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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732406/quantifying-deforestation-and-forest-degradation-with-thermal-response
#1
Hua Lin, Yajun Chen, Qinghai Song, Peili Fu, James Cleverly, Vincenzo Magliulo, Beverly E Law, Christopher M Gough, Lukas Hörtnagl, Filippo Di Gennaro, Giorgio Matteucci, Leonardo Montagnani, Pierpaolo Duce, Changliang Shao, Tomomichi Kato, Damien Bonal, Eugénie Paul-Limoges, Jason Beringer, John Grace, Zexin Fan
Deforestation and forest degradation cause the deterioration of resources and ecosystem services. However, there are still no operational indicators to measure forest status, especially for forest degradation. In the present study, we analysed the thermal response number (TRN, calculated by daily total net radiation divided by daily temperature range) of 163 sites including mature forest, disturbed forest, planted forest, shrubland, grassland, savanna vegetation and cropland. TRN generally increased with latitude, however the regression of TRN against latitude differed among vegetation types...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731089/unveiling-the-synergistic-effect-of-polysulfide-additive-and-mno2-hollow-spheres-in-evolving-a-stable-cyclic-performance-in-li-s-batteries
#2
Syed Abdul Ahad, P Ragupathy, Soojy Ryu, Hyun-Wook Lee, Do Kyung Kim
Herein, we demonstrate a synergistic approach involving polar-based oxide and polysulfide additives for effectively suppressing polysulfide dissolution during cycling. The MnO2 hollow spheres not only provide physical confinement for the polysulfide species but also enable strong chemical interactions between polysulfide species and oxides, while the added polysulfide furnishes a mass buffering effect and compensates for the capacity losses due to partial cathode dissolution during discharge. The capacity retentions of S/KB, S/KB/LiPS, S/KB/MnO2, and S/KB/MnO2/LiPS composite cathodes are 31%, 45%, 59%, and 91% respectively...
July 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730475/characterization-of-ligand-binding-to-pseudokinases-using-a-thermal-shift-assay
#3
Isabelle S Lucet, James M Murphy
The protocol herein describes a robust and proven method for the measurement of pseudokinase-ligand interaction using a fluorescence-based thermal shift assay (TSA). Pseudokinases are kinase-like proteins that have recently emerged as crucial regulatory modules of signal transduction pathways and may well represent a novel class of drug targets. However, unlike kinases, the regulatory activity of pseudokinases is mainly conferred through protein-protein interactions. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie pseudokinase conformational changes through ligand binding and how such conformational changes can tune signaling pathways is a necessary step to unravel their biological functions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727108/development-of-a-salmonella-typhimurium-challenge-model-in-weaned-pigs-to-evaluate-effects-of-water-and-feed-interventions-on-fecal-shedding-and-growth-performance
#4
P J van der Wolf, J G M Wientjes, A E Heuvelink, A M B Veldhuis, H M J van Hees, P J Roubos-van den Hil
The aim of this study was to develop a Typhimurium (ST) challenge model in weaned pigs suitable to evaluate effects of water and feed interventions on fecal shedding and growth performance. Two studies were performed. In Exp. 1 weaned pigs were fed either a standard diet (CON) or a diet with a high buffer capacity (HB) and challenged for either 3 or 7 consecutive days in a Latin square design with 4 × 8 individually housed pigs. In Exp. 2, the CON 7-d challenge method was chosen for further model development and validation...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724255/effects-of-organic-composition-on-the-anaerobic-biodegradability-of-food-waste
#5
Yangyang Li, Yiying Jin, Aiduan Borrion, Hailong Li, Jinhui Li
This work investigated the influence of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids on the anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) and the relationship between the parameters characterising digestion. Increasing the concentrations of proteins and lipids, and decreasing carbohydrate content in FW, led to high buffering capacity, reduction of proteins (52.7-65.0%) and lipids (57.4-88.2%), and methane production (385-627 mLCH4/g volatile solid), while achieving a short retention time. There were no significant correlations between the reduction of organics, hydrolysis rate constant (0...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724226/application-of-a-crustacean-bioassay-to-evaluate-a-multi-contaminated-metal-pah-pcb-harbor-sediment-before-and-after-electrokinetic-remediation-using-eco-friendly-enhancing-agents
#6
Y Tian, C Boulangé-Lecomte, A Benamar, N Giusti-Petrucciani, A Duflot, S Olivier, C Frederick, J Forget-Leray, F Portet-Koltalo
Electrokinetic (EK) remediation can be a suitable technology for treating contaminated dredged harbor sediment, stored on terrestrial disposal sites. Citric acid (CA) and biosurfactants (rhamnolipids and saponin) were chosen as enhancing agents for simultaneous metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) and PAH/PCB removal by EK because of their potential low toxicity with a view to site restoration. Three EK runs were performed using a periodic voltage (1Vcm(-1)) and various concentrations of agents. The best combination of CA (0...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723066/antimony-anchored-with-nitrogen-doping-porous-carbon-as-high-performance-anode-materials-for-na-ion-batteries
#7
Tianjing Wu, Hongshuai Hou, Chenyang Zhang, Peng Ge, Zhaodong Huang, Mingjun Jing, Xiaoqing Qiu, Xiaobo Ji
Antimony represents a class of unique functional materials in sodium-ion batteries with high theoretical capacity (660 mAh g-1). The utilization of carbonaceous materials as buffer layer has been considered as an effective approach to alleviate rapid capacity fading. Herein, the antimony/nitrogen-doping porous carbon (Sb/NPC) composite with polyaniline nanosheets as carbon source has been successfully achieved. And, our strategy involves three processes-tunable organic polyreaction, thermal annealing process and cost-effective reduction reaction...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722303/differential-electrochemical-conductance-imaging-at-the-nanoscale
#8
Montserrat López-Martínez, Juan Manuel Artés, Veronica Sarasso, Marco Carminati, Ismael Díez-Pérez, Fausto Sanz, Pau Gorostiza
Electron transfer in proteins is essential in crucial biological processes. Although the fundamental aspects of biological electron transfer are well characterized, currently there are no experimental tools to determine the atomic-scale electronic pathways in redox proteins, and thus to fully understand their outstanding efficiency and environmental adaptability. This knowledge is also required to design and optimize biomolecular electronic devices. In order to measure the local conductance of an electrode surface immersed in an electrolyte, this study builds upon the current-potential spectroscopic capacity of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy, by adding an alternating current modulation technique...
July 19, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716122/systematic-evaluation-of-oligodeoxynucleotide-binding-and-hybridization-to-modified-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#9
Anika Kaufmann, Silke Hampel, Christiane Rieger, David Kunhardt, Darja Schendel, Susanne Füssel, Bernd Schwenzer, Kati Erdmann
BACKGROUND: In addition to conventional chemotherapeutics, nucleic acid-based therapeutics like antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODN) represent a novel approach for the treatment of bladder cancer (BCa). An efficient delivery of AS-ODN to the urothelium and then into cancer cells might be achieved by the local application of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). In the present study, pristine MWCNT and MWCNT functionalized with hydrophilic moieties were synthesized and then investigated regarding their physicochemical characteristics, dispersibility, biocompatibility, cellular uptake and mucoadhesive properties...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713984/downregulation-of-microrna%C3%A2-199a%C3%A2-5p-protects-cardiomyocytes-in-cyanotic-congenital-heart-disease-by-attenuating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#10
Yang Zhou, Wei-Kun Jia, Zhao Jian, Liang Zhao, Chen-Cheng Liu, Yong Wang, Ying-Bin Xiao
Chronic hypoxia is a key pathological change in patients with cyanotic congenital heart defect (CCHD). It has been demonstrated that enhanced myocardial unfolded protein response (UPR) increases the capacity to buffer endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and to avoid subsequent apoptosis caused by the hypoxia that underlies CCHD. The present study was performed to determine the regulatory role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this cytoprotective UPR process. The results revealed that miR‑199a‑5p was markedly downregulated in the cardiac tissue of patients with CCHD and in human myocardial cells cultured in hypoxic conditions...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713645/effects-of-a-novel-disc-formulation-on-dry-mouth-symptoms-and-enamel-remineralization-in-patients-with-hyposalivation-an-in-vivo-study
#11
Jessica Ho, Miracle Vania Firmalino, Afarin Golabgir Anbarani, Thair Takesh, Joel Epstein, Petra Wilder-Smith
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to identify the in vivo effects in patients with hyposalivation of a novel slowly dissolving adhering test disc upon on enamel remineralization, oral biofilm, salivary production, pH and buffering, gingival health, and on self-evaluation of oral well-being. METHODS: Five subjects with xerostomia wore custom made retainers carrying 5 demineralized enamel chips for periods of 1 week each. In 1 study arm, subjects used the test agent plus oral hygiene self-care; in the other they used oral hygiene self-care only, with a 1 week washout in between arms...
February 2017: Dentistry: Current Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712083/predictive-statistical-modelling-of-cadmium-content-in-durum-wheat-grain-based-on-soil-parameters
#12
Yoann Viala, Julien Laurette, Laurence Denaix, Emmanuelle Gourdain, Benoit Méléard, Christophe Nguyen, André Schneider, Valérie Sappin-Didier
Regulatory limits on cadmium (Cd) content in food products are tending to become stricter, especially in cereals, which are a major contributor to dietary intake of Cd by humans. This is of particular importance for durum wheat, which accumulates more Cd than bread wheat. The contamination of durum wheat grain by Cd depends not only on the genotype but also to a large extent on soil Cd availability. Assessing the phytoavailability of Cd for durum wheat is thus crucial, and appropriate methods are required. For this purpose, we propose a statistical model to predict Cd accumulation in durum wheat grain based on soil geochemical properties related to Cd availability in French agricultural soils with low Cd contents and neutral to alkaline pH (soils commonly used to grow durum wheat)...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709894/adsorption-and-controlled-release-of-potassium-phosphate-and-ammonia-from-modified-arabic-gum-based-hydrogel
#13
Fernanda Zonatto, Edvani C Muniz, Elias B Tambourgi, Alexandre T Paulino
In this work, a modified Arabic gum-based hydrogel copolymerized with acrylamide was synthesized and characterized for application in adsorption and controlled release of potassium, phosphate and ammonia. From FT-IR results, it would be reasonable to assume that the hydrogel was effectively synthesized. The degree of swelling at pure water with pH 6.0 was 21.0g water per g dried hydrogel whereas the degrees of swelling at buffer solutions with pH 4.5 and 7.0 were 7.2 and 9.2g water per g dried hydrogel, respectively...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706071/effects-of-network-modularity-on-the-spread-of-perturbation-impact-in-experimental-metapopulations
#14
Luis J Gilarranz, Bronwyn Rayfield, Gustavo Liñán-Cembrano, Jordi Bascompte, Andrew Gonzalez
Networks with a modular structure are expected to have a lower risk of global failure. However, this theoretical result has remained untested until now. We used an experimental microarthropod metapopulation to test the effect of modularity on the response to perturbation. We perturbed one local population and measured the spread of the impact of this perturbation, both within and between modules. Our results show the buffering capacity of modular networks. To assess the generality of our findings, we then analyzed a dynamical model of our system...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696181/growth-factor-sequestration-and-enzyme-mediated-release-from-genipin-crosslinked-gelatin-microspheres
#15
Paul A Turner, Jeffrey S Thiele, Jan P Stegemann
Controlled release of growth factors allows the efficient, localized, and temporally-optimized delivery of bioactive molecules to potentiate natural physiological processes. This concept has been applied to treatments for pathological states, including chronic degeneration, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. Peptide microspheres are particularly suited for this application because of their low cost, ease of manufacture, and interaction with natural remodeling processes active during healing. The present study characterizes gelatin microspheres for the entrapment and delivery of growth factors, with a focus on tailored protein affinity, loading capacity, and degradation-mediated release...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691792/high-performance-li-se-batteries-enabled-by-selenium-storage-in-bottom-up-synthesized-nitrogen-doped-carbon-scaffolds
#16
Hongling Lv, Renpeng Chen, Xiaoqi Wang, Yi Hu, Yanrong Wang, Tao Chen, Lianbo Ma, Guoyin Zhu, Jia Liang, Zuoxiu Tie, Jie Liu, Zhong Jin
Selenium (Se) has great promise to serve as cathode material for rechargeable batteries, owing to the good conductivity and high theoretical volumetric energy density comparable to sulfur. Herein, we report the preparation of mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon scaffolds (NCSs) to restrain selenium for advanced lithium-selenium (Li-Se) batteries. The NCSs synthesized by a bottom-up solution-phase method have graphene-like laminar structure and well-distributed mesopores. The unique architecture of NCSs can severe as conductive framework for encapsulating selenium and polyselenides, and provide sufficient pathways to facilitate ion transport...
July 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690197/high-fat-diet-induces-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-stress-in-a-fiber-type-dependent-manner-in-rats
#17
Ricardo A Pinho, Diane M Sepa-Kishi, George Bikopoulos, Michelle V Wu, Abinas Uthayakumar, Arta Mohasses, Meghan C Hughes, Christopher G R Perry, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated the effects of high-fat (HF) diet on parameters of oxidative stress among muscles with distinct fiber type composition and oxidative capacities. To accomplish that, male Wistar rats were fed either a low-fat standard chow (SC) or a HF diet for 8 weeks. Soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and epitrochlearis muscles were collected and mitochondrial H2O2 (mtH2O2) emission, palmitate oxidation, and gene expression and antioxidant system were measured. Chronic HF feeding enhanced fat oxidation in oxidative and glycolytic muscles...
July 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689325/factors-affecting-separation-and-detection-of-bile-acids-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry-in-negative-mode
#18
Shanshan Yin, Mingming Su, Guoxiang Xie, Xuejing Li, Runmin Wei, Changxiao Liu, Ke Lan, Wei Jia
Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol metabolites with important biological functions. They undergo extensive host-gut microbial co-metabolisms during the enterohepatic circulation, creating a vast structural diversity and resulting in great challenges to separate and detect them. Based on the bioanalytical reports in the past decade, this work developed three chromatographic gradient methods to separate a total of 48 BA standards on an ethylene-bridged hybrid (BEH) C18 column and high-strength silica (HSS) T3 column and accordingly unraveled the factors affecting the separation and detection of them by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS)...
July 8, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689149/the-response-of-soil-and-stream-chemistry-to-decreases-in-acid-deposition-in-the-catskill-mountains-new-york-usa
#19
Michael R McHale, Douglas A Burns, Jason Siemion, Michael R Antidormi
The Catskill Mountains have been adversely impacted by decades of acid deposition, however, since the early 1990s, levels have decreased sharply as a result of decreases in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. This study examines trends in acid deposition, stream-water chemistry, and soil chemistry in the southeastern Catskill Mountains. We measured significant reductions in acid deposition and improvement in stream-water quality in 5 streams included in this study from 1992 to 2014. The largest, most significant trends were for sulfate (SO4(2-)) concentrations (mean trend of -2...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681482/optimal-hematocrit-in-an-artificial-microvascular-network
#20
Nathaniel Z Piety, Walter H Reinhart, Julianne Stutz, Sergey S Shevkoplyas
BACKGROUND: Higher hematocrit increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood but also increases blood viscosity, thus decreasing blood flow through the microvasculature and reducing the oxygen delivery to tissues. Therefore, an optimal value of hematocrit that maximizes tissue oxygenation must exist. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We used viscometry and an artificial microvascular network device to determine the optimal hematocrit in vitro. Suspensions of fresh red blood cells (RBCs) in plasma, normal saline, or a protein-containing buffer and suspensions of stored red blood cells (at Week 6 of standard hypothermic storage) in plasma with hematocrits ranging from 10 to 80% were evaluated...
July 5, 2017: Transfusion
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