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Buffer capacity

Mathieu Roy, Mélanie Levasseur, Isabelle Doré, France St-Hilaire, Bernard Michallet, Yves Couturier, Danielle Maltais, Bengt Lindström, Mélissa Généreux
To increase capacities and control over health, it is necessary to foster assets (i.e. factors enhancing abilities of individuals or communities). Acting as a buffer, assets build foundations for overcoming adverse conditions and improving health. However, little is known about the distribution of assets and their associations with social position and health. In this study, we documented the distribution of health assets and examined whether these assets moderate associations between adverse social position and self-reported health...
February 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Roghayeh Karimirad, Mahdi Behnamian, Sara Dezhsetan
The aim of present study was to design a controlled release system using Cuminum cyminum essential oil loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CEO-CSNPs) and evaluate its effect on catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD) activity and ascorbic acid content of Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies during 20 days of storage at 4 °C. The success of encapsulation was evaluated through TEM, DLS, FT-IR and spectrophotometry and its release behavior was studied in buffer solutions with different pH. The CEO-CSNPs exhibited an average size of 30 to 80 nm with a spherical shape...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yoo Seok Mun, Dam Kim, Il Tae Kim
We have synthesized a novel composite material, FeSb2 alloy with red phosphorus (P) dispersed in a conductive carbon matrix, using high-energy ball milling (HEBM). The introduction of red P into FeSb2 alloy led to a formation of Sb phase along with FeSb2 phase due to the difference of binding energy between the elements. The morphology and structure were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The active components (Sb and P) react with Li+ ions while inactive element (Fe) and carbon matrix act as a metal framework to support the electrochemically active Sb and as a buffer to reduce volume change during cycling, respectively...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Danae Moore, Adam Stow, Michael Ray Kearney
1.For ectotherms such as lizards, the importance of behavioral thermoregulation in avoiding thermal extremes is well established and is increasingly acknowledged in modern studies of climate warming and its impacts. Less appreciated and understood are the buffering roles of retreat sites and activity phase, in part because of logistical challenges of studying below-ground activity. Burrowing and nocturnal activity are key behavioral adaptations that have enabled a diverse range of reptiles to survive extreme environmental temperatures within hot desert regions...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Sang-Hoon Lee, Yong-Jae Kim, Ye-Seol Nam, Seong-Hyo Park, Hochun Lee, Yura Hyun, Chang-Seop Lee
Silicon (Si) is one of the most attractive anode materials for lithium secondary batteries because of its large theoretical capacity, high safety, low cost and environmental benignity. However, Si-based anode material needs to overcome the structural change of the solid-electrolyte interphase due to the large volume change during cycling. To resolve these problems of composites by exploiting the superior conductivity, large specific surface area and flexibility of graphene, we have synthesized reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/Si composite electrode via a simple dip-coating method...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Meghal Mehul Naik, Vaishnavee Vassandacoumara
Context: There is a paucity of literature regarding the effects of thyroid disorders on the oral cavity by influencing the salivary gland function. Aims: This study aims to understand the qualitative and quantitative changes that thyroid disorder can cause in the salivary function. Settings and Design: After obtaining ethical clearance, 46 consecutive newly diagnosed thyroid dysfunction patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, along with 45 age-and sex-matched controls...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Zhenzhen Jia, Yuehong Shu, Renlong Huang, Junguang Liu, Lingling Liu
Novel supermacroporous PSA-nZVI composites with nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) embedded into poly (sodium acrylate) (PSA) cryogels were synthesized through ion exchange followed by in-situ reduction. The magnetic composites were evaluated for material characterizations and their efficiency for Cr(VI) and total Cr removal from aqueous medium in batch experiments. PSA-nZVI composites with high nZVI loading capacity up to 128.70 mg Fe/g PSA were obtained, and the interconnected macroporous structure of PSA cryogel remained unaltered with nZVI uniformly distributed on PSA cryogel as determined by TGA, SEM, TEM, XRD and XPS analyses...
February 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Gabriele Weigelhofer, José Pedro Ramião, Beate Pitzl, Elisabeth Bondar-Kunze, Joanna O'Keeffe
Our study aimed to explore the effects of agriculture on the phosphorus buffer capacity of 11 headwater streams in Austria. We used phosphorus adsorption curves and re-suspension experiments to determine both, the potential of the sediments to act as phosphorus source or sink and the actual phosphorus exchange between water and sediments. Additionally, we determined the alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in epilithic and epipsammic biofilms as indicator for the phosphorus demand of the benthic and hyporheic community...
February 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jia Yu, Yanlei Wang, Lihui Mou, Daliang Fang, Shimou Chen, Suojiang Zhang
In allusion to traditional transition metal oxide (TMO) anodes for lithium-ion batteries, which face with severe volume variation and poor conductivity, herein a bimetal oxide dual-composite strategy based on 2D-mosaic 3D-gradient design is proposed. Inspired by natural mosaic-dominance phenomena, Zn1-xCoxO/ZnCo2O4 2D-mosaic-hybrid mesoporous ultrathin nanosheets serve as building blocks to assemble into a 3D Zn-Co-gradient hierarchical framework. Moreover, a series of derivative frameworks with highly evolution are controllably synthesized, based on which a facile one-pot synthesis process can be developed...
February 9, 2018: ACS Nano
Ying Zhang, Xiaolong Zhang, Alan M Bond, Jie Zhang
In this study, a selective Sn based catalytic system that electrochemically reduces CO2 to formate has been developed based on a new substrate effect. Dendritic Sn catalysts were synthesised by hydrogen gas bubble assisted electrodeposition on Pt, Cu, Sn or In substrates and applied to electrocatalytic reduction of CO2. The four substrates exhibit a hydrogen evolution activity that follows the order Pt > Cu > Sn > In. However, the Cu supported dendritic Sn catalyst provides the best selectivity towards formate formation (67...
February 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jin Wang, Guiyu Liu, Kaili Fan, Dan Zhao, Beibei Liu, Jianbo Jiang, Dong Qian, Chunming Yang, Junhua Li
N-doped carbon coated TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2@NC) were synthesized through a simple two-step route, in which dopamine was simultaneously utilized as both nitrogen and carbon sources. With TiO2@NC applied in the Na-ion battery (SIB) anodes, the continuous and uniform N-doped carbon layer can not only enhance the electrical conductivity of TiO2 and facilitate the surface pseudocapacitive process, but also serve as a buffer layer to accommodate the volume expansion during the sodiation-desodiation processes. The as-prepared TiO2@NC exhibits excellent electrochemical performance when utilized as the SIB anodes, which delivers a remarkably high reversible capacity of 250...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
A Monballiu, K Ghyselbrecht, X Crabeels, B Meesschaert
Increasing environmental concerns and the awareness of the finite nature of natural resources, makes the valorisation of waste materials to become a real challenge. The objective of the current research is to investigate the possibility of phosphate recovery as calcium phosphate salts from the wastewater from potato processing industry. Batch tests demonstrated that at high pH struvite and calcium carbonate precipitation are competitive processes and that bicarbonate inhibits the precipitation of calcium phosphate salts...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Technology
R M Kreiling, M C Thoms, W B Richardson
Despite much research and investment into understanding and managing nutrients across agricultural landscapes, nutrient runoff to freshwater ecosystems is still a major concern. We argue there is currently a disconnect between the management of watershed surfaces (agricultural landscape) and river networks (riverine landscape). These landscapes are commonly managed separately, but there is limited cohesiveness between agricultural landscape-focused research and river science, despite similar end goals. Interdisciplinary research into stream networks that drain agricultural landscapes is expanding but is fraught with problems...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Fatma M Dardir, Aya S Mohamed, Mostafa R Abukhadra, Ezzat A Ahmed, Mamdouh F Soliman
The aim of this paper is to characterize and evaluate newly discovered bentonite deposits in Egypt for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications as well as its suitability as carrier for Praziquantel drug. The study was performed for the raw bentonite sample, purified bentonite sample and alkali activated purified bentonite sample. The raw bentonite sample composed mainly of montmorillonite contaminated by little amounts of quartz and calcite, while the purified sample composed of montmorillonite without detected mineral impurities and matches the mineralogical properties of Wyoming bentonite as an international standard...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Yucheng Dong, Shiliu Yang, Zhenyu Zhang, Jong-Min Lee, Juan Antonio Zapien
Antimony sulfide can be used as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity derived from sequential conversion and alloying lithium insertion reactions. However, the volume variation during the lithiation/delithiation process leads to capacity fading and cyclic instability. We report a facile, one-pot hydrothermal strategy to prepare Sb2S3 nanorods wrapped in graphene sheets that are promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The graphene sheets serve a dual function: as heterogeneous nucleation centers in the formation process of Sb2S3 nanorods, and as a structural buffer to accommodate the volume variation during the cycling process...
February 7, 2018: Nanoscale
Kangze Shen, Ning Lin, Tianjun Xu, Ying Han, Yitai Qian
It is recently demonstrated that amorphous Ge anode shows higher reversible Na-ion storage capacity (590 mA h g-1) than crystallized Ge anode (369 mA h g-1). Here, amorphous GeO x anode is prepared by a simple wet-chemistry reduction route at room temperature. The obtained amorphous GeO x shows a porous hierarchical architecture, accompanied with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 159 m2 g-1 and an average pore diameter of 14 nm. This unique structure enables the GeO x anode to enhance the Na-ion/electron diffusion rate, and buffer the volume change...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jiaming Zhang, Jun Ma, Haoran Song, Shaofang Sun, Zhongxiang Zhang, Tao Yang
Remarkable atrazine degradation in the S(IV) autoxidation process catalyzed by Fe2+-Mn2+ (Fe2+/Mn2+/sulfite) was demonstrated in this study. Competitive kinetic experiments, alcohol inhibiting methods and electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments proved that sulfur radicals were not the major oxidation species. Mn(III) was demonstrated to be the primary active species in the Fe2+/Mn2+/sulfite process based on the comparison of oxidation selectivity. Moreover, the inhibiting effect of the Mn(III) hydrolysis and the S(IV) autoxidation in the presence of organic contaminants indicated the existence of three Mn(III) consumption routes in the Fe2+/Mn2+/sulfite process...
January 26, 2018: Water Research
Marina V Kovina, Michael E Krasheninnikov, Tatiana G Dyuzheva, Michael I Danilevsky, Ilya D Klabukov, Maxim V Balyasin, Olga K Chivilgina, Alexey V Lyundup
BACKGROUND: Menstrual blood is only recently and still poorly studied, but it is an abundant and noninvasive source of highly proliferative mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, no appropriate isolation method has been reported due to its high viscosity and high content of clots and desquamated epithelium. METHODS: We studied three different isolation approaches and their combinations: ammonium-containing lysing buffer, distilled water and gradient-density centrifugation...
January 31, 2018: Cytotherapy
Huijuan Xia, Weijing Kong, Xuesen Li, Juntao Fan, Fen Guo, Osbert Jianxin Sun
The study aimed to identify the lateral heterogeneity of soil physicochemical properties in riparian zones, and its underlying drivers during natural restoration after agricultural abandonment. Abandoned farmlands, after 5-year natural restoration, within 500 m from the edges on both sides of Liaohe River were selected as the study area. Soil physicochemical properties of four lateral buffers (<10 m, 10~100 m, 100~300 m, and >300 m from river edge, respectively) along riparian zones were measured...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Francisco Afonso-Pereira, Liu Dou, Sarah J Trenfield, Christine M Madla, Sudaxshina Murdan, Jõao Sousa, Francisco Veiga, Abdul W Basit
Pre-clinical research often uses rodents as animal models to guide the selection of appropriate oral drug and dose selection in humans. However, traditionally, such research fails to consider the gastrointestinal differences between the sexes of rats and the impact on oral drug delivery. This study aimed to identify and characterise the potential sex-related differences in the gastrointestinal environment of sacrificed male and female Wistar rats. Their gastrointestinal tracts were excised and segmented into the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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