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Buffer capacity

Ellen E Blaak
The obese insulin resistant and/or prediabetic state is characterised by systemic lipid overflow, mainly driven by an impaired lipid buffering capacity of adipose tissue, and an impaired capacity of skeletal muscle to increase fat oxidation upon increased supply. This leads to the accumulation of bioactive lipid metabolites in skeletal muscle interfering with insulin sensitivity via various mechanisms. In this review, the contribution of dietary v. endogenous fatty acids to lipid overflow, their extraction or uptake by skeletal muscle as well as the fractional synthetic rate, content and composition of the muscle lipid pools is discussed in relation to the development or presence of insulin resistance and/or an impaired glucose metabolism...
January 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Yuvraj Y Birdja, Marc T M Koper
A seemingly catalytic inactive electrode as boron doped diamond is found to be active for CO2 and CO reduction to formaldehyde and even methane. At very cathodic potentials formic acid and methanol are formed as well. However, these products are the result of base-catalyzed Cannizzaro-type disproportionation reactions. A local alkaline environment near the electrode surface, caused by the hydrogen evolution reaction, initiates aldehyde disproportionation promoted by hydroxide ions, which leads to the formation of the corresponding carboxylic acid and alcohol...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mengying Li, Jenna L Riis, Sharon R Ghazarian, Sara B Johnson
OBJECTIVE: Self-regulation (SR) is a core aspect of child development with enduring effects on health and wellbeing across the lifespan. Early childhood poverty may shape SR development. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship among family income, family context, and SR in 5-year-old children. METHODS: A total of 140 five-year-old children and their mothers participated in the study. Children completed a battery of SR tasks; mothers completed questionnaires...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
P Izzicupo, B Ghinassi, M A D'Amico, T Bucciarelli, S Gallina, A Di Baldassarre
The data on the effects of aerobic training on plasma antioxidant vitamins are conflicting. Additionally, most studies focus on the oxidative profiles of professional athletes, but limited information is available for amateur athlete populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-intensity exercise on antioxidant vitamins in non-professional runners with varying levels of aerobic power. Eighty-one male runners underwent an incremental test to exhaustion. The study population was then divided into the following tertiles according to VO2max: Group L (LowVO2max, less than 44...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
B Ergin, A Kapucu, P Guerci, C Ince
BACKGROUND: Lactate, acetate, and gluconate are anions used in balanced resuscitation fluids, of which lactate and acetate are considered bicarbonate precursors. This study investigated the role of the liver in the ability of balanced and unbalanced solutions to correct acid-base alterations and renal haemodynamics and microvascular oxygenation in a rat model of resuscitated haemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Ringer's lactate, Ringer's acetate, PlasmaLyte, or normal saline were administered following haemorrhagic shock in the presence or absence of a 70% partial liver resection...
October 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Marianne Pasanen-Mortensen, Bodil Elmhagen, Harto Lindén, Roger Bergström, Märtha Wallgren, Ype van der Velde, Sara A O Cousins
Apex predators may buffer bottom-up driven ecosystem change, as top-down suppression may dampen herbivore and mesopredator responses to increased resource availability. However, theory suggests that for this buffering capacity to be realized, the equilibrium abundance of apex predators must increase. This raises the question: will apex predators maintain herbivore/mesopredator limitation, if bottom-up change relaxes resource constraints? Here, we explore changes in mesopredator (red fox Vulpes vulpes) abundance over 220 years in response to eradication and recovery of an apex predator (Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx), and changes in land use and climate which are linked to resource availability...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Alec Lutzke, Jesus B Tapia, Megan J Neufeld, Melissa M Reynolds
Nitric oxide (NO) occurs naturally in mammalian biochemistry as a critical signaling molecule and exhibits antithrombotic, antibacterial, and wound-healing properties. NO-forming biodegradable polymers have been utilized in the development of antithrombotic or antibacterial materials for biointerfacial applications, including tissue engineering and the fabrication of erodible coatings for medical devices such as stents. Use of such NO-forming polymers has frequently been constrained by short-term release or limited NO storage capacity and has led to the pursuit of new materials with improved NO release function...
January 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jose J Virgen-Ortíz, Sara G Pedrero, Laura Fernandez-Lopez, Nerea Lopez-Carrobles, Beatriz C Gorines, Cristina Otero, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente
Lipases from Candida antarctica (isoform B) and Rhizomucor miehei (CALB and RML) have been immobilized on octyl-agarose (OC) and further coated with polyethylenimine (PEI) and dextran sulfate (DS). The enzymes just immobilized on OC supports could be easily released from the support using 2% SDS at pH 7, both intact or after thermal inactivation (in fact, after inactivation most enzyme molecules were already desorbed). The coating with PEI and DS greatly reduced the enzyme release during thermal inactivation and improved enzyme stability...
January 5, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Gholam Reza Mahdavinia, Amirabbas Mosallanezhad, Moslem Soleymani, Mohammad Sabzi
The aim of the present work was to develop green carriers for methotrexate using κ-carrageenan/chitosan complexes. Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were first synthesized in the presence of κ-carrageenan through in situ method. Then, the obtained magnetic κ-carrageenan was crosslinked using the polycation chitosan biopolymer. The physical and structural properties of hydrogels were investigated by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA, and VSM techniques. The pH-dependent swelling behavior of hydrogels was examined in various buffer solutions...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Matthias G Schwarz, Barbara Namer, Peter W Reeh, Michael J M Fischer
: Acidosis occurs in a variety of pathophysiological and painful conditions where it is thought to excite or contribute to excitation of nociceptive neurons. Despite potential clinical relevance the principal receptor for sensing acidosis is unclear, but several receptors have been proposed. We investigated the contribution of the acid sensing ion channels, TRPV1 and TRPA1 to peripheral pain signaling. We first established a human pain model using intra-epidermal injection of TRPA1 agonist carvacrol...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
N M Sopinka, P M Capelle, C A D Semeniuk, O P Love
Wild and captive vertebrates face multiple stressors that all have the potential to induce chronic maternal stress (i.e., sustained, elevated plasma glucocorticoids), resulting in embryo exposure to elevated maternally derived glucocorticoids. In oviparous taxa such as fish, maternally derived glucocorticoids in eggs are known for their capacity to shape offspring phenotype. Using a variety of methodologies, scientists have quantified maternally derived levels of egg cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid in fishes, and examined the cascading effects of egg cortisol on progeny phenotype...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Dou Wang, Jing Ai, Fei Shen, Gang Yang, Yanzong Zhang, Shihuai Deng, Jing Zhang, Yongmei Zeng, Chun Song
Acid-buffering of VCBC and VC was evaluated using 4 VFAs, and their application on anaerobic digestion of CM and KW was investigated. Results indicated acid-buffering capacity of VCBC to acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acid was 2.5, 1.1, 1.9 and 1.6-fold higher comparing with VC. CM digestion was not initiated at higher organic loading of 50gTS/kg, while it worked well with 5.0% VCBC or VC. KW was not digested even though VC or VCBC was increased to 15% and 20%. However, KW digestion can be alleviated with increasing VCBC or VC proportion, in which the alleviation by VCBC was better than VC...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ying Wang, Yange Yu, Haiyan Li, Chanchan Shen
The adsorption of phosphorus (P) onto three industrial solid wastes (fly ash, red mud and ferric-alum water treatment residual (FAR)) and their modified materials was studied systematically via batch experiments. Compared with two natural adsorbents (zeolite and diatomite), three solid wastes possessed a higher adsorption capacity for P because of the higher Fe, Al and Ca contents. After modification (i.e., the fly ash and red mud modified by FeCl3 and FARs modified by HCl), the adsorption capacity increased, especially for the modified red mud, where more Fe bonded P was observed...
December 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Maria John Newton, Jatinder Kumar
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory Bowel Disease ( IBD) can't be controlled easily and the recurrence is most challenging issue for the physicians. There are various controlled and colon targeted drug delivery sytems are available for the treatment with limited success rate. Nanoparticles prepared by using the colon targeted polymers such as chitosan may improve the IBD due to their smaler size, unique physico chemical properties and targeting potential. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was designed to formulate and develop a colon targeted polysaccharide nanoparticles of Rifaximin (RFX) by using linear polysaccharide chitosan, for the improvement of rifaximin solubility, overall therapeutic efficacy and colon targeting...
December 30, 2016: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Matteo Masi, Alessio Ceccarini, Renato Iannelli
We implemented a numerical model to simulate transport of multiple species and geochemical reactions occurring during electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated porous media. The main phenomena described by the model were: (1) species transport by diffusion, electromigration and electroosmosis, (2) pH-dependent buffering of H(+), (3) adsorption of metals onto particle surfaces, (4) aqueous speciation, (5) formation and dissolution of solid precipitates. The model was applied to simulate the electrokinetic extraction of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Ni) from marine harbour sediments, characterized by a heterogeneous solid matrix, high buffering capacity and aged pollution...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Zahra Tarokh, Hossein Naderi-Manesh, Mahboobeh Nazari
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death due to cancer in men. Owing to shortcomings in the current treatments, other therapies are being considered. Toxic gene delivery is one of the most effective methods for cancer therapy. Cationic polymers are able to form stable nanoparticles via interaction with nucleic acids electrostatically. Branched polyethylenimine that contains amine groups has notable buffering capacity and the ability to escape from endosome through the proton sponge effect. However, the cytotoxicity of this polymer is high, and modification is one of the applicable strategies to overcome this problem...
December 23, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
J J Mark Haverkort, Mirjam B de Jong, Maurizio Foco, Daniele Gui, Masad Barhoum, Gila Hyams, Hany Bahouth, Michael Halberthal, Luke P H Leenen
INTRODUCTION: Hospitals worldwide are preparing for mass casualty incidents (MCIs). The Major Incident Hospital in the Netherlands was constructed 25 years ago as a dedicated hospital for situations wherein a sudden increase in medical surge capacity is mandated to handle an MCI. Over the years, more initiatives of dedicated MCIs have arisen. Herein, we compared the MCI facilities from three countries considering the reasons for construction and the functionality. METHODS: Three dedicated mass casualty hospitals and one hospital with a largely fortified structure were compared...
November 23, 2016: Injury
Melinda Paizs, Roland Patai, Jozsef Engelhardt, Zoya Katarova, Izabella Obal, Laszlo Siklos
BACKGROUND: Motoneurons with naturally elevated calcium binding protein content, such as parvalbumin, are more resistant against injury. Furthermore, increase of intracellular calcium, which plays a pivotal role in injury of neurons, could be moderated by elevating their calcium binding proteins. OBJECTIVE: To test whether by elevating parvalbumin content of motoneurons, activation of neighboring microglial cells, a robust component of the inflammatory reaction after injury, could be influenced...
December 23, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Stav Talal, Amir Ayali, Eran Gefen
The adaptive nature of discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) in insects is contentious. The classic 'hygric hypothesis', which posits that DGE serves to reduce respiratory water loss (RWL), is still the best supported. We thus focused on the hygric hypothesis in this first-ever experimental evolution study of any of the competing adaptive hypotheses. We compared populations of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) that underwent 10 consecutive generations of selection for desiccation resistance with control populations...
December 2016: Biology Letters
Atefeh Darvishi, Hadi Bakhshi
Eggshell (ES) particles as an available and low-cost waste material were utilized to prepare novel hydrogel composites for dye adsorbing application. For this purpose, solution polymerization of sodium methacrylate was carried out in the presence of ES particles with various size ranges. Results showed that incorporation of ES particles resulted in heterogeneous pores and cavities in the structure of the poly(sodium methacrylate) (PNaMA) matrix. Hydrogel composites with lower content (20 wt%) and smaller size (<75 μm) of ES particles presented higher water absorption capacity...
December 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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