carnosine and serum lactate in male rats. Rats (n = 24, age: 2 months, body weight: 265±22 g) were divided into a BA supplementation or control group. Along with aerobic acclimatization exercise (15 m·min(-1), 8-10 min·day(-1), 4 days·week(-1) for 4 weeks), the BA group had access to BA powder in their drinking water (1...
2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26701784/pressure-buffering-by-the-tympanic-membrane-in-vivo-measurements-of-middle-ear-pressure-fluctuations-during-elevator-motion
#19
Simona Padurariu, Daniël de Greef, Henrik Jacobsen, Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako, Joris J Dirckx, Michael Gaihede
OBJECTIVES: The tympanic membrane (TM) represents a pressure buffer, which contributes to the overall pressure regulation of the middle ear (ME). This buffer capacity is based on its viscoelastic properties combined with those of the attached ossicular chain, muscles and ligaments. The current work presents a set of in vivo recordings of the ME pressure variations normally occurring in common life: elevator motion. This is defined as a situation of smooth ambient pressure increase or decrease on a limited range and at a low rate of pressure change...
December 14, 2015: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26589116/mitochondrial-specialization-revealed-by-single-muscle-fiber-proteomics-focus-on-the-krebs-cycle
#20
REVIEW
S Schiaffino, C Reggiani, T Y Kostrominova, M Mann, M Murgia
We have developed a highly sensitive mass spectrometry-based proteomic workflow to examine the proteome of single muscle fibers. This study revealed significant differences in the mitochondrial proteome of the four major fiber types present in mouse skeletal muscle. Here, we focus on Krebs cycle enzymes and in particular on the differential distribution of the two mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenases, IDH2 and IDH3. Type 1/slow fibers contain high levels of IDH2 and relatively low levels of IDH3, whereas fast 2X and 2B fibers show an opposite expression pattern...
December 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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