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Ida A Heikura, Louise M Burke, Dan Bergland, Arja L T Uusitalo, Antti A Mero, Trent Stellingwerff
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects of sex, energy availability (EA), and health status on the change in hemoglobin mass (ΔHbmass) in elite endurance athletes over ~3 to 4 weeks of Live-High/Train-High altitude training (Flagstaff, AZ, 2135m; n=27 females; n=21 males; 27% 2016 Olympians). METHODS: Pre- and post-camp Hbmass (optimized CO re-breathing method) and iron status were measured, EA was estimated via food and training logs and Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) and a general injury/illness questionnaire was completed...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Anna Hauser, Severin Troesch, Thomas Steiner, Franck Brocherie, Olivier Girard, Jonas J Saugy, Laurent Schmitt, Grégoire P Millet, Jon P Wehrlin
It has been proposed that athletes with high initial values of hemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) will have a lower Hbmass increase in response to 'live high-train low' (LHTL) altitude training. To verify this assumption, the relationship between initial absolute and relative Hbmass values and their respective Hbmass increase following LHTL in male endurance and team-sport athletes was investigated. Overall, 58 male athletes (35 well-trained endurance athletes and 23 elite male field hockey players) undertook an LHTL training camp with similar hypoxic doses (200-230 h)...
October 11, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Anna Hauser, Severin Troesch, Jonas J Saugy, Laurent Schmitt, Roberto Cejuela-Anta, Raphael Faiss, Thomas Steiner, Neil Robinson, Grégoire P Millet, Jon Peter Wehrlin
PURPOSE: To compare individual hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) changes following a live high-train low (LHTL) altitude training camp under either normobaric hypoxia (NH) or hypobaric hypoxia (HH) conditions in endurance athletes. METHODS: In a crossover design with a one-year washout, 15 male triathletes randomly performed two 18-d LHTL training camps in either HH or NH. All athletes slept at 2250 m and trained at altitudes < 1200 m. Hbmass was measured in duplicate with the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method before (pre-) and immediately after (post-) each 18 d training camp...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Stefanie Keiser, Anne-Kristine Meinild-Lundby, Thomas Steiner, Severin Trösch, Sven Rauber, Alexander Krafft, Tilo Burkhardt, Matthias Peter Hilty, Christoph Siebenmann, Jon Peter Wehrlin, Carsten Lundby
The main aim of the present study was to quantify the magnitude of differences introduced when estimating a given blood volume compartment (e.g. plasma volume) through the direct determination of another compartment (e.g. red cell volume) by multiplication of venous haematocrit and/or haemoglobin concentration. However, since whole body haematocrit is higher than venous haematocrit such an approach might comprise certain errors. To test this experimentally, four different methods for detecting blood volumes and haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were compared, namely the carbon monoxide (CO) re-breathing (for Hbmass), the indocyanine green (ICG; for plasma volume [PV]) and the sodium fluorescein (SoF; for red blood cell volume [RBCV]) methods...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Nazzareno Fagoni, Andreas Breenfeldt Andersen, Laura Oberholzer, Thomas Haider, Anne-Kristine Meinild Lundby, Carsten Lundby
INTRODUCTION: The carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method used for the determination of haemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) is associated with blood sample analysis (in this study: Radiometer ABL800). As an alternative hereto the aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a portable and non-invasive CO pulse oximeter (Rad-57). METHOD: With simultaneous determination of CO in the circulation by ABL800 (%HbCO) and Rad-57 (SpCO), Hbmass and blood volume (BV) were determined in duplicates in 24 volunteers...
January 30, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Erin L McCleave, Katie M Slattery, Rob Duffield, Philo U Saunders, Avish P Sharma, Stephen J Crowcroft, Aaron J Coutts
PURPOSE: Independent heat and hypoxic exposure can enhance temperate endurance performance in trained athletes, although their combined effects remain unknown. This study examined whether the addition of heat interval training during "live high, train low" (LHTL) hypoxic exposure would result in enhanced performance and physiological adaptations as compared with heat or temperate training. METHODS: Twenty-six well-trained runners completed 3 wk of interval training assigned to one of three conditions: 1) LHTL hypoxic exposure plus heat training (H + H; 3000 m for 13 h·d, train at 33°C, 60% relative humidity [RH]), 2) heat training with no hypoxic exposure (HOT, live at <600 m and train at 33°C, 60% RH), or 3) temperate training with no hypoxic exposure (CONT; live at <600 m and train at 14°C, 55% RH)...
March 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Grégoire P Millet, Franck Brocherie, Raphael Faiss, Olivier Girard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Amy L Woods, Avish P Sharma, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Philo U Saunders, Anthony J Rice, Kevin G Thompson
High altitude exposure can increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) and induce weight loss in obese populations, but there is a lack of research regarding RMR in athletes at moderate elevations common to endurance training camps. The present study aimed to determine whether 4 weeks of classical altitude training affects RMR in middle-distance runners. Ten highly trained athletes were recruited for 4 weeks of endurance training undertaking identical programs at either 2200m in Flagstaff, Arizona (ALT, n = 5) or 600m in Canberra, Australia (CON, n = 5)...
February 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
B J Ryan, J A Goodrich, W Schmidt, L A Kane, W C Byrnes
Carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing procedures are used to assess hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) but recent evidence suggests that CO is a signaling molecule that may alter physiological functions. We examined the effects of 10 days of intermittent, low-dose CO inhalation on Hbmass, aerobic performance predictors, and peak-power exercise tolerance. 18 recreationally-active men were randomized to either CO or placebo inhalation groups in a single-blind, pre-post parallel-groups trial. Primary outcomes were assessed before and after an intervention period during which subjects inhaled a bolus of 1...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
David Montero, Candela Diaz-Cañestro, Stefanie Keiser, Carsten Lundby
BACKGROUND: Erythropoiesis is partly regulated through classic feedback pathways that govern blood volume (BV) as sensed by veno-atrial but also arterial stretch receptors. Hence, the total volume of red blood cells (RBCV) could be associated with arterial stiffness (AS), although such hypothesis has not yet been tested. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of AS with hematological variables including RBCV. METHODS: Fourteen healthy physically active individuals volunteered for the study (age=23±2)...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Jon Peter Wehrlin, Bernard Marti, Jostein Hallén
Fore more than a decade, the live high-train low (LHTL) approach, developed by Levine and Stray-Gundersen, has been widely used by elite endurance athletes. Originally, it was pointed out, that by living at moderate altitude, athletes should benefit from an increased red cell volume (RCV) and hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), while the training at low altitudes should prevent the disadvantage of reduced training intensity at moderate altitude. VO2max is reduced linearly by about 6-8 % per 1000 m increasing altitude in elite athletes from sea level to 3000 m, with corresponding higher relative training intensities for the same absolute work load...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Matthew W H Inness, François Billaut, Robert J Aughey
OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of live-high train-low on team-sport athlete physical capacity and the time-course for adaptation. DESIGN: Pre-post parallel-groups. METHODS: Fifteen Australian footballers were matched for Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-YoIR2) performance and assigned to LHTL (n=7) or control (Con; n=8). LHTL spent 19 nights (3×5 nights, 1×4 nights, each block separated by 2 nights at sea level) at 3000-m simulated altitude (FIO2: 0...
February 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
A D Govus, P Peeling, C R Abbiss, N G Lawler, D W Swinkels, C M Laarakkers, K G Thompson, J J Peiffer, C J Gore, L A Garvican-Lewis
The post-exercise hepcidin response during prolonged (>2 weeks) hypoxic exposure is not well understood. We compared plasma hepcidin levels 3 h after exercise [6 × 1000 m at 90% of maximal aerobic running velocity (vVO2max )] performed in normoxia and normobaric hypoxia (3000 m simulate altitude) 1 week before, and during 14 days of normobaric hypoxia [196.2 ± 25.6 h (median: 200.8 h; range: 154.3-234.8 h) at 3000 m simulated altitude] in 10 well-trained distance runners (six males, four females)...
July 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Benjamin J Ryan, Jesse A Goodrich, Walter F Schmidt, Ellen R Stothard, Kenneth P Wright, William C Byrnes
What is the central question of this study? Is haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) decreased following 4 days of head-down tilt bed rest (HDTBR), and does increased red blood cell (RBC) destruction mediate this adaptation? What is the main finding and its importance? Haemoglobin mass was increased immediately following HDTBR, before decreasing below baseline 5 days after return to normal living conditions. The transient increase in Hbmass might be the result of decreased RBC destruction, but it is also possible that spleen contraction after HDTBR contributed to this adaptation...
May 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Amelia J Carr, Philo U Saunders, Brent S Vallance, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Christopher J Gore
This study examined effects of low altitude training and a live-high: train-low protocol (combining both natural and simulated modalities) on haemoglobin mass (Hbmass), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), time to exhaustion, and submaximal exercise measures. Eighteen elite-level race-walkers were assigned to one of two experimental groups; lowHH (low Hypobaric Hypoxia: continuous exposure to 1380 m for 21 consecutive days; n = 10) or a combined low altitude training and nightly Normobaric Hypoxia (lowHH+NHnight: living and training at 1380 m, plus 9 h...
December 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Franck Brocherie, Grégoire P Millet, Anna Hauser, Thomas Steiner, Jon P Wehrlin, Julien Rysman, Olivier Girard
PURPOSE: We investigated association of hematological variables with specific fitness performance in elite team-sport players. METHODS: Hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured in 25 elite field hockey players using the optimized (2 min) CO-rebreathing method. Hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), hematocrit and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were analyzed in venous blood. Fitness performance evaluation included a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test (8 x 20 m sprints, 20 s of rest) and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YYIR2)...
2015: PloS One
Anna Hauser, Laurent Schmitt, Severin Troesch, Jonas J Saugy, Roberto Cejuela-Anta, Raphael Faiss, Neil Robinson, Jon P Wehrlin, Grégoire P Millet
PURPOSE: To compare hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) changes during an 18-d live high-train low (LHTL) altitude training camp in normobaric hypoxia (NH) and hypobaric hypoxia (HH). METHODS: Twenty-eight well-trained male triathletes were split into three groups (NH: n = 10, HH: n = 11, control [CON]: n = 7) and participated in an 18-d LHTL camp. NH and HH slept at 2250 m, whereas CON slept, and all groups trained at altitudes <1200 m. Hb(mass) was measured in duplicate with the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method before (pre-), immediately after (post-) (hypoxic dose: 316 vs 238 h for HH and NH), and at day 13 in HH (230 h, hypoxic dose matched to 18-d NH)...
April 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Andrew D Govus, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Chris R Abbiss, Peter Peeling, Christopher J Gore
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of daily oral iron supplementation on changes in hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) and iron parameters after 2-4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure. METHODS: Hematological data collected from 178 athletes (98 males, 80 females) exposed to moderate altitude (1,350-3,000 m) were analysed using linear regression to determine how altitude exposure combined with oral iron supplementation influenced Hbmass, total iron incorporation (TII) and blood iron parameters [ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT)]...
2015: PloS One
Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Iona Halliday, Chris R Abbiss, Philo U Saunders, Christopher J Gore
The influence of low natural altitudes (< 2000 m) on erythropoietic adaptation is currently unclear, with current recommendations indicating that such low altitudes may be insufficient to stimulate significant increases in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass). As such, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of 3 weeks of live high, train high exposure (LHTH) at low natural altitude (i.e. 1800 m) on Hbmass, red blood cell count and iron profile. A total of 16 elite or well-trained runners were assigned into either a LHTH (n = 8) or CONTROL (n = 8) group...
June 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
D Reljic, J Feist, J Jost, M Kieser, B Friedmann-Bette
Rapid body mass loss (RBML) before competition was found to decrease hemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) in elite boxers. This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this observation. Fourteen well-trained combat athletes who reduced body mass before competitions (weight loss group, WLG) and 14 combat athletes who did not practice RBML (control group, CON) were tested during an ordinary training period (t-1), 1-2 days before an official competition (after 5-7 days RBML in WLG, t-2), and after a post-competition period (t-3)...
May 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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