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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236349/direct-and-enantioselective-synthesis-of-n-h-free-1-5-benzodiazepin-2-ones-via-nhc-catalyzed-3-4-annulation-reaction
#1
Ding Du, Jing Cao, Chao Fang, Kewen Sun, Jindong Zhu, Tao Lu
An NHC-catalyzed formal [3+4] annulation of alfa,beta-unsaturated acylazoliums with protecting group-free aryl 1,2-diamines was developed for a direct and highly enantioselective synthesis of 4-aryl N-H-free 1,5-benzodiazepin-2-ones. This methodology offers an efficient and rapid access to a wide range of enantioenriched target compounds from easily accessible starting materials. The protocol is also scalable and the desired products can easily undergo subsequent N-functionalization to afford diverse N-substituted derivatives...
December 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235166/the-south-african-universal-preschool-year-a-case-study-of-policy-development-and-implementation
#2
L Richter, M-L Samuels
BACKGROUND: South Africa is the first sub-Saharan African country to legislate, fund and implement free preschool education. Human rights and restitution were at the forefront of the political struggle for democracy in South Africa. Levelling the playing fields by improving the school readiness of children disadvantaged by the racist policies of Apartheid is essential to the transformation of South African society. METHODS: A review of published and unpublished documents on Grade R was undertaken, and access and enrolment data come from the National Department of Basic Education's Education Management Information System (EMIS)...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234664/perceptions-of-important-characteristics-of-physical-activity-facilities-implications-for-engagement-in-walking-moderate-and-vigorous-physical-activity
#3
Katie M Heinrich, Christopher K Haddock, Natinee Jitnarin, Joseph Hughey, LaVerne A Berkel, Walker S C Poston
Background: Although few United States adults meet physical activity recommendations, those that do are more likely to access to physical activity facilities. Additionally, vigorous exercisers may be more likely to utilize a nearby physical activity facility, while light-to-moderate exercisers are less likely to do so. However, it is unclear what characteristics of those facilities are most important as well as how those characteristics are related to activity intensity. Purpose: This study examined relationships between self-reported leisure-time physical activities and the use of and perceived characteristics of physical activity facilities...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234531/ultra-mini-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-pcnl-versus-standard-pcnl-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#4
Ramin Haghighi, Hossein Zeraati, Maryam Ghorban Zade
Objective: To assess the effectiveness and advantages of ultra-mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (UM-PCNL) versus standard PCNL (S-PCNL), as one of the most important differences between the various PCNL techniques is the size of the renal access, which contributes to the broad spectrum of complications and outcomes. Patients and methods: This clinical randomised trial was conducted in 2016. In all, 70 patients with renal or upper ureteric stones of 10-20 mm in diameter, who were candidates for PCNL, were divided equally into two groups...
December 2017: Arab Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234279/long-term-effects-of-intermittent-adolescent-alcohol-exposure-in-male-and-female-rats
#5
Eva M Marco, Sara Peñasco, María-Donina Hernández, Anabel Gil, Erika Borcel, Marta Moya, Elena Giné, José Antonio López-Moreno, Consuelo Guerri, Meritxell López-Gallardo, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking-known as binge-drinking-has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water) or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd) 28-52...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234081/high-flux-water-purification-using-aluminium-hydroxide-hydrate-gels
#6
Ali Malekizadeh, Peer M Schenk
Filtration of aqueous liquids has wide implications, for example for provision of clean drinking water. Nevertheless, many people still lack access to safe water and suffer from preventable water-borne microbial diseases. This study reports a new ultrafiltration-range separation technology using a gelatinous layer of aluminium hydroxide polyhydrate as a secondary membrane on a retaining fabric that enables simple and cost-effective production of filtered water. Properties include at least 4-fold higher flux rates than currently available membranes, pressure-resistance, impenetrability to filtered particles, easy cleaning by backwashing and simple, cost-effective replacement by gel injection...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233232/phyllis-m-tookey-kerridge-and-the-science-of-audiometric-standardization-in-britain
#7
Jaipreet Virdi, Coreen McGuire
The provision of standardized hearing aids is now considered to be a crucial part of the UK National Health Service. Yet this is only explicable through reference to the career of a woman who has, until now, been entirely forgotten. Dr Phyllis Margaret Tookey Kerridge (1901-1940) was an authoritative figure in a variety of fields: medicine, physiology, otology and the construction of scientific apparatus. The astounding breadth of her professional qualifications allowed her to combine features of these fields and, later in her career, to position herself as a specialist to shape the discipline of audiometry...
December 13, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232845/hybrid-signal-processing-technique-to-improve-the-defect-estimation-in-ultrasonic-non-destructive-testing-of-composite-structures
#8
Kumar Anubhav Tiwari, Renaldas Raisutis, Vykintas Samaitis
This work proposes a novel hybrid signal processing technique to extract information on disbond-type defects from a single B-scan in the process of non-destructive testing (NDT) of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) material using ultrasonic guided waves (GW). The selected GFRP sample has been a segment of wind turbine blade, which possessed an aerodynamic shape. Two disbond type defects having diameters of 15 mm and 25 mm were artificially constructed on its trailing edge. The experiment has been performed using the low-frequency ultrasonic system developed at the Ultrasound Institute of Kaunas University of Technology and only one side of the sample was accessed...
December 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232602/cooperative-protein-unfolding-a-statistical-mechanical-model-for-the-action-of-denaturants
#9
J Seelig
Knowledge of protein stability is of utmost importance in various fields of biotechnology. Protein stability can be assessed in solution by increasing the concentration of denaturant and recording the structural changes with spectroscopic or thermodynamic methods. The standard interpretation of the experimental data is to assume a 2-state equilibrium between completely folded and completely unfolded protein molecules. Here we propose a cooperative model based on the statistical-mechanical Zimm-Bragg theory...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230256/design-and-evaluation-of-a-robotic-device-for-automated-tail-vein-cannulations-in-rodent-models
#10
Alex Fromholtz, Max L Balter, Alvin I Chen, Josh M Leipheimer, Anil Shrirao, Timothy J Maguire, Martin L Yarmush
Preclinical testing in rodent models is a ubiquitous part of modern biomedical research and commonly involves accessing the venous bloodstream for blood sampling and drug delivery. Manual tail vein cannulation is a time-consuming process and requires significant skill and training, particularly since improperly inserted needles can affect the experimental results and study outcomes. In this paper, we present a miniaturized, robotic medical device for automated, image-guided tail vein cannulations in rodent models...
December 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229655/new-zealand-policy-experts-appraisal-of-interventions-to-reduce-smoking-in-young-adults-a-qualitative-investigation
#11
Jude Ball, Janet Hoek, El Shadan Tautolo, Heather Gifford
OBJECTIVES: Reducing smoking in young adults, particularly young Māori and Pacific, is vital for reducing tobacco harm and health inequalities in New Zealand (NZ). We investigated how NZ policy experts appraised the feasibility and likely effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce smoking prevalence among 18-24 year olds. DESIGN: We used a qualitative design, conducting semistructured interviews and applying thematic analysis. PARTICIPANTS: We interviewed 15 key informants, including politicians, senior policy analysts and leading tobacco control advocates...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229578/left-lateral-endosurgical-extraperitoneal-total-hysterectomy-with-para-aortic-and-pelvic-lymphadenectomy-a-novel-approach-for-the-obese-patient-with-endometrial-cancer
#12
Gwenael Ferron, Javier De Santiago, Denis Querleu, Alejandra Martinez, Martina Aida Angeles, Berenice Boulet, Frederic Guyon, Ignacio Zapardiel
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the left lateral extraperitoneal approach to perform complete para-aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy and transverse total hysterectomy from left to right as a novel approach to treat obese patients with endometrial cancer. Laparoscopic management of obese patients represents a challenge for the gynecological surgeon. The extraperitoneal approach is technically easier in the obese patient as it naturally creates a bowel-free operative field. DESIGN: A prospective pilot bicentric and descriptive study (Canadian Task Force III) evaluating the feasibility and reproducibility of the transverse total hysterectomy and complete lymphadenectomy through left endoscopic extraperitoneal approach in obese patients with endometrial cancer...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229038/the-opportunities-and-limitations-of-minimally-invasive-cardiac-surgery
#13
Torsten Doenst, Mahmoud Diab, Christoph Sponholz, Michael Bauer, Gloria Färber
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, minimally invasive techniques for classic heart valve surgery and isolated bypass surgery have been developed that enable access to the heart via partial sternotomy for most aortic valve procedures and via sternotomy-free mini-thoracotomy for other procedures. METHODS: We review the current evidence on minimally invasive cardiac surgery on the basis of pertinent randomized studies and database studies retrieved by a selective search in the MEDLINE and PubMed Central databases, as well as by the Google Scholar search engine...
November 17, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228908/self-reported-dietary-adherence-disease-specific-symptoms-and-quality-of-life-are-associated-with-healthcare-provider-follow-up-in-celiac-disease
#14
Jacob J Hughey, Bonnie K Ray, Anne R Lee, Kristin N Voorhees, Ciaran P Kelly, Detlef Schuppan
BACKGROUND: The only treatment for celiac disease (CeD) is a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD). The restrictive nature of the GFD makes adherence a challenge. As an integral part of CeD management, multiple professional organizations recommend regular follow-up with a healthcare provider (HCP). Many CeD patients also participate in patient advocacy groups (PAGs) for education and support. Previous work found that follow-up of CeD patients is highly variable. Here we investigated the self-reported factors associated with HCP follow-up among individuals diagnosed with CeD who participate in a PAG...
December 11, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228185/dncon2-improved-protein-contact-prediction-using-two-level-deep-convolutional-neural-networks
#15
Badri Adhikari, Jie Hou, Jianlin Cheng
Motivation: Significant improvements in the prediction of protein residue-residue contacts are observed in the recent years. These contacts, predicted using a variety of coevolution-based and machine learning methods, are the key contributors to the recent progress in ab initio protein structure prediction, as demonstrated in the recent CASP experiments. Continuing the development of new methods to reliably predict contact maps is essential to further improve ab initio structure prediction...
December 8, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227881/experiences-with-compulsory-drug-detention-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-bangkok-thailand-a-qualitative-study
#16
Thomas Kerr, Will Small, Prempreeda Pramoj Na Ayutthaya, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Thailand has employed a system of compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) where drug users are confined following arrest. Although concerns regarding CDDCs persist, research focused on CDDCs in Thailand is limited. We undertook this study to explore experiences with CDDCs among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Thailand. METHODS: Data were derived from the Mitsampan Community Research Project, a mixed- methods study involving PWID in Bangkok. Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with PWID who had been exposed to CDDCs...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227753/the-magnitude-of-a-community-s-health-needs-and-nonprofit-hospitals-progress-in-meeting-those-needs-are-we-faced-with-a-paradox
#17
Simone R Singh, Geri R Cramer, Gary J Young
OBJECTIVES: Although most nonprofit hospitals are required to conduct periodic community health needs assessments (CHNAs), such assessments arguably are most critical for communities with substantial health needs. The objective of this study was to describe differences in progress in conducting CHNAs between hospitals located in communities with the greatest compared with the fewest health needs. METHODS: We used data on CHNA activity from the 2013 tax filings of 1331 US hospitals combined with data on community health needs from the County Health Rankings...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226973/metal-citrate-complex-transport-in-kineococcus-radiotolerans
#18
Brian P Huta, Nigel H Miller, Eleanor L Robertson, Robert P Doyle
The growth of an organism is highly dependent on the acquisition of carbon and metals, and availability of these nutrients in the environment affects its survival. Organisms can obtain both nutrients simultaneously through proteins of the CitMHS superfamily. Bioinformatic studies suggested a CitMHS gene (Accession number ABS03965.1) in Kineococcus radiotolerans. Radio flux assays following 14-C radiolabelled citrate, either free or complexed to a variety of metal ions, in K. radiotolerans demonstrated internalization of the citrate when bound to select metal ions only, primarily in the form of calcium-citrate...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224871/short-communication-stall-occupancy-behavior-of-nili-ravi-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis-when-first-introduced-to-freestall-housing
#19
S H Magsi, M N Haque, N Ahmad, M Q Shahid
The aim of the present study was to assess stall occupancy of Nili Ravi buffaloes when first introduced to freestall housing. Thirty Nili Ravi buffaloes of different parity, weight, and pregnancy status were enrolled from the dairy farm of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. All of the enrolled animals had no previous experience with freestalls. The selected buffaloes were introduced to the freestall shed. During an adaptation period of 7 d, all buffaloes had 24 h of free access to lie down in 1 of 3 areas: (1) freestalls, (2) alleys, and (3) an outside open area...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223937/echinococcosis-and-other-parasitic-infections-in-domestic-dogs-from-urban-areas-of-an-argentinean-patagonian-city
#20
Verónica Flores, Gustavo Viozzi, Gilda Garibotti, Daniela Zacharias, María Florencia Debiaggi, Surpik Kabaradjian
In urban populations of South America, dogs with free access to public areas represent a public health concern. The primary consequence of roaming dogs on human health is the transmission of infectious and parasitic diseases mainly through feces contamination. The main diseases likely to be transmitted are hydatidosis or echinococcosis, larva migrans, and giardiasis. In Argentina, hydatidosis ranks among the most prevalent zoonosis. Although it is considered a rural disease, the circulation of this parasite in urban areas has been documented...
2017: Medicina
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