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Buffer capacity

Xin Zhang, Hui Yan Gu, Xiang Wei Chen
This study examined the characteristics of phosphorus (P) adsorption and desorption in surface soil (0-10 cm) of a secondary forest after selective cutting disturbance at three levels of intensity (low, medium, high) in order to reveal the effects of different disturbance intensities on soil P adsorption and desorption. Maximum adsorption amount (Qm ), adsorption intensity factor, maximum buffer capacity, maximum desorption amount, average desorption rate and readily desorptable phosphorus were measured. Qm in the focal forests was 1383...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Mookkandi Palsamy Kesavan, Niranjan G Kotla, Srinivasan Ayyanaar, Gujuluva Gangatharan Vinoth Kumar, Gurusamy Rajagopal, Gandhi Sivaraman, Thomas J Webster, Jegathalaprathaban Rajesh
In this work, a theranostic nanocage system was developed for the targeted delivery of the anti-cancer agents camptothecin (CPT) and luotonin A (LuA). The core of the nanocage system (Fe3 O4 @OA-AD-SP NCs) was formed by biogenically synthesized Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with a model anti cancer drug (AD) and biosurfactant saponin (SP). The Fe3 O4 @OA-AD-SP NCs showed a high lipophilic AD loading efficiency (>80%) and a controlled pH-responsive drug release in stimulated cancerous cells in pH6...
April 21, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Xiaojie Yin, Hengqiao Chen, Chuanwei Zhi, Weiwei Sun, Li-Ping Lv, Yong Wang
Yolk-shell NiO microspheres are modified by two types of functionalized graphene quantum dots (denoted as NiO/GQDs) via a facile solvothermal treatment. The modification of GQDs on the surface of NiO greatly boosts the stability of the NiO/GQD electrode during long-term cycling. Specifically, the NiO with carboxyl-functionalized GQDs (NiO/GQDsCOOH) exhibits better performances than NiO with amino-functionalized GQDs (NiO/GQDsNH2 ). It delivers a capacity of ≈1081 mAh g-1 (NiO contribution: ≈1182 mAh g-1 ) after 250 cycles at 0...
April 24, 2018: Small
Liujiu Tang, Shuyin Bao, Yu Du, Zengyan Jiang, A O Wuliji, Xiang Ren, Chenghong Zhang, Haiying Chu, Li Kong, Haiying Ma
We assessed the neuroprotective effects of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP) on photoreceptor degeneration and the mechanisms involved in oxidative stress in light-exposed mouse retinas. Mice were given a gavage of LBP (150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 7 days before exposure to light (5000 lx for 24 h). We found that LBP significantly improved the electroretinography (ERG) amplitudes of the a- and b-waves that had been attenuated by light exposure. In addition, changes caused by light exposure including photoreceptor cell loss, nuclear condensation, an increased number of mitochondria vacuoles, outer membrane disc swelling and cristae fractures were distinctly ameliorated by LBP...
April 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Seyyed Pouya Hadipour Moghaddam, Mostafa Yazdimamaghani, Hamidreza Ghandehari
Tunable glutathione (GSH)-sensitive hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSiO2 NPs) were developed using a structural difference-based selective etching strategy. These organosilica hollow nanoparticles contained disulfide linkages (S-S) in the outer shell which were degraded by GSH. The particles were compared with their nonGSH-sensitive tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) HMSiO2 counterparts in terms of their synthesis method, characterization, DOX release profile, and in vitro cytotoxicity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Debabrata Panja, Christian A Vedeler, Manja Schubert
AIM: Neurodegeneration is associated with dysfunction of calcium buffering capacity and thereby sustained cellular and mitochondrial calcium overload. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD), characterized by progressive Purkinje neuron degeneration following paraneoplastic Yo antibody internalisation and binding to cerebellar degeneration-related protein CDR2 and CDR2L, has been linked to intracellular calcium homeostasis imbalance due to calbindin D28k malfunction. Therefore, we hypothesized that Yo antibody internalisation affects not only calbindin calcium binding capacity but also calcium-sensitive mitochondrial-associated signalling, causing mitochondrial calcium overload and thereby Purkinje neuron death...
April 21, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Jungwon Heo, Ying Liu, Anupriya K Haridas, Jinwoo Jeon, Xiaohui Zhao, Kwon-Koo Cho, Hyo-Jun Ahn, Younki Lee, Jou-Hyeon Ahn
Recently, tin oxide (SnO2) has received significant attention for use as an anode material for next generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to its high theoretical capacity (782 mAh g-1), which is more than twice of that of the commercialized graphite (372 mAh g-1). Several additional advantages, such as low cost, environmental friendliness, easy fabrication and natural abundance improve its promise. Although the theoretical capacity of SnO2 is high, volume expansion during cycling causes issue with cycling stability...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Thomas Müller
Heterogeneous expression of neurotransmitter deficits results from onset and progression of Parkinson's disease. Intervals, characterized by reappearance of motor and associated certain nonmotor symptoms, determine the end of good tolerability and efficacy of oral levodopa therapy. These "OFF" states result from levodopa pharmacokinetics and disease progression-related deterioration of the central buffering capacity for fluctuations of dopamine levels. This review discusses safinamide as an add-on therapeutic agent in orally levodopa-treated patients with "OFF" phenomena...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Jonathan M Parrett, Robert J Knell
Strong sexual selection has been reported to both enhance and hinder the adaptive capacity and persistence of populations when exposed to novel environments. Consequently, how sexual selection influences population adaption and persistence under stress remains widely debated. Here, we present two empirical investigations of the fitness consequences of sexual selection on populations of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, exposed to stable or gradually increasing temperatures. When faced with increasing temperatures, strong sexual selection was associated with both increased fecundity and offspring survival compared with populations experiencing weak sexual selection, suggesting sexual selection acts to drive adaptive evolution by favouring beneficial alleles...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Tao Liu, Tao Ren, Philip J White, Rihuan Cong, Jianwei Lu
Storage nitrogen (N) is a buffer pool for maintaining leaf growth and synthesizing photosynthetic proteins, but the dynamic of its forms within the life cycle of a single leaf and how it is influenced by N supply remain incompletely understood. A field experiment was conducted to estimate the influence of N supply on leaf growth, photosynthetic characteristics and N partitioning within the sixth leaves of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) from emergence through senescence. Storage N content (Nstore) decreased gradually along with leaf expansion...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Fang You, Ram Dalal, Longbin Huang
Field evidence has been scarce about soil (or technosol) formation and direct phytostabilization of base metal mine tailings under field conditions. The present study evaluated key attributes of soil formation in weathered and neutral Cu-Pb-Zn tailings subject to organic amendment (WC: woodchips) and colonization of pioneer native plant species (mixed native woody and grass plant species) in a 2.5-year field trial under subtropical and semi-arid climatic conditions. Key soil indicators of engineered soil formation process were characterized, including organic carbon fractions, aggregation, microbial community and key enzymatic activities...
April 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Wei Huang, Hongyu Sun, Huihui Shangguan, Xianyi Cao, Xinxin Xiao, Fei Shen, Kristian Mølhave, Lijie Ci, Pengchao Si, Jingdong Zhang
Three-dimensional (3D) carbon-wrapped iron sulfide interlocked graphene (Fe7S8@C-G) composites for high-performance sodium-ion storage are designed and produced through electrostatic interactions and subsequent sulfurization. The iron-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, MIL-88-Fe) interact with graphene oxide sheets to form 3D networks, and carbon-wrapped iron sulfide (Fe7S8@C) nanoparticles with high individual-particle conductivity are prepared following a sulfurization process, surrounded by interlocked graphene sheets to enhance the interparticle conductivity...
April 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Joanna Rucker-Pezzini, Lindsay Arnold, Kevin Hill-Byrne, Tom Sharp, Maksim Avazhanskiy, Chris Forespring
The concept of continuous manufacturing has gained significant interest from the biopharmaceutical industry over the past several years. Benefits include increased manufacturing productivity, improved quality control, reduction in plant footprint, and more flexible management of facility capacity. There are several technologies currently available that enable continuous processing for chromatography and ultrafiltration. However, a single pass diafiltration design that meets the required small molecule clearance and has been integrated into a fully continuous monoclonal antibody purification process has not been previously published...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Wei Yan, Xiwei Wu, Weiying Zhou, Miranda Y Fong, Minghui Cao, Juan Liu, Xiaojing Liu, Chih-Hong Chen, Oluwole Fadare, Donald P Pizzo, Jiawen Wu, Liang Liu, Xuxiang Liu, Andrew R Chin, Xiubao Ren, Yuan Chen, Jason W Locasale, Shizhen Emily Wang
Cancer and other cells residing in the same niche engage various modes of interactions to synchronize and buffer the negative effects of environmental changes. Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been implicated in the intercellular crosstalk. Here we show a mechanistic model involving breast-cancer-secreted, extracellular-vesicle-encapsulated miR-105, which is induced by the oncoprotein MYC in cancer cells and, in turn, activates MYC signalling in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to induce a metabolic program...
April 16, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Adam T McLain, Christopher Faulk
Gene promoters are evolutionarily conserved across holozoans and enriched in CpG sites, the target for DNA methylation. As animals age, the epigenetic pattern of DNA methylation degrades, with highly methylated CpG sites gradually becoming demethylated while CpG islands increase in methylation. Across vertebrates, aging is a trait that varies among species. We used this variation to determine whether promoter CpG density correlates with species' maximum lifespan. Human promoter sequences were used to identify conserved regions in 131 mammals and a subset of 28 primate genomes...
April 14, 2018: Aging
Tarso B Ledur Kist
Analytical instruments able to provide extremely high sensitivities, separation efficiencies and peak capacities are important for both applied sciences and basic research. It is even more interesting if this can be achieved within organic, aqueous and including physiological solutions, without restricting the operation parameters; such as buffer pH, temperature, ionic strength and background electrolyte composition. Toroidal capillary electrophoresis offers this potential, as was recently proposed and demonstrated...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Wenbin Guo, Yong Wang, Qingyuan Li, Dongxia Wang, Fanchao Zhang, Yiqing Yang, Yang Yu
Porous SnO2@C@VO2 composite hollow nanospheres have been ingeniously constructed through the combination of layer-by-layer deposition and redox reaction. Moreover, to optimize the electrochemical properties, SnO2@C@VO2 composite hollow nanospheres with different contents of the external VO2 have been also studies. On the one hand, the elastic and conductive carbon as interlayer in the SnO2@C@VO2 composite can not only buffer the huge volume variation during repetitive cycling, but also effectively improve electronic conductivity and enhance the utilizing rate of SnO2 and VO2 with high theoretical capacity...
April 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
E Paxon Frady, Denis Kleyko, Friedrich T Sommer
To accommodate structured approaches of neural computation, we propose a class of recurrent neural networks for indexing and storing sequences of symbols or analog data vectors. These networks with randomized input weights and orthogonal recurrent weights implement coding principles previously described in vector symbolic architectures (VSA) and leverage properties of reservoir computing. In general, the storage in reservoir computing is lossy, and cross-talk noise limits the retrieval accuracy and information capacity...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
Antony Cyril Arulrajan, Christophe Renault, Stanley C S Lai
The electrochemical oxidation of hydrazine was investigated in strongly and weakly pH buffered solutions to reveal the role of buffer capacity in proton-electron transfer redox reactions. In sufficiently buffered solutions, a single voltammetric feature was observed. However, increasing the hydrazine concentration (or, equivalently, moving to an insufficiently buffered solution) gave rise to a second voltammetric feature. These results are rationalised with a conceptually simple model and finite element simulations...
April 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jarren C Kay, Jocelyn Ramirez, Erick Contreras, Theodore Garland
Muscle pH decreases during exercise, which may impair function. Endurance training typically reduces muscle buffering capacity due to changes in fiber type composition, but existing comparisons of species that vary in activity level are ambiguous. We hypothesized that High Runner (HR) lines of mice from an experiment that breeds for voluntary wheel running would have altered muscle buffering capacity as compared with their non-selected control counterparts. We also expected that six days of wheel access, as used in the selection protocol, would reduce buffering capacity, especially for HR mice...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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