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Nitrate supplementation

Mark Waldron, Luke Waldron, Craig Lawlor, Adrian Gray, Jamie Highton
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of an acute 24-h nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplement (BR) on the energy cost, exercise efficiency and blood pressure responses to intermittent walking at different gradients. METHODS: In a double-blind, cross-over design, eight participants were provided with a total of 350 ml of nitrate-rich (~ 20.5 mmol nitrate) BR or placebo (PLA) across 24 h before completing intermittent walking at 3 km/h on treadmill at gradients of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20%...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ronald J Maughan, Louise M Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M Phillips, Eric S Rawson, Neil P Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Lucas J C van Loon, Susan M Shirreffs, Lawrence L Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M Ali, Richard Gm Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Sinead T J Mcdonagh, Lee J Wylie, Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
This article provides an overview of the current literature relating to the efficacy of dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) ingestion in altering aspects of cardiovascular and metabolic health and exercise capacity in healthy and diseased individuals. The consumption of NO3 - -rich vegetables, such as spinach and beetroot, have been variously shown to promote nitric oxide bioavailability, reduce systemic blood pressure, enhance tissue blood flow, modulate muscle O2 utilisation and improve exercise tolerance both in normoxia and in hypoxia, as is commonly observed in a number of disease states...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Marton Berta, Frank Dethlefsen, Markus Ebert, Dirk Schafer, Andreas Dahmke
Hydrogen storage in geological formations is one of the most promising technologies for balancing major fluctuations between energy supply from renewable energy plants and energy demand of customers. If hydrogen gas is stored in a porous medium or if it leaks into a shallow aquifer, redox reactions can oxidize hydrogen and reduce electron acceptors such as nitrate, FeIII and MnIV (hydro)oxides, sulfate, and carbonate. These reactions are of key significance, because they can cause unintentional losses in hydrogen stored in porous media and they also can cause unwanted changes in the composition of protected potable groundwater...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Bansh N Singh, Padmanabh Dwivedi, Birinchi K Sarma, Gopal S Singh, Harikesh B Singh
Trichoderma spp., are saprophytic fungi that can improve plant growth through increased nutrient acquisition and change in the root architecture. In the present study, we demonstrate that Trichoderma asperellum T42 mediate enhancement in host biomass, total nitrogen content, nitric oxide (NO) production and cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in tobacco. T42 inoculation enhanced lateral root, root hair length, root hair density and root/shoot dry mass in tobacco under deprived nutrients condition. Interestingly, these growth attributes were further elevated in presence of T42 and supplementation of NO3 - and NH4 + nutrients to tobacco at 40 and 70 days, particularly in NO3 - supplementation, whereas no significant increment was observed in nia30 mutant...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi, Asghar Ghasemi
Inorganic nitrate (NO3 ) due to its potential endogenous conversion to nitric oxide (NO), is suggested as a compensatory fuel for disrupted NO pathways in the case of pathological stats during pregnancy. Dietary NO3 -rich supplement in the NO-deficient pregnant women is now suggested as a more appealing choice with fewer off-target effects which can attenuate hypertension and preeclampsia, improve placental blood flow and subsequently enhance maternal and neonatal health. There is also an increasing public interest and common health claims regarding beneficial effects of NO3 -rich dietary supplements like beetroot byproducts in pregnant women...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Nicholas T Kruse, Kenichi Ueda, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by a reduced blood flow (BF) and elevated blood pressure (pressor) response during lower extremity exercise. Although PAD is evident in the upper extremities no studies have determined BF and pressor responses during upper extremity exercise in PAD. Emerging evidence suggests that inorganic nitrate (NO3 ) supplementation may serve as an alternative dietary strategy to boost nitric oxide bioavailability, improving exercising BF and pressor responses during exercise...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Elżbieta Królak, Jolanta Raczuk, Danuta Sakowicz, Elżbieta Biardzka
Background: Home methods of drinking water treatment through filtration have recently become quite popular. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare chemical composition of unfiltered water with water filtered in households with pitcher water filters. Obtained results were discussed in view of the effect of analysed chemical components of water on human health. Material and methods: Water samples were taken from water works supplies and from home dug wells from the agricultural area...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Cynthia M F Monaco, Paula M Miotto, Jason S Huber, Luc J C van Loon, Jeremy A Simpson, Graham P Holloway
Supplementation with dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3 - ) is increasingly recognized to confer cardioprotective effects in both healthy and clinical populations. While the mechanism(s) remain ambiguous, in skeletal muscle, the oral consumption of sodium nitrate has been shown to improve mitochondrial efficiency. Whether sodium nitrate has similar effects on mitochondria within the heart is unknown. Therefore, we comprehensively investigated the effect of sodium nitrate supplementation on in vivo left ventricular (LV) function and mitochondrial bioenergetics...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Stefan Kadach, Lee J Wylie, Jonathan Fulford, Scott K Ferguson, Jamie R Blackwell, Stephen J Bailey, Andrew M Jones
The physiological and exercise performance adaptations to sprint interval training (SIT) may be modified by dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) supplementation. However, it is possible that different types of NO3 - supplementation evoke divergent physiological and performance adaptations to SIT. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 4 weeks SIT with and without concurrent dietary NO3 - supplementation administered as either NO3 - -rich beetroot juice (BR) or potassium NO3 - (KNO3 ). Thirty recreationally-active subjects completed a battery of exercise tests before and after a 4 week intervention in which they were allocated to one of three groups: 1) SIT undertaken without dietary NO3 - supplementation (SIT); 2) SIT accompanied by concurrent BR supplementation (SIT+BR); or 3) SIT accompanied by concurrent KNO3 supplementation (SIT+KNO3 )...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
A J Debnath, G Gangopadhyay, D Basu, S R Sikdar
Establishment of a suitable regeneration protocol is a pre-requisite to carry out transformation study in Sesamum indicum L. (sesame). In this paper, different parameters of regeneration were standardised to develop an efficient protocol for in vitro plant regeneration via direct adventitious shoot organogenesis using de-embryonated cotyledons of sesame as explants. Among the various treatments of MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine, thidiazuron and indole-3-acetic acid, maximum regeneration frequency (25...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Ártur Krumberg Schüller, Diego Antonio Mena Canata, Fernanda Schäfer Hackenhaar, Vanessa Krüger Engers, Fernanda Maciel Heemann, Jordana Salete Putti, Tiago Boeira Salomon, Mara Silveira Benfato
BACKGROUND: Bilateral ovariectomy is an experimental model used to analyse the effects of menopause and develop strategies to mitigate the deleterious effects of this condition. Supplementation of the diet with antioxidants has been used to reduce potential oxidative stress caused by menopause. The purpose of the study was to analyse the effects of α-lipoic acid (LA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), dietary supplementation on oxidative stress in the livers of ovariectomized rats...
October 19, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Peter Peeling, Martyn J Binnie, Paul S R Goods, Marc Sim, Louise M Burke
A strong foundation in physical conditioning and sport-specific experience, in addition to a bespoke and periodized training and nutrition program, are essential for athlete development. Once these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based performance supplements. However, it is important that any decisions surrounding performance supplements are made in consideration of robust information that suggests the use of a product is safe, legal, and effective...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Yu-Cheng Lin, Matthew D Sekedat, William Cole Cornell, Gustavo M Silva, Chinweike Okegbe, Alexa Price-Whelan, Christine Vogel, Lars E P Dietrich
Microbes in biofilms face the challenge of substrate limitation. In particular, cells in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms growing in the laboratory or during host colonization often become limited for oxygen. Previously we found that phenazines, antibiotics produced by P. aeruginosa , balance the intracellular redox state for cells in biofilms. Here, we show that genes involved in denitrification are induced in phenazine-null (Δ phz ) mutant biofilms grown under an aerobic atmosphere, even in the absence of nitrate...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Weixing Liu, Geng Ma, Chenyang Wang, Jiarui Wang, Hongfang Lu, Shasha Li, Wei Feng, Yingxin Xie, Dongyun Ma, Guozhang Kang
Unreasonably high irrigation levels and excessive nitrogen (N) supplementation are common occurrences in the North China Plain that affect winter wheat production. Therefore, a 6-yr-long stationary field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of irrigation and N regimes on root development and their relationship with soil water and N use in different soil layers. Compared to the non-irrigated treatment (W0), a single irrigation at jointing (W1) significantly increased yield by 3.6-45.6%. With increases in water (W2, a second irrigation at flowering), grain yield was significantly improved by 14...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jiacheng Yang, Patrick Roth, Thomas D Durbin, Kent C Johnson, David R Cocker, Akua Asa-Awuku, Rasto Brezny, Michael Geller, Georgios Karavalakis
We assessed the gaseous, particulate, and genotoxic pollutants from two current technology gasoline direct injection vehicles when tested in their original configuration and with a catalyzed gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Testing was conducted over the LA92 and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) driving cycles on typical California E10 fuel. The use of a GPF did not show any fuel economy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission penalties, while the emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were generally reduced...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Johanna Oskarsson, Kerry McGawley
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements such as caffeine and beetroot juice are used by athletes in an attempt to optimize performance and therefore gain an advantage in competition. AIM: To investigate the individual and combined effects of caffeine and beetroot-juice supplementation during submaximal and maximal treadmill running. METHODS: Seven males (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 59.0 ± 2.9 mL/kg/min) and two females (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 53...
February 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Sevda Gheibi, Sajad Jeddi, Mattias Carlström, Hanieh Gholami, Asghar Ghasemi
PURPOSE: Supplementation with inorganic nitrate to boost the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway, may act as a potential therapeutic agent in diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nitrate on carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profiles, oxidative stress, and inflammation in obese type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, control + nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes + nitrate. Diabetes was induced using a high-fat diet and low-dose of streptozotocin...
February 10, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
K L Jonvik, J Nyakayiru, J W van Dijk, K Maase, S B Ballak, J M G Senden, L J C van Loon, L B Verdijk
PURPOSE: There is an ongoing debate whether highly trained athletes are less responsive to the ergogenic properties of nitrate. We assessed the effects of nitrate supplementation on plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and repeated-sprint performance in recreational, competitive and elite sprint athletes. METHODS: In a randomized double-blinded cross-over design, recreational cyclists (n = 20), national talent speed-skaters (n = 22) and Olympic-level track cyclists (n = 10) underwent two 6-day supplementation periods; 140 mL/d nitrate-rich (BR; ∼800 mg/d) and nitrate-depleted (PLA; ∼0...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Ewa Muszyńska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Aleksandra Koźmińska
In vitro techniques may provide a suitable tool for effective propagation and conservation of plant species representing various ecological niches. The elaboration of such protocols is also prerequisite for selection of heavy-metal-tolerant plant material that could be afterwards used for restoration or remediation of polluted sites. In this study, culture protocol for Gypsophila fastigiata propagation was developed. The highest multiplication coefficient, which reached 6.5, and the best growth parameters were obtained on modified MS medium supplemented with 1...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
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